Fast Spiking Basket cells (Tzilivaki et al 2019)

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Accession:237595
"Interneurons are critical for the proper functioning of neural circuits. While often morphologically complex, dendritic integration and its role in neuronal output have been ignored for decades, treating interneurons as linear point neurons. Exciting new findings suggest that interneuron dendrites support complex, nonlinear computations: sublinear integration of EPSPs in the cerebellum, coupled to supralinear calcium accumulations and supralinear voltage integration in the hippocampus. These findings challenge the point neuron dogma and call for a new theory of interneuron arithmetic. Using detailed, biophysically constrained models, we predict that dendrites of FS basket cells in both hippocampus and mPFC come in two flavors: supralinear, supporting local sodium spikes within large-volume branches and sublinear, in small-volume branches. Synaptic activation of varying sets of these dendrites leads to somatic firing variability that cannot be explained by the point neuron reduction. Instead, a 2-stage Artificial Neural Network (ANN), with both sub- and supralinear hidden nodes, captures most of the variance. We propose that FS basket cells have substantially expanded computational capabilities sub-served by their non-linear dendrites and act as a 2-layer ANN."
Reference:
1 . Tzilivaki A, Kastellakis G, Poirazi P (2019) Challenging the point neuron dogma: FS basket cells as 2-stage nonlinear integrators Nature Communications, accepted
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Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Neuron or other electrically excitable cell;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Hippocampus; Prefrontal cortex (PFC);
Cell Type(s): Hippocampus CA3 interneuron basket GABA cell; Neocortex layer 5 interneuron;
Channel(s):
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s):
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s):
Simulation Environment: NEURON; MATLAB; Python;
Model Concept(s): Active Dendrites; Detailed Neuronal Models;
Implementer(s): Tzilivaki, Alexandra [alexandra.tzilivaki at charite.de]; Kastellakis, George [gkastel at gmail.com];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Hippocampus CA3 interneuron basket GABA cell;
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TzilivakiEtal_FSBCs_model
Multicompartmental_Biophysical_models
mechanism
x86_64
.libs
ampa.mod *
ampain.mod *
cadyn.mod *
cadynin.mod *
cal.mod *
calc.mod *
calcb.mod *
can.mod *
cancr.mod *
canin.mod *
car.mod *
cat.mod *
catcb.mod *
cpampain.mod *
gabaa.mod *
gabaain.mod *
gabab.mod *
h.mod *
hcb.mod *
hin.mod *
ican.mod *
iccb.mod *
iccr.mod *
icin.mod *
iks.mod *
ikscb.mod *
ikscr.mod *
iksin.mod *
kadist.mod *
kadistcr.mod *
kadistin.mod *
kaprox.mod *
kaproxcb.mod *
kaproxin.mod *
kca.mod *
kcain.mod *
kct.mod *
kctin.mod *
kdr.mod *
kdrcb.mod *
kdrcr.mod *
kdrin.mod *
naf.mod *
nafcb.mod *
nafcr.mod *
nafin.mod *
nafx.mod *
nap.mod *
netstim.mod *
NMDA.mod *
NMDAIN.mod *
sinclamp.mod *
vecstim.mod *
ampa.c
ampa.lo
ampain.c
ampain.lo
cadyn.c
cadyn.lo
cadynin.c
cadynin.lo
cal.c
cal.lo
calc.c
calc.lo
calcb.c
calcb.lo
can.c
can.lo
cancr.c
cancr.lo
canin.c
canin.lo
car.c
car.lo
cat.c
cat.lo
catcb.c
catcb.lo
cpampain.c
cpampain.lo
gabaa.c
gabaa.lo
gabaain.c
gabaain.lo
gabab.c
gabab.lo
h.c
h.lo
hcb.c
hcb.lo
hin.c
hin.lo
ican.c
ican.lo
iccb.c
iccb.lo
iccr.c
iccr.lo
icin.c
icin.lo
iks.c
iks.lo
ikscb.c
ikscb.lo
ikscr.c
ikscr.lo
iksin.c
iksin.lo
kadist.c
kadist.lo
kadistcr.c
kadistcr.lo
kadistin.c
kadistin.lo
kaprox.c
kaprox.lo
kaproxcb.c
kaproxcb.lo
kaproxin.c
kaproxin.lo
kca.c
kca.lo
kcain.c
kcain.lo
kct.c
kct.lo
kctin.c
kctin.lo
kdr.c
kdr.lo
kdrcb.c
kdrcb.lo
kdrcr.c
kdrcr.lo
kdrin.c
kdrin.lo
libnrnmech.la *
mod_func.c
mod_func.lo
naf.c
naf.lo
nafcb.c
nafcb.lo
nafcr.c
nafcr.lo
nafin.c
nafin.lo
nafx.c
nafx.lo
nap.c
nap.lo
netstim.c
netstim.lo
NMDA.c
NMDA.lo
NMDAIN.c
NMDAIN.lo
sinclamp.c
sinclamp.lo
special
vecstim.c
vecstim.lo
                            
                             TITLE Slow Ca-dependent cation current
                             :
                             :   Ca++ dependent nonspecific cation current ICAN
                             :   Differential equations
                             :
                             :   Model based on a first order kinetic scheme
                             :
                             :       + n cai <->     (alpha,beta)
                             :
                             :   Following this model, the activation fct will be half-activated at 
                             :   a concentration of Cai = (beta/alpha)^(1/n) = cac (parameter)
                             :
                             :   The mod file is here written for the case n=2 (2 binding sites)
                             :   ---------------------------------------------
                             :
                             :   Kinetics based on: Partridge & Swandulla, TINS 11: 69-72, 1988.
                             :
                             :   This current has the following properties:
                             :      - inward current (non specific for cations Na, K, Ca, ...)
                             :      - activated by intracellular calcium
                             :      - NOT voltage dependent
                             :
                             :   A minimal value for the time constant has been added
                             :
                             :   Ref: Destexhe et al., J. Neurophysiology 72: 803-818, 1994.
                             :   See also:  http://www.cnl.salk.edu/~alain , http://cns.fmed.ulaval.ca
                             :

                             INDEPENDENT {t FROM 0 TO 1 WITH 1 (ms)}

                             NEURON {
                                     SUFFIX ican
                                     USEION n READ en WRITE in VALENCE 1
                                     USEION ca READ cai
				     USEION na WRITE ina
                                     RANGE gbar, m_inf, tau_m, in
                                     GLOBAL beta, cac, taumin
                             }


                             UNITS {
                                     (mA) = (milliamp)
                                     (mV) = (millivolt)
                                     (molar) = (1/liter)
                                     (mM) = (millimolar)
                             }


                             PARAMETER {
                                     v               (mV)
                                     celsius = 36    (degC)
                                     en      = -20   (mV)            	: reversal potential
                                     cai     	     (mM)           	: initial [Ca]i
                                     gbar    = 0.00025 (mho/cm2)
                                     beta = 0.0003                      :0.001   :0.004      :Since Aprile 2008
                                     cac = 0.0001                         :Since Aprile 2008

                                     taumin  = 0.1   (ms)            	: minimal value of time constant
                             }


                             STATE {
                                     m
                             }

                             ASSIGNED {
                                     in      (mA/cm2)
				     ina     (mA/cm2)
                                     m_inf
                                     tau_m   (ms)
                                     tadj
                             }

                             BREAKPOINT { 
                                     SOLVE states METHOD euler
                                     in = gbar * m*m * (v - en)
				     ina = 0.7* in
                             }

                             DERIVATIVE states { 
                                     evaluate_fct(v,cai)

                                     m' = (m_inf - m) / tau_m
                             }

                             UNITSOFF
                             INITIAL {
                             :
                             :  activation kinetics are assumed to be at 22 deg. C
                             :  Q10 is assumed to be 3
                             :
                                     tadj = 3 ^ ((celsius-22.0)/10)

                                     evaluate_fct(v,cai)
                                     m = m_inf
                             }


                             PROCEDURE evaluate_fct(v(mV),cai(mM)) {  LOCAL alpha2

                                     alpha2 = beta * (cai/cac)^2

                                     tau_m = 1 / (alpha2 + beta) / tadj
                                     m_inf = alpha2 / (alpha2 + beta)

                                     if(tau_m < taumin) { tau_m = taumin }   : min value of time cst
                             }
                             UNITSON