Emergence of physiological oscillation frequencies in neocortex simulations (Neymotin et al. 2011)

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Accession:138379
"Coordination of neocortical oscillations has been hypothesized to underlie the "binding" essential to cognitive function. However, the mechanisms that generate neocortical oscillations in physiological frequency bands remain unknown. We hypothesized that interlaminar relations in neocortex would provide multiple intermediate loops that would play particular roles in generating oscillations, adding different dynamics to the network. We simulated networks from sensory neocortex using 9 columns of event-driven rule-based neurons wired according to anatomical data and driven with random white-noise synaptic inputs. ..."
Reference:
1 . Neymotin SA, Lee H, Park E, Fenton AA, Lytton WW (2011) Emergence of physiological oscillation frequencies in a computer model of neocortex. Front Comput Neurosci 5:19 [PubMed]
Citations  Citation Browser
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Neocortex;
Cell Type(s): Neocortex V1 L6 pyramidal corticothalamic cell; Neocortex V1 L2/6 pyramidal intratelencephalic cell; Neocortex V1 interneuron basket PV cell; Neocortex fast spiking (FS) interneuron; Neocortex spiny stellate cell;
Channel(s):
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): GabaA; AMPA; NMDA; Gaba;
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s): Gaba; Glutamate;
Simulation Environment: NEURON;
Model Concept(s): Activity Patterns; Oscillations; Synchronization; Laminar Connectivity;
Implementer(s): Lytton, William [billl at neurosim.downstate.edu]; Neymotin, Sam [samn at neurosim.downstate.edu];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Neocortex V1 L6 pyramidal corticothalamic cell; Neocortex V1 L2/6 pyramidal intratelencephalic cell; Neocortex V1 interneuron basket PV cell; GabaA; AMPA; NMDA; Gaba; Gaba; Glutamate;
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fdemo
readme.txt
intf6_.mod
misc.mod *
nstim.mod *
stats.mod *
vecst.mod
col.hoc
declist.hoc *
decmat.hoc *
decnqs.hoc *
decvec.hoc *
default.hoc *
drline.hoc *
filtutils.hoc
finish_run.hoc
grvec.hoc *
init.hoc *
labels.hoc *
local.hoc *
misc.h
mosinit.hoc
network.hoc
nload.hoc
nqs.hoc *
nqsnet.hoc *
nrnoc.hoc *
params.hoc
python.hoc *
pywrap.hoc *
run.hoc
setup.hoc
simctrl.hoc *
spkts.hoc *
stats.hoc *
syncode.hoc *
xgetargs.hoc *
                            
// $Id: run.hoc,v 1.56 2011/02/10 20:37:56 samn Exp $

objref wf1,wf2,wrec
sprint(tstr,"o[%d]",numcols)
declare("vit",tstr,"nqLFP",tstr,"SPKSZ",20e6)
 // {wf1=new File() wf2=new File()}
// wrec = new NQS("time","ID","SYN","WT")
// wrec.zvec(2e7) // make big enough?

method("local") // why was this being used?
method("global")
cvode.atol(1e-3) 
cvode.condition_order(1) // irrelevant to acells?
declare("sepflds",0) // whether to record separate fields for each layer

// rv2 is part of grvec.hoc, as a stub, so it can be
// customized to do something to vector before graphing it
proc rv2 () { }

//** draw lines between cell subpopulations
proc rasterlines () { localobj o
  g=graphItem
  for ct=0,CTYPi-1 if(col.numc[ct]) {
    drline(0,col.ixe[ct],mytstop,col.ixe[ct],g,2,6)
    // o=mdl2view(g,0,ix[ii]+numc[ii]/10)
    o=mdl2view(g,0.9,col.ix[ct]+col.numc[ct]/4)
    g.label(0.9,o.x[3],CTYP.o(ct).s)
  }
  g.flush
}
//** calls rasterlines, making sure g is set first
proc grlines () { 
  {g=Graph[$1] rasterlines()}
}

proc a () { local sh,sv
  if(g==nil)gg()
  if (!isobj(aa,"Graph")) aa=g else g=aa
  if (aa.view_count==0) aa=g
  sv=gnum gnum=ojtnum(g)
  graphItem=g
  sh=0 grv_.super=1 g.erase_all
  grv_.gveraseflag=0  grv_.gvmarkflag=grv_.super=1 // gnum=0
  gv(0,1+sh,2) // gv(1,3+sh,2) gv(2,2+sh,2)
  grv_.gvmarkflag=grv_.super=0
  gnum=sv
  rasterlines()
}
proc b () { rewt() time() a() }

//** init - called @ start of run
proc init () { 
  initMisc1()
  vseed_stats(392426)
  finitialize() 
  cvode.re_init()
}

//** initrr - for doing a rerun - not used right now
proc initrr () { 
  rewt()
  col.intf.global_init()
  NStim[0].global_init()
  vseed_stats(392426)
}

//** setMemb - nothing here
proc setMemb () {}

//** initMisc1
proc initMisc1 () { local i
  col.intf.global_init()
  jrtm_INTF6=500
  for i=0,numcols-1 col[i].cstim.initrands()
}

objref ww // global ww for post processing
{wwht_INTF6=1 wwwid_INTF6=100}
//** wrecon - setup LFP recording, one LFP for each COLUMN
proc wrecon () { local cdx,ii,x,ct,cnt localobj tl,vm
  tl=new List()
  for cdx=0,numcols-1 {
    {nqsdel(nqLFP[cdx])}
    if(sepflds) nqLFP[cdx]=new NQS("E2","E4","E5","E6","LFP") else {nqLFP[cdx]=new NQS(1) nqLFP[cdx].s[0].s="LFP"}
    {nqLFP[cdx].v.resize(tstop/vdt_INTF6) nqLFP[cdx].pad()}
    for ii=0,nqLFP[cdx].m-1 tl.append(nqLFP[cdx].v[ii])
  }
  {vm=new Vector(CTYPi) vm.x(E2)=0 vm.x(E4)=1 vm.x(E5R)=vm.x(E5B)=2 vm.x(E6)=3}
  col.intf.initwrec(tl)
  for x=0,numcols-1 {
    for case(&ct,E2,E4,E5R,E5B,E6) {
      for ii=col[x].ix[ct],col[x].ixe[ct] {
        if(sepflds) {
          col[x].ce.o(ii).wrc(vm.x(ct)+x*5)
          col[x].ce.o(ii).wrc(4+x*5)
        } else col[x].ce.o(ii).wrc(x)
      }
    }
  }
}

//** wrecoff - turn off LFP recording
proc wrecoff () { local ct
  for ctt(&ct) for ixt(ct) XO.wrec(0)
}

//** finishMisc - called @ end of run()
func finishMisc () { local ii localobj co
  for ltr(XO,printlist) if (isassigned(XO.o)) if (XO.o.fflag) XO.o.fini
  // if(0) panobj.pvplist(ofile,params,100) //dont save printlist for now
  col.intf.global_fini
  for ltr(co,lcol) co.intf.spkstats2(1)
  print "TMAX: ",tmax_INTF6
  return 1
}

//** snapsv() save after printlist items min-max to fixed dt
proc snapsv () { local a,vdt,min,max localobj v1,o
  grv_.bst(3,3)
  vdt=0.2 
  a=allocvecs(v1)
  v1.resize(tstop/vdt)
  for ltr(o,printlist) { 
    if (o.code!=3) continue
    v1.snap(o.vec,o.tvec,vdt)
    o.vec.copy(v1)
    o.pstep=vdt
    o.tvflag=0
  }
  if (numarg()==0) grv_.pvall()
  dealloc(a)
}

proc exeruncall () { for ltr(XO,printlist) if (XO.code==3) XO.tvflag=1 }
proc pvout2 () { snapsv(1) }

//printlist=new List()
if(printlist==nil)printlist=new List()


proc prlclr () { localobj ce,col,intf
  for ltr(XO,printlist) {
    if (isassigned(XO.o)) if (XO.o.fflag) XO.o.recclr
  }
  //  for ltr(XO,ce) XO.wrc(-1)
  for ltr(col,lcol) {
    {ce=col.ce intf=ce.o(0)}
    for ii=0,ce.count-1 ce.o(ii).wrc(-1)
    intf.wwfree(0)
  }
  printlist.remove_all
}

//** prl(recv,recs[,lvextra]) - setup recording in printlist
//$1  = whether to record any cell voltages, default off
//$2  = whether to record spike times, default on
//$o3 = extra cells to record. lv.o(0)=cell,lv.o(1)=param to record,etc.,optional
proc prl () { local a,x,cidx,ii,jj,offst,y,recv,recs,max localobj xo,lvextra,co,ce
  if(numarg()>0) recv=$1 else recv=0
  if(numarg()>1) recs=$2 else recs=1
  if(numarg()>2) lvextra=$o3 else lvextra=nil
  {offst=0 prlclr()}
  for ltr(co,lcol,&ii) {
    {ce=co.ce intf=co.intf}
    if (recs) { sprint(tstr,"%s_SPKS",co.name)
      if (intf.flag("jcn")) { // for use with jitcon()
        printlist.append((vit[ii]=new vitem(tstr,2e6,1)))
        intf.jitrec(vit[ii].vec,vit[ii].tvec)
      } else {
        intf.jitrec() // clear jit recording
        for ltr(xo,ce,&y) {
          if (y==0) vit[ii]=new_printlist_nc(xo, xo.id, tstr) else {
            new_printlist_nc2(vit[ii], xo, xo.id)        }
        }
      }
    }
    npacsz=20
    if (recv && ce.count>0) for x=0,CTYPi-1 {
      if (co.numc[x]>2) max=2 else max=co.numc[x]-1
      for jj=0,max {
        XO=ce.object(co.ix[x]+jj)
        XO.recclr
        new_printlist_ac(XO,"V",  CTYP.o(x).s,XO.id)
        // new_printlist_ac(XO,"VGB",  CTYP.o(x).s,XO.id)
        // new_printlist_ac(XO,"VGA",  CTYP.o(x).s,XO.id)
        // new_printlist_ac(XO,"AHP",  CTYP.o(x).s,XO.id)
        //      printlist.o(printlist.count-1).code=3 // use code 3 for snapping
        // XO=ce.object(ixe[x]-jj-1)
        // XO.recclr
        // new_printlist_ac(XO,"V",  CTYP.object(x).s,XO.id)
      }
    }
    if(lvextra!=nil){
      for(jj=0;jj<lvextra.count;jj+=2){ XO=lvextra.o(jj)
        new_printlist_ac(XO,lvextra.o(jj+1).s,CTYP.object(ctyp(XO.id)).s,XO.id)
      }
    }
  }
  wrecon()
}
 
flddur=celdur=1000
splshhsz=0.4
objref slicepictypes
slicepictypes=new Vector()
slicepictypes.append(0,3,2)
stopoq_INTF6=1

proc turnoff () { local cel0,cel1,off
  cel0=$1 cel1=$2
  if (argtype(3)==0) off=$3 else off=0
  ind.indgen(ix[cel0],ixe[cel0],1) vec.indgen(ix[cel1],ixe[cel1],1) 
  intf.turnoff(ind,vec,off)
}

//** turn off intralaminar connections
proc intralamoff () { local ct
  for ctt(&ct) if(numc[ct] && div[ct][ct][0]) turnoff(ct,ct)
}

//** turn on intralaminar connections
proc intralamon () { local ct
  for ctt(&ct) if(numc[ct] && div[ct][ct][0]) turnoff(ct,ct,1)
}

load_file("spkts.hoc")
objref snq,fnq,anq,cvnq
//get CVPNQS
proc getcvnq () {
  if(cvnq!=nil)nqsdel(cvnq)
  if(numarg()==0) cvnq=CVPNQS(snq,1,1,0)
  if(numarg()==1) cvnq=CVPNQS(snq,$1,1,0)
  if(numarg()==2) cvnq=CVPNQS(snq,$1,$2,0)
  if(numarg()==3) cvnq=CVPNQS(snq,$1,$2,$3)
}
//get PActNQS
proc getanq () {
  if(anq!=nil)nqsdel(anq)
  if(numarg()==0) {
    anq=PActNQS(snq)
  } else if(numarg()==1) {
    anq=PActNQS(snq,$1) 
  } else if(numarg()==2) {
    anq=PActNQS(snq,$1,$2) 
  }
}
//get SpikeNQS
proc getsnq () {
  if(snq!=nil)nqsdel(snq)
  snq=SpikeNQS(printlist.o(0),0)
}
//get SpikeNQS,FreqNQS
proc getsfnq () {
  getsnq()
  if(fnq!=nil)nqsdel(fnq)
  fnq=FreqNQS(snq,20,1,0)
}
//display & print average vals of snq,fnq
proc dispfnq () { local ct
  fnq.verbose=0
  for ctt(&ct) {
    fnq.select("Type",ct,"StartT","<=",tmax_INTF6)
    printf("%s mean F = %g Hz\n",CTYP.o(ct).s,fnq.getcol("Freq").mean)
    fnq.gr("Freq","EndT",0,clr,1)
    clr+=1
  }
}
//draw a black box showing stim duration
proc dispsgrdur () {
  if(g==nil)gg()
  drline(0,0,0,$1,g,1,4)
  drline(sgrdur,0,sgrdur,$1,g,1,4)
  drline(0,$1,sgrdur,$1,g,1,4)
  drline(0,0,sgrdur,0,g,1,4)
}
//draw $2 cell type in $3 color from PActNQS $o1
proc dispPActNQ () { local ct,color localobj anq,str  
  anq=$o1 ct=$2 color=$3 str=new String() str.s="act"
  if(numarg()>3)str.s=$s4
  anq.select("ct",ct)
  gvmarkflag=0
  anq.gr(str.s,"ts",0,color,9)
  gvmarkflag=1
  anq.gr(str.s,"ts",0,color,10)
  gvmarkflag=0
}
//get nqs with prumat info
obfunc getprnq () { local prty,poty localobj prnq
  prnq=new NQS("prty","poty","pr")
  for ctt(&prty) for ctt(&poty) if(prumat[prty][poty]!=0) prnq.append(prty,poty,prumat[prty][poty])
  return prnq
}
//get nqs with sprmat info
obfunc getsprnq () { local prty,poty localobj sprnq
  sprnq=new NQS("prty","poty","spr")
  for ctt(&prty) for ctt(&poty) if(sprmat[prty][poty]!=0) sprnq.append(prty,poty,sprmat[prty][poty])
  return sprnq
}

//rerun sim from nqs -- use :
// objref nqn
//nqn=new NQS("/u/samn/vcortex/data/08nov7_dodviptbatch_NORMUNIFNEGEXPDVFIXED_S0_399_eg2p15_update.nqs")
//rernqs(nqn,rowid)
proc rernqs () { local s,tm,ix,w localobj iq,wmnq
  iq=$o1 ix=$2 // ix will be row num in the NQS
  w=iq.fi("wght")
  s=iq.get("s",ix).x setdviPT=iq.get("setdviPT",ix).x tm=iq.get("tmax",ix).x 
  EGain=iq.get("EGain",ix).x IGain=iq.get("IGain",ix).x sgrdur=iq.get("sgrdur",ix).x
  if(iq.fi("vsgrpp")!=-1)vsgrpp=iq.get("vsgrpp",ix).o
  if(iq.fi("vsgrsidx")!=-1)vsgrsidx=iq.get("vsgrsidx",ix).o
  if(iq.fi("wght")!=-1){
    wmnq=iq.get("wght",ix).o setwt(wmnq)
  } else {
    setwt()
  }
  setdvi(s)
  stim()
  print "\nSim should run out to tmax=",tm
  time()
}

//* function calls
prl(1,1)