Striatal D1R medium spiny neuron, including a subcellular DA cascade (Lindroos et al 2018)

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We are investigating how dopaminergic modulation of single channels can be combined to make the D1R possitive MSN more excitable. We also connect multiple channels to substrates of a dopamine induced subcellular cascade to highlight that the classical pathway is too slow to explain DA induced kinetics in the subsecond range (Howe and Dombeck, 2016. doi: 10.1038/nature18942)
1 . Lindroos R, Dorst MC, Du K, Filipovic M, Keller D, Ketzef M, Kozlov AK, Kumar A, Lindahl M, Nair AG, Pérez-Fernández J, Grillner S, Silberberg G, Hellgren Kotaleski J (2018) Basal Ganglia Neuromodulation Over Multiple Temporal and Structural Scales-Simulations of Direct Pathway MSNs Investigate the Fast Onset of Dopaminergic Effects and Predict the Role of Kv4.2. Front Neural Circuits 12:3 [PubMed]
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Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Axon; Channel/Receptor; Dendrite; Molecular Network; Synapse; Neuron or other electrically excitable cell;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Basal ganglia; Striatum;
Cell Type(s): Neostriatum medium spiny direct pathway GABA cell; Neostriatum spiny neuron;
Channel(s): I A; I A, slow; I Calcium; I CAN; I K; I K,Ca; I K,leak; I Krp; I Na,t; I Potassium; I R; I T low threshold; Kir;
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): D1; Dopaminergic Receptor; AMPA; Gaba; NMDA;
Transmitter(s): Dopamine; Gaba; Glutamate;
Simulation Environment: NEURON; Python;
Model Concept(s): Action Potentials; Detailed Neuronal Models; Electrical-chemical; G-protein coupled; Membrane Properties; Neuromodulation; Multiscale; Synaptic noise;
Implementer(s): Lindroos, Robert [robert.lindroos at]; Du, Kai [kai.du at]; Keller, Daniel ; Kozlov, Alexander [akozlov at];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Neostriatum medium spiny direct pathway GABA cell; D1; AMPA; NMDA; Gaba; Dopaminergic Receptor; I Na,t; I T low threshold; I A; I K; I K,leak; I K,Ca; I CAN; I Calcium; I Potassium; I A, slow; I Krp; I R; Kir; Dopamine; Gaba; Glutamate;
TITLE GABA_A synapse with short-term plasticity

    RANGE tau1, tau2, e, i, q
    RANGE tau, tauR, tauF, U, u0
    RANGE base, f_gaba
    POINTER pka

    (nA) = (nanoamp)
    (mV) = (millivolt)
    (uS) = (microsiemens)

    tau1= 0.5 (ms)
    tau2 = 7.5 (ms)  : tau2 > tau1
    e = -60 (mV)
    tau = 3 (ms)
    tauR = 500 (ms)  : tauR > tau
    tauF = 0 (ms)    : tauF >= 0
    U = 0.1 (1) <0, 1>
    u0 = 0 (1) <0, 1>
    q = 2
    base   = 0.0      : set in simulation file    
	f_gaba = 0.0      : set in simulation file

    v (mV)
    i (nA)
    g (uS)
    pka (1)

    A (uS)
    B (uS)

    LOCAL tp
    A = 0
    B = 0
    tp = (tau1*tau2)/(tau2-tau1) * log(tau2/tau1)
    factor = -exp(-tp/tau1) + exp(-tp/tau2)
    factor = 1/factor
    tau1 = tau1/q
    tau2 = tau2/q

    SOLVE state METHOD cnexp
    g = B - A
    i = modulation(f_gaba)*g*(v - e)

    A' = -A/tau1
    B' = -B/tau2

NET_RECEIVE(weight (uS), y, z, u, tsyn (ms)) {
        y = 0
        z = 0
        u = u0
        tsyn = t
    z = z*exp(-(t-tsyn)/tauR)
    z = z + (y*(exp(-(t-tsyn)/tau) - exp(-(t-tsyn)/tauR)) / (tau/tauR - 1) )
    y = y*exp(-(t-tsyn)/tau)
    x = 1-y-z
    if (tauF > 0) {
        u = u*exp(-(t-tsyn)/tauF)
        u = u + U*(1-u)
    } else {
        u = U
    A = A + weight*factor*x*u
    B = B + weight*factor*x*u
    y = y + x*u
    tsyn = t

FUNCTION modulation(modFact) {
    : returns modulation factor
    modulation = 1 + modFact * (pka - base)


Implementation of GABA_A synapse model with short-term facilitation
and depression based on modified tmgsyn.mod [1] by Tsodyks et al [2].
Choice of time constants follows [3].  NEURON implementation by Alexander
Kozlov <>.

[1] tmgsyn.mod, ModelDB (,
accession number 3815.

[2] Tsodyks M, Uziel A, Markram H (2000) Synchrony generation in recurrent
networks with frequency-dependent synapses. J Neurosci. 20(1):RC50.

[3] Wolf JA, Moyer JT, Lazarewicz MT, Contreras D, Benoit-Marand M,
O'Donnell P, Finkel LH (2005) NMDA/AMPA ratio impacts state transitions
and entrainment to oscillations in a computational model of the nucleus
accumbens medium spiny projection neuron. J Neurosci 25(40):9080-95.