Biochemical signaling networks were constructed with experimentally obtained constants and analyzed by computational methods to understand their role in complex biological processes. These networks exhibit emergent properties such as integration of signals across multiple time scales, generation of distinct outputs depending on input strength and duration, and self-sustaining feedback loops. Properties of signaling networks raise the possibility that information for "learned behavior" of biological systems may be stored within intracellular biochemical reactions that comprise signaling pathways.
Bhalla US, Iyengar R (1999) Emergent properties of networks of biological signaling pathways. Science 283:381-7 [PubMed]