" ... This project seeks to develop a hybrid-automata (HA) approach to modeling and analyzing complex biological systems. Excitable cell networks (heart cells in particular) will be used as an archetype of a complex biological system. Standard modeling methods capture the behavior of such cells using reaction-diffusion PDE systems, with the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) formalism describing ion channel gating and currents. Initial results indicate that HA models, combining discrete and continuous processes, are able to successfully capture the morphology of the excitation event (action potential) of different cell types, including cardiac cells. They can also reproduce typical excitable cell characteristics, such as refractoriness (period of non-responsiveness to external stimulation) and restitution (adaptation to pacing rates). Multicellular ensembles of HA elements are used to simulate excitation wave propagation, including complex spiral waves underlying pathological conditions in the heart. The resulting simulation framework exhibits significantly improved computational efficiency, and opens the possibility to formal analysis based on HA theory."