Ketamine disrupts theta modulation of gamma in a computer model of hippocampus (Neymotin et al 2011)

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"Abnormalities in oscillations have been suggested to play a role in schizophrenia. We studied theta-modulated gamma oscillations in a computer model of hippocampal CA3 in vivo with and without simulated application of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and psychotomimetic. Networks of 1200 multi-compartment neurons (pyramidal, basket and oriens-lacunosum moleculare, OLM, cells) generated theta and gamma oscillations from intrinsic network dynamics: basket cells primarily generated gamma and amplified theta, while OLM cells strongly contributed to theta. ..."
1 . Neymotin SA, Lazarewicz MT, Sherif M, Contreras D, Finkel LH, Lytton WW (2011) Ketamine disrupts ? modulation of ? in a computer model of hippocampus. J Neurosci 31:11733-43 [PubMed]
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Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Hippocampus;
Cell Type(s): Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal cell; Hippocampus CA3 interneuron basket cell; Hippocampus CA3 stratum oriens lacunosum-moleculare interneuron;
Channel(s): I L high threshold; I A; I K; I K,Ca;
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): GabaA; NMDA; Glutamate;
Gene(s): HCN1; HCN2;
Transmitter(s): Gaba; Glutamate;
Simulation Environment: NEURON; Python;
Model Concept(s): Oscillations; Synchronization; Therapeutics; Pathophysiology; Schizophrenia; Information transfer; Brain Rhythms;
Implementer(s): Lazarewicz, Maciej [mlazarew at]; Neymotin, Sam [samn at];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal cell; Hippocampus CA3 interneuron basket cell; GabaA; NMDA; Glutamate; I L high threshold; I A; I K; I K,Ca; Gaba; Glutamate;
CA1ih.mod *
CA1ika.mod *
CA1ikdr.mod *
CA1ina.mod *
caolmw.mod *
capr.mod *
icaolmw.mod *
icapr.mod *
iholmkop.mod *
iholmw.mod *
ihpyrkop.mod *
kahppr.mod *
kaolmkop.mod *
kapyrkop.mod *
kcaolmw.mod *
kcpr.mod *
kdrbwb.mod *
kdrolmkop.mod *
kdrpr.mod *
kdrpyrkop.mod *
misc.mod *
MyExp2Syn.mod *
MyExp2SynAlpha.mod *
MyExp2SynBB.mod *
MyExp2SynNMDA.mod *
MyExp2SynNMDABB.mod *
nafbwb.mod *
nafolmkop.mod *
nafpr.mod *
nafpyrkop.mod *
vecst.mod *
wrap.mod * *
declist.hoc *
decmat.hoc *
decnqs.hoc *
decvec.hoc *
default.hoc *
drline.hoc *
geom.hoc * *
grvec.hoc *
init.hoc *
labels.hoc *
local.hoc *
misc.h * *
nqs.hoc *
nqs_utils.hoc *
nrnoc.hoc * *
simctrl.hoc *
stats.hoc *
syncode.hoc *
xgetargs.hoc *
// $Id: drline.hoc,v 1.41 2011/02/15 14:05:02 billl Exp $

// load_file("drline.hoc")

// click and drag left button to draw lines on top of a figure interactively
// select graph to draw on with setdrl(Graph[])
// set color with clr, line width with lne
// select 'Draw curve' for continuous drawing
// select 'Arrow' to place an arrow pointing according to direction of drag

drlflush=1 //whether to flush line drawings each drline call

//* drline(x0,y0,x1,y1,OPT graph or color) 
proc drline () { local color,line
  if (numarg()==0) { print "drline(x0,y0,x1,y1[,g,col,line])"
    return }
  if (numarg()>4) { 
    if (argtype(5)==0) { color=$5 
                         if (numarg()>5) line=$6
    } else {             graphItem = $o5 
                         if (numarg()>5) color=$6
                         if (numarg()>6) line=$7      }}
  if(drlflush) graphItem.flush()

//* set to drawlines on top of fig
proc setdrl () {
  g=$o1 // select this graph for further drawing
  $o1.menu_tool("Draw line","drl")
  $o1.menu_tool("Draw curve","drc")
  $o1.exec_menu("Draw line")

//* draw line interactively on top of fig
// interesting that this should work at all since x0,y0 local but still preserving their
// values across multiple calls
proc drl ()  { local x0,y0,type,x,y,keystate
  type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4
  if (type==2) {x0=x y0=y}
  if (type==3) drline(x0,y0,x,y,clr,lne)

//* draw circle interactively on top of fig
// drci(2,0,0,0) drci(3,1,0,0)
proc drci ()  { local a,x0,y0,type,x,y,keystate,ii,rad localobj xv,yv
  type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4
  if (type==2) {x0=x y0=y}
  if (type==3) { rad=sqrt((x-x0)^2+(y-y0)^2) 
    a=allocvecs(xv,yv) vrsz(360,xv,yv)
    print "Circle: ",x0,y0,rad

//* draw retangle interactively on top of fig
proc drr ()  { local x0,y0,type,x,y,keystate
  type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4
  if (type==2) {x0=x y0=y}
  if (type==3) { drline(x0,y0,x0,y,clr,lne)
    drline(x,y0,x,y,clr,lne) drline(x,y,x0,y,clr,lne) drline(x,y0,x0,y0,clr,lne) }

//* draw arrow interactively on top of fig
proc dra ()  { local xsz,ysz,type,x,y,keystate,rot
  type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4
  xsz=0.1*(g.size(2)-g.size(1)) // 10% of size
  if (type==2) {x0=x y0=y}
  if (type==3) {
    if (y==y0) {
      if (x>x0) rot=-90 else rot=90
    } else {
      if ((y-y0)<=0) rot+=180

//* draw curve interactively on top of fig
proc drc ()  { local x0,y0,type,x,y,keystate
  type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4
  if (type==2) { x0=x y0=y
  } else if (type==1) {
    x0=x y0=y
  } else if (type==3) drline(x0,y0,x,y,clr,lne)

//* write label
proc drw ()  { local x0,y0,type,x,y,keystate
  type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4
  if (type==2) { 
   string_dialog("Label: ",tstr) 

obfunc arrow () { localobj o
  o=new Glyph()
  o.m(0,0)  o.l(0,2) o.s(1,4) // draw vertical line
  o.m(0,0)  o.l(0,-2) o.s(1,4) // draw vertical line
  o.m(0,-2) o.l(-2,0) o.s(1,4)
  o.m(0,-2) o.l(2,0) o.s(1,4)
  return o

//* hist(g,vec,min,max,bins)
{clr=1 hflg=1 ers=1 sym=1 pflg=0 lin=4 hbup=0} 
// clr:color, hflg=1 draw lines; 2 draw boxes; 3 fill in; ers=erase; 
// pflg=1 normalize hist by size of $o2, so will be probability instead of count
// pflg=2 turn hist upside down
// pflg=3 operate on values with hfunc()
// style determined by hflg
// hflg==0 lines with dots
// hflg==0.x offset lines with dots
// hflg==1 outlines but not down to zero
// hflg==2 outlines with lines down to zero
// hflg==3 just dots
// hflg==3.x lines between dots
// hbup=1 // move baseline up by this amount
func hist () { local a,b,c,min,max,wid,bins,ii,jj,offset,x,y
  if (numarg()==0) { printf("hist(g,vec,min,max,bins)\n") return 0}
  if ($o2.size<2)  { printf("hist: $o2 too small\n",$o2) return -1}
  if ($o2.min==$o2.max)  { printf("hist: %s all one value: %g\n",$o2,$o2.min) return -1}
  if (numarg()==5) {min=$3 max=$4 bins=$5 
  } else if (numarg()==4) { min=0 max=$3 bins=$4 
  } else if (numarg()<=3) { 
    if ((min=0.95*$o2.min)<0) min=1.05*$o2.min
    if ((max=1.05*$o2.max)<0) max=0.95*$o2.max
    if (min>0) min*=0.9 else min*=1.1
    if (max>0) max*=1.1 else max*=0.9
    if (numarg()==3) bins=$3
  // print min,max,max-wid,wid
  a=b=c=allocvecs(3) b+=1 c+=2
  offset=0 x=-1
  if (ers) $o1.erase_all()
  mso[c].hist($o2,min,bins,wid) // c has values
  if(pflg==1) mso[c].div(mso[c].sum) // normalize to sum to 1
  if(pflg==2) mso[c].mul(-1)
  if(pflg==3) hfunc(mso[c])
  mso[b].index(mso[c], mso[a]) 
  mso[a].mul(wid) mso[a].add(min)
  mso[b].x[0] = 0 
  if (hflg==1 || hflg==2) { 
    mso[b].line($o1, mso[a],clr,lin)
    if (hflg==2) for vtr(&x,mso[a]) drline(x,0,x,mso[b].x[i1],$o1,clr,lin)
  } else if (int(hflg)==0 || hflg>=3) { 
    if (hflg%1!=0) offset=hflg*wid // use eg -0.5+ii/8 to move back to integer
    // print mso[a].min,mso[a].max
    // mso[c].mark($o1,mso[a],"O",6,clr,2) // this will place points where 0 count
    for jj=0,mso[a].size-1 if (mso[c].x[jj]!=0) {
      if (hflg!=3 && hflg%1!=0) drline(mso[a].x[jj],0,mso[a].x[jj],mso[c].x[jj],$o1,clr,lin)
      if (hflg==4) {
        if (x!=-1) drline(x,y,mso[a].x[jj],mso[c].x[jj],$o1,clr,lin)
        x=mso[a].x[jj] y=mso[c].x[jj]
      $o1.mark(mso[a].x[jj],mso[c].x[jj],sg(sym).t,10,clr,2) // don't place points with 0 count
  return 1

// barplot(g,yvec,xvec[,bar_width]) 
// barplot(g,yvec,xvec[,bar_width,color_vec]) -- for multicolored bars -- each point has a color
// barplot(g,yvec,xvec[,bar_width,color_vec,error_vec]) -- error_vec plots the error
func barplot () { local a,sz,wid,ii,jj,x,y,mulcol localobj go,vx,vy,v1,vcol
  if (numarg()==0) {
    printf("barplot(g,yvec,xvec[,bar_width]), scribble=1 to 'fill in'\n") 
    printf("set scribble=1 to fill in with single color (based on clr)\n")
    printf("barplot(g,yvec,xvec[,bar_width,color_vec]):multicolored bars-each point has a color\n")
    printf("barplot(g,yvec,xvec[,bar_width,color_vec,error_vec]):add +/- error to each bar\n")
    return 0}
  if ((sz=$o2.size)!=$o3.size)  { printf("barplot: x,y vectors differ in size\n") return -1}
  go=$o1 $o3.sort
  if (argtype(4)==0)  wid=$4 else wid=1
  if (argtype(5)==1)  {vcol=$o5 mulcol=-1
    if (sz!=vcol.size) { printf("barplot: color vec wrong size: %d %d\n",sz,vcol.size) return -1}  
  } else if (argtype(5)==0) mulcol=$5 else mulcol=0
  // print min,max,max-wid,wid
  if (ers) go.erase_all()
  for vtr2(&x,&y,$o3,$o2,&ii)  { 
  if (mulcol) {
    for vtr2(&x,&y,$o3,$o2,&jj)  { 
      if (mulcol==-1) clr=vcol.x[jj] else clr=mulcol
      for (ii=0;ii<2*wid;ii+=(wid/100)) { 
        vy.line(go, vx, clr, 4)
    vy.line(go, vx, clr, 4)
  } else if (scribble) {
    for vtr2(&x,&y,$o3,$o2,&ii)  { 
    for (ii=0;ii<2*wid;ii+=(wid/100)) { 
      vy.line(go, vx, clr, 4)
    vy.line(go, vx, clr, 4)
  } else vy.line(go, vx, clr, lne)
  if(numarg()>5) $o2.ploterr(go, $o3, $o6, 15, 1, 3)
  return 1

proc smgs () { local a,b,c,min,max,wid,bins,ii,jj,offset,x,y localobj v1
  if ($o2.size<2)  { printf("smgs: $o2 too small\n",$o2) return -1}
  if ($o2.min==$o2.max)  { printf("smgs: %s all one value: %g\n",$o2,$o2.min) return -1}
  if (numarg()==5) {min=$3 max=$4 bins=$5 
  } else if (numarg()==4) { min=0 max=$3 bins=$4 
  } else if (numarg()<=3) { 
    if ((min=0.95*$o2.min)<0) min=1.05*$o2.min
    if ((max=1.05*$o2.max)<0) max=0.95*$o2.max
    if (min>0) min*=0.9 else min*=1.1
    if (max>0) min*=1.1 else max*=0.9
    if (numarg()==3) bins=$3
  // print min,max,max-wid,wid
  a=b=c=allocvecs(3,1e4) b+=1 c+=2
  offset=0 x=-1
  if (ers) $o1.erase_all()
  if (0) {
    mso[c].smgs($o2,min,max,wid,wid*wid/4) // c has values
    mso[c].line($o1, mso[a],clr,4)
  } else {
    v1=$o2.sumgauss(min,max,wid,wid/2) // c has values
    v1.line($o1, mso[a],clr,4)

//* a few drawing utilities from sam (not too spectacular)
//** drawhticks(ticksz,minx,maxx,linewidth,$5-$numarg() == y position of horizontal ticks)
// draw horizontal ticks of a view box along left/right of box
proc drawhticks () { local ticksz,minx,maxx,lw,i
  ticksz=$1 minx=$2 maxx=$3 lw=$4
  for i=5,numarg() {
    drline(minx,$i,minx+ticksz,$i,g,1,lw)    drline(maxx,$i,maxx-ticksz,$i,g,1,lw)

//** drawvticks(ticksz,miny,maxy,linewidth,$5-$numarg() == x position of vertical ticks)
// draw vertical ticks of a view box along top/bottom of box
proc drawvticks () { local ticksz,miny,maxy,lw,i
  ticksz=$1 miny=$2 maxy=$3 lw=$4
  for i=5,numarg() {
    drline($i,miny,$i,miny+ticksz,g,1,lw)    drline($i,maxy,$i,maxy-ticksz,g,1,lw)

//** drawbox(minx,maxx,miny,maxy[,line,graph]) - draw box
proc drawbox () { local minx,maxx,miny,maxy,ln localobj myg
  minx=$1 maxx=$2 miny=$3 maxy=$4
  if(numarg()>4)ln=$5 else ln=3
  if(numarg()>5)myg=$o6 else myg=g
  drline(minx,miny,minx,maxy,myg,1,ln) //bottom
  drline(minx,miny,maxx,miny,myg,1,ln) //left
  drline(minx,maxy,maxx,maxy,myg,1,ln) //top
  drline(maxx,miny,maxx,maxy,myg,1,ln) //right