Circuits that contain the Model Concept : Direction Selectivity

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    Models   Description
1. Multiplication by NMDA receptors in Direction Selective Ganglion cells (Poleg-Polsky & Diamond 2016)
The model demonstrates how signal amplification with NMDARs depends on the synaptic environment. When direction selectivity (DS) detection is mediated by DS inhibition, NMDARs multiply other synaptic conductances. In the case of DS tuned excitation, NMDARs contribute additively.
2. Nonlinear dendritic processing in barrel cortex spiny stellate neurons (Lavzin et al. 2012)
This is a multi-compartmental simulation of a spiny stellate neuron which is stimulated by a thalamocortical (TC) and cortico-cortical (CC) inputs. No other cells are explicitly modeled; the presynaptic network activation is represented by the number of active synapses. Preferred and non –preferred thalamic directions thus correspond to larder/smaller number of TC synapses. This simulation revealed that randomly activated synapses can cooperatively trigger global NMDA spikes, which involve participation of most of the dendritic tree. Surprisingly, we found that although the voltage profile of the cell was uniform, the calcium influx was restricted to ‘hot spots’ which correspond to synaptic clusters or large conductance synapses
3. Single Trial Sequence learning: a spiking neurons model based on hippocampus (Coppolino et al 2021)
In contrast with our everyday experience using brain circuits, it can take a prohibitively long time to train a computational system to produce the correct sequence of outputs in the presence of a series of inputs. This suggests that something important is missing in the way in which models are trying to reproduce basic cognitive functions. In this work, we introduce a new neuronal network architecture that is able to learn, in a single trial, an arbitrary long sequence of any known objects. The key point of the model is the explicit use of mechanisms and circuitry observed in the hippocampus. By directly following the natural system’s layout and circuitry, this type of implementation has the additional advantage that the results can be more easily compared to experimental data, allowing a deeper and more direct understanding of the mechanisms underlying cognitive functions and dysfunctions.
4. Synaptic plasticity can produce and enhance direction selectivity (Carver et al, 2008)
" ... We propose a parsimonious model of motion processing that generates direction selective responses using short-term synaptic depression and can reproduce salient features of direction selectivity found in a population of neurons in the midbrain of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia virescens. The model achieves direction selectivity with an elementary Reichardt motion detector: information from spatially separated receptive fields converges onto a neuron via dynamically different pathways. In the model, these differences arise from convergence of information through distinct synapses that either exhibit or do not exhibit short-term synaptic depression—short-term depression produces phase-advances relative to nondepressing synapses. ..."

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