" ... This paper studies neuromuscular mechanisms
behind upright stance control by means of a biologically based
large-scale neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) model.
It encompasses: i) conductance-based spinal neuron models (motor
neurons and interneurons); ii) muscle proprioceptor models (spindle
and Golgi tendon organ) providing sensory afferent feedback; iii)
Hill-type muscle models of the leg plantar and dorsiflexors; and iv)
an inverted pendulum model for the body biomechanics during upright
The motor neuron pools are driven by stochastic spike
trains. Simulation results showed that the neuromechanical outputs
generated by the NMS model resemble experimental data from subjects
standing on a stable surface.
Elias LA, Watanabe RN, Kohn AF (2014) Spinal mechanisms may provide a combination of intermittent and continuous control of human posture: predictions from a biologically based neuromusculoskeletal model. PLoS Comput Biol 10:e1003944 [PubMed]