Boolean network-based analysis of the apoptosis network (Mai and Liu 2009)

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"To understand the design principles of the molecular interaction network associated with the irreversibility of cell apoptosis and the stability of cell surviving, we constructed a Boolean network integrating both the intrinsic and extrinsic pro-apoptotic pathways with pro-survival signal transduction pathways. We performed statistical analyses of the dependences of cell fate on initial states and on input signals. The analyses reproduced the well-known pro- and anti-apoptotic effects of key external signals and network components. We found that the external GF signal by itself did not change the apoptotic ratio from randomly chosen initial states when there is no external TNF signal, but can significantly offset apoptosis induced by the TNF signal. ..."
1 . Mai Z, Liu H (2009) Boolean network-based analysis of the apoptosis network: irreversible apoptosis and stable surviving. J Theor Biol 259:760-9 [PubMed]
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Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Molecular Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Generic;
Cell Type(s):
Gap Junctions:
Simulation Environment: NEURON; Python;
Model Concept(s): Methods; Signaling pathways; Boolean network; Apoptosis;
Implementer(s): Neymotin, Sam [Samuel.Neymotin at];
misc.mod *
stats.mod *
vecst.mod *
declist.hoc *
decmat.hoc *
decnqs.hoc *
decvec.hoc *
default.hoc *
grvec.hoc *
local.hoc *
misc.h * *
nqs.hoc *
nrnoc.hoc * *
pywrap.hoc *
simctrl.hoc *
# $Id:,v 1.7 2012/07/03 14:44:33 samn Exp $ 
# got this function off the internet - sn

def unique(s):
     """Return a list of the elements in s, but without duplicates.

     For example, unique([1,2,3,1,2,3]) is some permutation of [1,2,3],
     unique("abcabc") some permutation of ["a", "b", "c"], and
     unique(([1, 2], [2, 3], [1, 2])) some permutation of
     [[2, 3], [1, 2]].

     For best speed, all sequence elements should be hashable.  Then
     unique() will usually work in linear time.

     If not possible, the sequence elements should enjoy a total
     ordering, and if list(s).sort() doesn't raise TypeError it's
     assumed that they do enjoy a total ordering.  Then unique() will
     usually work in O(N*log2(N)) time.

     If that's not possible either, the sequence elements must support
     equality-testing.  Then unique() will usually work in quadratic

     n = len(s)
     if n == 0:
         return []

     # Try using a dict first, as that's the fastest and will usually
     # work.  If it doesn't work, it will usually fail quickly, so it
     # usually doesn't cost much to *try* it.  It requires that all the
     # sequence elements be hashable, and support equality comparison.
     u = {}
         for x in s:
             u[x] = 1
     except TypeError:
         del u  # move on to the next method
         return list(u.keys())

     # We can't hash all the elements.  Second fastest is to sort,
     # which brings the equal elements together; then duplicates are
     # easy to weed out in a single pass.
     # NOTE:  Python's list.sort() was designed to be efficient in the
     # presence of many duplicate elements.  This isn't true of all
     # sort functions in all languages or libraries, so this approach
     # is more effective in Python than it may be elsewhere.
         t = list(s)
     except TypeError:
         del t  # move on to the next method
         assert n > 0
         last = t[0]
         lasti = i = 1
         while i < n:
             if t[i] != last:
                 t[lasti] = last = t[i]
                 lasti += 1
             i += 1
         return t[:lasti]

     # Brute force is all that's left.
     u = []
     for x in s:
         if x not in u:
     return u