Circuits that contain the Current : Ca pump

(A [Ca2+]inside dependent pump extrudes Ca2+ from the cell while consuming ATP.)
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    Models   Description
1. A 1000 cell network model for Lateral Amygdala (Kim et al. 2013)
1000 Cell Lateral Amygdala model for investigation of plasticity and memory storage during Pavlovian Conditioning.
2. A focal seizure model with ion concentration changes (Gentiletti et al., 2022)
Computer model was used to investigate the possible mechanisms of seizure initiation, progression and termination. The model was developed by complementing the Hodgkin-Huxley equations with activity-dependent changes in intra- and extracellular ion concentrations. The model incorporates a number of ionic mechanisms such as: active and passive membrane currents, inhibitory synaptic GABAA currents, Na/K pump, KCC2 cotransporter, glial K buffering, radial diffusion between extracellular space and bath, and longitudinal diffusion between dendritic and somatic compartments in pyramidal cells.
3. Ca+/HCN channel-dependent persistent activity in multiscale model of neocortex (Neymotin et al 2016)
"Neuronal persistent activity has been primarily assessed in terms of electrical mechanisms, without attention to the complex array of molecular events that also control cell excitability. We developed a multiscale neocortical model proceeding from the molecular to the network level to assess the contributions of calcium regulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels in providing additional and complementary support of continuing activation in the network. ..."
4. Effects of increasing CREB on storage and recall processes in a CA1 network (Bianchi et al. 2014)
Several recent results suggest that boosting the CREB pathway improves hippocampal-dependent memory in healthy rodents and restores this type of memory in an AD mouse model. However, not much is known about how CREB-dependent neuronal alterations in synaptic strength, excitability and LTP can boost memory formation in the complex architecture of a neuronal network. Using a model of a CA1 microcircuit, we investigate whether hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron properties altered by increasing CREB activity may contribute to improve memory storage and recall. With a set of patterns presented to a network, we find that the pattern recall quality under AD-like conditions is significantly better when boosting CREB function with respect to control. The results are robust and consistent upon increasing the synaptic damage expected by AD progression, supporting the idea that the use of CREB-based therapies could provide a new approach to treat AD.
5. Gamma genesis in the basolateral amygdala (Feng et al 2019)
Using in vitro and in vivo data we develop the first large-scale biophysically and anatomically realistic model of the basolateral amygdala nucleus (BL), which reproduces the dynamics of the in vivo local field potential (LFP). Significantly, it predicts that BL intrinsically generates the transient gamma oscillations observed in vivo. The model permitted exploration of the poorly understood synaptic mechanisms underlying gamma genesis in BL, and the model's ability to compute LFPs at arbitrary numbers of recording sites provided insights into the characteristics of the spatial properties of gamma bursts. Furthermore, we show how gamma synchronizes principal cells to overcome their low firing rates while simultaneously promoting competition, potentially impacting their afferent selectivity and efferent drive, and thus emotional behavior.
6. Levodopa-Induced Toxicity in Parkinson's Disease (Muddapu et al, 2022)
"... We present a systems-level computational model of SNc-striatum, which will help us understand the mechanism behind neurodegeneration postulated above and provide insights into developing disease-modifying therapeutics. It was observed that SNc terminals are more vulnerable to energy deficiency than SNc somas. During L-DOPA therapy, it was observed that higher L-DOPA dosage results in increased loss of terminals in SNc. It was also observed that co-administration of L-DOPA and glutathione (antioxidant) evades L-DOPA-induced toxicity in SNc neurons. Our proposed model of the SNc-striatum system is the first of its kind, where SNc neurons were modeled at a biophysical level, and striatal neurons were modeled at a spiking level. We show that our proposed model was able to capture L-DOPA-induced toxicity in SNc, caused by energy deficiency."
7. Model of eupnea and sigh generation in respiratory network (Toporikova et al 2015)
Based on recent in vitro data obtained in the mouse embryo, we have built a computational model consisting of two compartments, interconnected through appropriate synapses. One compartment generates sighs and the other produces eupneic bursts. The model reproduces basic features of simultaneous sigh and eupnea generation (two types of bursts differing in terms of shape, amplitude, and frequency of occurrence) and mimics the effect of blocking glycinergic synapses
8. Multiscale model of excitotoxicity in PD (Muddapu and Chakravarthy 2020)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons in Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNc). Although the exact cause of cell death is not clear, the hypothesis that metabolic deficiency is a key factor has been gaining attention in recent years. In the present study, we investigate this hypothesis using a multi-scale computational model of the subsystem of the basal ganglia comprising Subthalamic Nucleus (STN), Globus Pallidus externa (GPe) and SNc. The proposed model is a multiscale model in that interactions among the three nuclei are simulated using more abstract Izhikevich neuron models, while the molecular pathways involved in cell death of SNc neurons are simulated in terms of detailed chemical kinetics. Simulation results obtained from the proposed model showed that energy deficiencies occurring at cellular and network levels could precipitate the excitotoxic loss of SNc neurons in PD. At the subcellular level, the models show how calcium elevation leads to apoptosis of SNc neurons. The therapeutic effects of several neuroprotective interventions are also simulated in the model. From neuroprotective studies, it was clear that glutamate inhibition and apoptotic signal blocker therapies were able to halt the progression of SNc cell loss when compared to other therapeutic interventions, which only slows down the progression of SNc cell loss.
9. Multitarget pharmacology for Dystonia in M1 (Neymotin et al 2016)
" ... We developed a multiscale model of primary motor cortex, ranging from molecular, up to cellular, and network levels, containing 1715 compartmental model neurons with multiple ion channels and intracellular molecular dynamics. We wired the model based on electrophysiological data obtained from mouse motor cortex circuit mapping experiments. We used the model to reproduce patterns of heightened activity seen in dystonia by applying independent random variations in parameters to identify pathological parameter sets. ..."
10. Nonlinear dendritic processing in barrel cortex spiny stellate neurons (Lavzin et al. 2012)
This is a multi-compartmental simulation of a spiny stellate neuron which is stimulated by a thalamocortical (TC) and cortico-cortical (CC) inputs. No other cells are explicitly modeled; the presynaptic network activation is represented by the number of active synapses. Preferred and non –preferred thalamic directions thus correspond to larder/smaller number of TC synapses. This simulation revealed that randomly activated synapses can cooperatively trigger global NMDA spikes, which involve participation of most of the dendritic tree. Surprisingly, we found that although the voltage profile of the cell was uniform, the calcium influx was restricted to ‘hot spots’ which correspond to synaptic clusters or large conductance synapses
11. Theta-gamma phase amplitude coupling in a hippocampal CA1 microcircuit (Ponzi et al. 2023)
Using a data-driven model of a hippocampal microcircuit, we demonstrate that theta-gamma phase amplitude coupling (PAC) can naturally emerge from a single feedback mechanism involving an inhibitory and excitatory neuron population, which interplay to generate theta frequency periodic bursts of higher frequency gamma..

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