Pathological Mechanisms in Alzheimer's Disease
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CompartmentCell/NeuronReceptorChannelExtracellular Pathological Agent (PA)Intracellular Pathological Agent (PA)PA ActionDrugDrug ActionStageNoteDetail
General or unspecifiedHippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellI Abeta AmyloidInhibitsEarlyViewShow
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellI L high thresholdbeta Amyloid (25-35)IncreasesNifedipineBlocksViewShow
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellI Calciumbeta AmyloidIncreasesNifedipineBlocksViewShow
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellbeta AmyloidInhibitsEarlyViewShow
DendriteHippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellI Abeta AmyloidInhibitsEarlyViewShow
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellNMDAI Calciumbeta AmyloidInhibitsViewShow
Olfactory bulb main mitral cellGabaAAluminumPotentiatesEarlyViewShow
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellGlutamatebeta AmyloidInhibitsEarlyViewShow
beta AmyloidInhibitsEarlyViewShow
Cerebellum purkinje cellbeta AmyloidInducesEarlyViewShow
Brain slice preparationsAmyloid plaquesIncreasesViewShow
beta Amyloidp-21 activated kinase (PAK)EarlyViewShow
Golgi impregnation - Animal post-mortem brainsbeta AmyloidReducesEarlyViewShow
Apical dendriteNeocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellbeta AmyloidReducesEarlyViewShow
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellI Sodiumprotein kinase CInhibitsEarlyViewShow
Distal apical dendriteGolgi impregnation - Animal post-mortem brains / Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellNerve Growth Factor (NGF)IncreasesViewShow
SomaHippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellI Abeta AmyloidInhibitsEarlyViewShow
Olfactory bulb main mitral cellGabaAAluminumPotentiatesEarlyViewShow
AMPAbeta AmyloidInhibitsEarlyViewShow
OocyteI L high thresholdbeta AmyloidMAP KinaseEarlyViewShow
I L high thresholdbeta AmyloidReducesVerapamilBlocksEarlyViewShow
I L high thresholdbeta Amyloid (25-35)PotentiatesNimodipineDecreasesEarlyViewShow
I Potassiumbeta AmyloidModulatesEarlyViewShow
NMDAI L high thresholdbeta AmyloidInhibitsVerapamilEarlyViewShow
OocyteNicotinicCholinergic Receptorsbeta AmyloidInhibitsEarlyViewShow
beta AmyloidIs neurotoxicEarlyViewShow
beta AmyloidInhibitsClonidineTHAEarlyViewShow
I L high thresholdEarlyViewShow
SH-SY-5Y human neuroblastoma cellsI L high thresholdMAP KinaseInducesOkadaic AcidIncreasesViewShow
I L high thresholdBeta-amyloid (1-42)Tau proteinIncreasesCalpain Inhibitor IP35 Antisense OligonucleotidesVerapamilBlocksViewShow
Cultured cortical neuronsI L high thresholdPresenilin-1ReducesViewShow
beta AmyloidInhibitsEarlyViewShow
Cultured septal neuronsbeta AmyloidIs neurotoxicDonepezilReducesViewShow
Isolated neurons of the land snake HelixI KDonepezilModulatesViewShow
Beta amyloid plaquesInhibitsViewShow
Cultured cortical neuronsProtofibrillar AbetaIncreasesViewShow
Cerebellum interneuron granule cellI Abeta Amyloid (1-40)Increasesbrefeldin AcycloheximideBlocksViewShow
beta AmyloidInhibitsEarlyViewShow
beta AmyloidInhibitsEarlyViewShow
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellNicotinicbeta AmyloidInhibitsEarlyViewShow
NMDASerum Mg+2Is Correlated withEarlyViewShow
Brain slice preparationsbeta AmyloidInhibitsNicotineReversesEarlyViewShow
BDNF (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor)Cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc)Is Required ForEarlyViewShow
Brain slice preparationsNicotinicNicotinePotentiatesLateViewShow
beta Amyloidp-21 activated kinase (PAK)InhibitsLateViewShow
beta Amyloidp-21 activated kinase (PAK)DisruptsLateViewShow
NMDAEarlyViewShow
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT)Is Correlated withLateViewShow
Human Post-mortem Study / Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellIs Correlated withEarlyViewShow
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellDrebrinIs Correlated withEarlyViewShow
Human Post-mortem StudyDrebrinIs Correlated withEarlyViewShow
Brain slice preparations / Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellbeta AmyloidReducesRolipramBlocksEarlyViewShow
DrebrinIs Inversely Correlated withViewShow
Human Post-mortem Study / Dentate gyrus granule cellApolipoprotein E4 (Apo E4)Is Inversely Correlated withEarlyViewShow
BC-Phosphatidylserine (BC-PS)ReducesLateViewShow
Beta-amyloid (1-42)Increasesalpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonistsBlocksViewShow
Brain slice preparationsMuscarinicI L high thresholdbeta AmyloidReducesAtropineCalcicludinePirenzepineBlocksViewShow
Brain slice preparationsNicotinicGalantamineReducesMecamylamineSulpirideOpposesLateViewShow
ACh Esterase inhibitorsReducesLateViewShow
NicotineReducesLateViewShow
NicotineIncreasesMecamylamineDecreasesLateViewShow
beta AmyloidCopperIncreasesNicotineOpposesLateViewShow
NMDAReducesLateViewShow
Brain slice preparationsNicotineCopperReducesLateViewShow
Brain slice preparationsCholinergic ReceptorsNicotinicbeta AmyloidAntagonizesAcetyl CholineCholineNicotineOpposesEarlyViewShow
Brain slice preparationsCholinergic ReceptorsNicotinicDihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE)InducesClozapineReversesEarlyViewShow
Cultured cortical neuronsbeta AmyloidIncreasesLateViewShow
Glutamatebeta AmyloidReducesalpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonistsNMDA receptor blockersBlocksEarlyViewShow
beta AmyloidInhibitsNicotineProtectsViewShow
Golgi impregnation - Animal post-mortem brainsOral docosahexanoic acid (DHA)IncreasesCholineUridineIncreasesViewShow
Human Post-mortem Studybeta AmyloidTau proteinViewShow
Brain slice preparationsI Sodiumbeta AmyloidEarlyViewShow
Behavioral studyAdrenergicBetabeta AmyloidCL316243ReversesEarlyViewShow
Human Post-mortem Studybeta AmyloidInducesEarlyViewShow
NMDAAbeta-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs)InducesEarlyViewShow
Cultured cortical neuronsbeta AmyloidInducesGingkolidesProtectsEarlyViewShow
Brain slice preparationsbeta AmyloidTNFalphaInhibitsEarlyViewShow
beta AmyloidRho kinases (ROCK1/2)DisruptsEarlyViewShow
Is Correlated withEarlyViewShow
Brain slice preparations / Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal cellBACE1 (beta-secretase)Is Required ForCalcium (extracellular)ReversesEarlyViewShow
beta AmyloidInducesHistidine-associating CompoundsBlocksEarlyViewShow