Circuits that contain the Region : Auditory cortex

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    Models   Description
1. ACnet23 primary auditory cortex model (Beeman et al 2019)
These scripts were used to model a patch of layer 2/3 primary auditory cortex, making use of the the improvements to PGENESIS by Crone, et al. (2019). This single layer model contains a 48 x 48 grid of pyramidal cells (PCs) and a 24 x 24 grid of basket cells (BCs). The reduced PC models have 17 compartments with dimensions and passive properties that were fit to human cortical PC reconstructions. This parallel version of the simulation was used by Beeman, et al. (2019) to understand the effects of inhibition of PCs by BCs on auditory evoked potentials.
2. Auditory cortex layer IV network model (Beeman 2013)
"... The primary objective of this modeling study was to determine the effects of axonal conduction velocity (often neglected, but significant), as well as synaptic time constants, on the ability of such a network to create and propagate cortical waves. ... The model is also being used to study the interaction between single and two-tone input and normal background activity, and the effects of synaptic depression from thalamic inputs. The simulation scripts have the additional purpose of serving as tutorial examples for the construction of cortical networks with GENESIS. The present model has fostered the development of the G-3 Python network analysis and visualization tools used in this study... It is my hope that this short tutorial and the example simulation scripts can provide a head start for a graduate student or postdoc who is beginning a cortical modeling project. "
3. Distributed representation of perceptual categories in the auditory cortex (Kim and Bao 2008)
Examines the hypothesis that enlargement in cortical stimulus representation is a mechanism of categorical perception. Categorical perception is tested using discrimination and identification ability.
4. Modeling and MEG evidence of early consonance processing in auditory cortex (Tabas et al 2019)
Pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception. The interaction of concurrent pitches gives rise to a sensation that can be characterized by its degree of consonance or dissonance. In this work, we propose that human auditory cortex (AC) processes pitch and consonance through a common neural network mechanism operating at early cortical levels. First, we developed a new model of neural ensembles incorporating realistic neuronal and synaptic parameters to assess pitch processing mechanisms at early stages of AC. Next, we designed a magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiment to measure the neuromagnetic activity evoked by dyads with varying degrees of consonance or dissonance. MEG results show that dissonant dyads evoke a pitch onset response (POR) with a latency up to 36 ms longer than consonant dyads. Additionally, we used the model to predict the processing time of concurrent pitches; here, consonant pitch combinations were decoded faster than dissonant combinations, in line with the experimental observations. Specifically, we found a striking match between the predicted and the observed latency of the POR as elicited by the dyads. These novel results suggest that consonance processing starts early in human auditory cortex and may share the network mechanisms that are responsible for (single) pitch processing.
5. Parallel cortical inhibition processing enables context-dependent behavior (Kuchibhotla et al. 2016)
Physical features of sensory stimuli are fixed, but sensory perception is context dependent. The precise mechanisms that govern contextual modulation remain unknown. Here, we trained mice to switch between two contexts: passively listening to pure tones and performing a recognition task for the same stimuli. Two-photon imaging showed that many excitatory neurons in auditory cortex were suppressed during behavior, while some cells became more active. Whole-cell recordings showed that excitatory inputs were affected only modestly by context, but inhibition was more sensitive, with PV+, SOM+, and VIP+ interneurons balancing inhibition and disinhibition within the network. Cholinergic modulation was involved in context switching, with cholinergic axons increasing activity during behavior and directly depolarizing inhibitory cells. Network modeling captured these findings, but only when modulation coincidently drove all three interneuron subtypes, ruling out either inhibition or disinhibition alone as sole mechanism for active engagement. Parallel processing of cholinergic modulation by cortical interneurons therefore enables context-dependent behavior.

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