A network of AOB mitral cells that produces infra-slow bursting (Zylbertal et al. 2017)

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Infra-slow rhythmic neuronal activity with very long (> 10 s) period duration was described in many brain areas but little is known about the role of this activity and the mechanisms that produce it. Here we combine experimental and computational methods to show that synchronous infra-slow bursting activity in mitral cells of the mouse accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) emerges from interplay between intracellular dynamics and network connectivity. In this novel mechanism, slow intracellular Na+ dynamics endow AOB mitral cells with a weak tendency to burst, which is further enhanced and stabilized by chemical and electrical synapses between them. Combined with the unique topology of the AOB network, infra-slow bursting enables integration and binding of multiple chemosensory stimuli over prolonged time scale. The example protocol simulates a two-glomeruli network with a single shared cell. Although each glomerulus is stimulated at a different time point, the activity of the entire population becomes synchronous (see paper Fig. 8)
1 . Zylbertal A, Yarom Y, Wagner S (2017) Synchronous Infra-Slow Bursting in the Mouse Accessory Olfactory Bulb Emerge from Interplay between Intrinsic Neuronal Dynamics and Network Connectivity. J Neurosci 37:2656-2672 [PubMed]
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Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Olfactory bulb;
Cell Type(s): Olfactory bulb (accessory) mitral cell;
Channel(s): I CAN; Na/Ca exchanger; Na/K pump; I Calcium; I Na,t;
Gap Junctions: Gap junctions;
Simulation Environment: NEURON; Python;
Model Concept(s): Bursting; Synchronization; Activity Patterns; Oscillations; Persistent activity; Olfaction;
Implementer(s): Zylbertal, Asaph [asaph.zylbertal at mail.huji.ac.il];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  I Na,t; I CAN; I Calcium; Na/Ca exchanger; Na/K pump;
:n-type-like voltage gated calcium channel
:Migliore file Modify by Maciej Lazarewicz (mailto:mlazarew@gmu.edu) May/16/2001

TITLE n-calcium channel
: n-type calcium channel

	USEION ca READ cai,cao WRITE ica
        RANGE gbar,ica, vshiftm, vshifth, timefactor_m, timefactor_h
        GLOBAL hinf,minf,taum,tauh, ki
    NONSPECIFIC_CURRENT icont                                                       

	(mA) 	= 	(milliamp)
	(mV) 	= 	(millivolt)
	FARADAY =  	(faraday)  (kilocoulombs)
	R 	= 	(k-mole) (joule/degC)
	KTOMV 	= .0853 (mV/degC)

	v (mV)
	celsius	(degC)
    vshiftm = 0	(mV)		: voltage shift
    vshifth = 0	(mV)		: voltage shift
    timefactor_h = 1
    timefactor_m = 1
	gbar	= .0003 (mho/cm2)
	ki	= .001 	(mM)
	cai	= 5.e-5 (mM)
	cao 	= 10  	(mM)

STATE {	m h }

	ica 		(mA/cm2)
    icont   (mA/cm2)
        gcan  		(mho/cm2) 

	SOLVE states METHOD cnexp
	gcan = gbar*m*m*h*h2(cai)
	ica  = gcan*ghk(v,cai,cao)
    icont = -ica

	rates(v, vshiftm, vshifth)
	m = minf
	h = hinf

FUNCTION h2(cai(mM)) {
	h2 = ki/(ki+cai)

FUNCTION ghk(v(mV), ci(mM), co(mM)) (mV) {
        LOCAL nu,f

        f = KTF(celsius)/2
        nu = v/f
        ghk=-f*(1. - (ci/co)*exp(nu))*efun(nu)

FUNCTION KTF(celsius (degC)) (mV) {
        KTF = ((25./293.15)*(celsius + 273.15))

FUNCTION efun(z) {
	if (fabs(z) < 1e-4) {
		efun = 1 - z/2
		efun = z/(exp(z) - 1)

FUNCTION alph(v(mV)) {
	TABLE FROM -150 TO 1000 WITH 1600
	alph = 1.6e-4*exp(-v/48.4)

FUNCTION beth(v(mV)) {
        TABLE FROM -150 TO 1000 WITH 1600
	beth = 1/(exp((-v+39.0)/10.)+1.)

FUNCTION alpm(v(mV)) {
	TABLE FROM -150 TO 1000 WITH 1600
	alpm = 0.1967*(-1.0*v+19.88)/(exp((-1.0*v+19.88)/10.0)-1.0)

FUNCTION betm(v(mV)) {
	TABLE FROM -150 TO 1000 WITH 1600
	betm = 0.046*exp(-v/20.73)


DERIVATIVE states {     : exact when v held constant; integrates over dt step
        rates(v, vshiftm, vshifth)
        m' = (minf - m)/(taum*timefactor_m)
        h' = (hinf - h)/(tauh*timefactor_h)

PROCEDURE rates(v (mV), vshiftm (mV), vshifth (mV)) { :callable from hoc
        LOCAL a

        a    = alpm(v-vshiftm)
        taum = 1/(a + betm(v-vshiftm))
        minf = a*taum

        a    = alph(v-vshifth)
        tauh = 1/(a + beth(v-vshifth))
        hinf = a*tauh