Circuits that contain the Cell : Inferior olive neuron

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    Models   Description
1. A cerebellar model of phase-locked tACS for essential tremor (Schreglmann et al., 2021)
This model is a supplementary material for Schreglmann, Sebastian R., et al. "Non-invasive suppression of essential tremor via phase-locked disruption of its temporal coherence" Nature Communications (2021). The model demonstrates that phase-locked transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is able to disrupt the tremor-related oscillations in the cerebellum, and its efficacy is highly dependent on the relative phase between the stimulation and tremor.
2. A cortico-cerebello-thalamo-cortical loop model under essential tremor (Zhang & Santaniello 2019)
We investigated the origins of oscillations under essential tremor (ET) by building a computational model of the cortico-cerebello-thalamo-cortical loop. It showed that an alteration of amplitudes and decay times of the GABAergic currents to the dentate nucleus can facilitate sustained oscillatory activity at tremor frequency throughout the network as well as a robust bursting activity in the thalamus, which is consistent with observations of thalamic tremor cells in ET patients. Tremor-related oscillations initiated in small neural populations and spread to a larger network as the synaptic dysfunction increased, while thalamic high-frequency stimulation suppressed tremor-related activity in thalamus but increased the oscillation frequency in the olivocerebellar loop.
3. Cerebellar Model for the Optokinetic Response (Kim and Lim 2021)
We consider a cerebellar spiking neural network for the optokinetic response (OKR). Individual granule (GR) cells exhibit diverse spiking patterns which are in-phase, anti-phase, or complex out-of-phase with respect to their population-averaged firing activity. Then, these diversely-recoded signals via parallel fibers (PFs) from GR cells are effectively depressed by the error-teaching signals via climbing fibers from the inferior olive which are also in-phase ones. Synaptic weights at in-phase PF-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses of active GR cells are strongly depressed via strong long-term depression (LTD), while those at anti-phase and complex out-of-phase PF-PC synapses are weakly depressed through weak LTD. This kind of ‘‘effective’’ depression at the PF-PC synapses causes a big modulation in firings of PCs, which then exert effective inhibitory coordination on the vestibular nucleus (VN) neuron (which evokes OKR). For the firing of the VN neuron, the learning gain degree, corresponding to the modulation gain ratio, increases with increasing the learning cycle, and it saturates.
4. Inferior Olive, subthreshold oscillations (Torben-Nielsen, Segev, Yarom 2012)
The Inferior Olive is a brain structure in which neurons are solely connected to each other through gap-junctions. Its behavior is characterized by spontaneous subthreshold oscillation, frequency changes in the subthreshold oscillation, stable phase differences between neurons, and propagating waves of activity. Our model based on actual IO topology can reproduce these behaviors and provides a mechanistic explanation thereof.

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