Circuits that contain the Model Concept : Development

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    Models   Description
1. Development and Binocular Matching of Orientation Selectivity in Visual Cortex (Xu et al 2020)
This model investigates the development of orientation selectivity and its binocular matching in visual cortex by implementing a neuron that has plastic synapses for its inputs from the left and right eye. The plasticity is taken to be voltage-based with homeostasis (Clopath et al 2010). The neuron is modeled as an adaptive exponential integrate-fire neuron. The uploaded model has been used in Xu, Cang & Riecke (2020) to analyze the impact of ocular dominance and orientation selectivity on the matching process. There it has been found that the matching can proceed by a slow shifting or a sudden switching of the preferred orientation.
2. Development of orientation-selective simple cell receptive fields (Rishikesh and Venkatesh, 2003)
Implementation of a computational model for the development of simple-cell receptive fields spanning the regimes before and after eye-opening. The before eye-opening period is governed by a correlation-based rule from Miller (Miller, J. Neurosci., 1994), and the post eye-opening period is governed by a self-organizing, experience-dependent dynamics derived in the reference below.
3. Disrupted information processing in Fmr1-KO mouse layer 4 barrel cortex (Domanski et al 2019)
"Sensory hypersensitivity is a common and debilitating feature of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). How developmental changes in neuronal function culminate in network dysfunction that underlies sensory hypersensitivities is unknown. By systematically studying cellular and synaptic properties of layer 4 neurons combined with cellular and network simulations, we explored how the array of phenotypes in Fmr1-knockout (KO) mice produce circuit pathology during development. We show that many of the cellular and synaptic pathologies in Fmr1-KO mice are antagonistic, mitigating circuit dysfunction, and hence may be compensatory to the primary pathology. Overall, the layer 4 network in the Fmr1-KO exhibits significant alterations in spike output in response to thalamocortical input and distorted sensory encoding. This developmental loss of layer 4 sensory encoding precision would contribute to subsequent developmental alterations in layer 4-to-layer 2/3 connectivity and plasticity observed in Fmr1-KO mice, and circuit dysfunction underlying sensory hypersensitivity."
4. Late emergence of the whisker direction selectivity map in rat barrel cortex (Kremer et al. 2011)
"... We discovered that the emergence of a direction map in rat barrel cortex occurs long after all known critical periods in the somatosensory system. This map is remarkably specific, taking a pinwheel-like form centered near the barrel center and aligned to the barrel cortex somatotopy. We suggest that this map may arise from intracortical mechanisms and demonstrate by simulation that the combination of spike-timing-dependent plasticity at synapses between layer 4 and layer 2/3 and realistic pad stimulation is sufficient to produce such a map. ..."
5. Mechanisms for stable, robust, and adaptive development of orientation maps (Stevens et al. 2013)
GCAL (Gain Control, Adaptation, Laterally connected). Simple but robust single-population V1 orientation map model.
6. Medial reticular formation of the brainstem: anatomy and dynamics (Humphries et al. 2006, 2007)
A set of models to study the medial reticular formation (mRF) of the brainstem. We developed a collection of algorithms to derive the adult-state wiring of the model: one set a stochastic model; the other set mimicking the developmental process. We found that the anatomical models had small-world properties, irrespective of the choice of algorithm; and that the cluster-like organisation of the mRF may have arisen to minimise wiring costs. (The model code includes options to be run as dynamic models; papers examining these dynamics are included in the .zip file).
7. Modeling hebbian and homeostatic plasticity (Toyoizumi et al. 2014)
"... We propose a model in which synaptic strength is the product of a synapse-specific Hebbian factor and a postsynaptic- cell-specific homeostatic factor, with each factor separately arriving at a stable inactive state. This model captures ODP dynamics and has plausible biophysical substrates. We confirm model predictions experimentally that plasticity is inactive at stable states and that synaptic strength overshoots during recovery from visual deprivation. ..."
8. pre-Bötzinger complex variability (Fietkiewicz et al. 2016)
" ... Based on experimental observations, we developed a computational model that can be embedded in more comprehensive models of respiratory and cardiovascular autonomic control. Our simulation results successfully reproduce the variability we observed experimentally. The in silico model suggests that age-dependent variability may be due to a developmental increase in mean synaptic conductance between preBötC neurons. We also used simulations to explore the effects of stochastic spiking in sensory relay neurons. Our results suggest that stochastic spiking may actually stabilize modulation of both respiratory rate and its variability when the rate changes due to physiological demand. "
9. Quantitative assessment of computational models for retinotopic map formation (Hjorth et al. 2015)
"Molecular and activity-based cues acting together are thought to guide retinal axons to their terminal sites in vertebrate optic tectum or superior colliculus (SC) to form an ordered map of connections. The details of mechanisms involved, and the degree to which they might interact, are still not well understood. We have developed a framework within which existing computational models can be assessed in an unbiased and quantitative manner against a set of experimental data curated from the mouse retinocollicular system. ..."
10. Relative spike time coding and STDP-based orientation selectivity in V1 (Masquelier 2012)
Phenomenological spiking model of the cat early visual system. We show how natural vision can drive spike time correlations on sufficiently fast time scales to lead to the acquisition of orientation-selective V1 neurons through STDP. This is possible without reference times such as stimulus onsets, or saccade landing times. But even when such reference times are available, we demonstrate that the relative spike times encode the images more robustly than the absolute ones.
11. SCN1A gain-of-function in early infantile encephalopathy (Berecki et al 2019)
"OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the biophysical basis underlying the distinct and severe clinical presentation in patients with the recurrent missense SCN1A variant, p.Thr226Met. Patients with this variant show a well-defined genotype-phenotype correlation and present with developmental and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy that is far more severe than typical SCN1A Dravet syndrome. METHODS: Whole cell patch clamp and dynamic action potential clamp were used to study T226M Nav 1.1 channels expressed in mammalian cells. Computational modeling was used to explore the neuronal scale mechanisms that account for altered action potential firing. RESULTS: T226M channels exhibited hyperpolarizing shifts of the activation and inactivation curves and enhanced fast inactivation. Dynamic action potential clamp hybrid simulation showed that model neurons containing T226M conductance displayed a left shift in rheobase relative to control. At current stimulation levels that produced repetitive action potential firing in control model neurons, depolarization block and cessation of action potential firing occurred in T226M model neurons. Fully computationally simulated neuron models recapitulated the findings from dynamic action potential clamp and showed that heterozygous T226M models were also more susceptible to depolarization block. ..."
12. Simulated cortical color opponent receptive fields self-organize via STDP (Eguchi et al., 2014)
"... In this work, we address the problem of understanding the cortical processing of color information with a possible mechanism of the development of the patchy distribution of color selectivity via computational modeling. ... Our model of the early visual system consists of multiple topographically-arranged layers of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, with sparse intra-layer connectivity and feed-forward connectivity between layers. Layers are arranged based on anatomy of early visual pathways, and include a retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and layered neocortex. ... After training with natural images, the neurons display heightened sensitivity to specific colors. ..."
13. Spiking GridPlaceMap model (Pilly & Grossberg, PLoS One, 2013)
Development of spiking grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system to represent positions in large spaces
14. Universal feature of developing networks (Tabak et al 2010)
"Spontaneous episodic activity is a fundamental mode of operation of developing networks. Surprisingly, the duration of an episode of activity correlates with the length of the silent interval that precedes it, but not with the interval that follows. ... We thus developed simple models incorporating excitatory coupling between heterogeneous neurons and activity-dependent synaptic depression. These models robustly generated episodic activity with the correct correlation pattern. The correlation pattern resulted from episodes being triggered at random levels of recovery from depression while they terminated around the same level of depression. To explain this fundamental difference between episode onset and termination, we used a mean field model, where only average activity and average level of recovery from synaptic depression are considered. ... This work further shows that networks with widely different architectures, different cell types, and different functions all operate according to the same general mechanism early in their development."

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