Striatal D1R medium spiny neuron, including a subcellular DA cascade (Lindroos et al 2018)

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We are investigating how dopaminergic modulation of single channels can be combined to make the D1R possitive MSN more excitable. We also connect multiple channels to substrates of a dopamine induced subcellular cascade to highlight that the classical pathway is too slow to explain DA induced kinetics in the subsecond range (Howe and Dombeck, 2016. doi: 10.1038/nature18942)
1 . Lindroos R, Dorst MC, Du K, Filipovic M, Keller D, Ketzef M, Kozlov AK, Kumar A, Lindahl M, Nair AG, Pérez-Fernández J, Grillner S, Silberberg G, Hellgren Kotaleski J (2018) Basal Ganglia Neuromodulation Over Multiple Temporal and Structural Scales-Simulations of Direct Pathway MSNs Investigate the Fast Onset of Dopaminergic Effects and Predict the Role of Kv4.2. Front Neural Circuits 12:3 [PubMed]
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Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Axon; Channel/Receptor; Dendrite; Molecular Network; Synapse; Neuron or other electrically excitable cell;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Basal ganglia; Striatum;
Cell Type(s): Neostriatum medium spiny direct pathway GABA cell; Neostriatum spiny neuron;
Channel(s): I A; I A, slow; I Calcium; I CAN; I K; I K,Ca; I K,leak; I Krp; I Na,t; I Potassium; I R; I T low threshold; Kir;
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): D1; Dopaminergic Receptor; AMPA; Gaba; NMDA;
Transmitter(s): Dopamine; Gaba; Glutamate;
Simulation Environment: NEURON; Python;
Model Concept(s): Action Potentials; Detailed Neuronal Models; Electrical-chemical; G-protein coupled; Membrane Properties; Neuromodulation; Multiscale; Synaptic noise;
Implementer(s): Lindroos, Robert [robert.lindroos at]; Du, Kai [kai.du at]; Keller, Daniel ; Kozlov, Alexander [akozlov at];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Neostriatum medium spiny direct pathway GABA cell; D1; AMPA; NMDA; Gaba; Dopaminergic Receptor; I Na,t; I T low threshold; I A; I K; I K,leak; I K,Ca; I CAN; I Calcium; I Potassium; I A, slow; I Krp; I R; Kir; Dopamine; Gaba; Glutamate;
TITLE Calcium dynamics for L and T calcium pool

    SUFFIX caldyn
    USEION cal READ ical, cali WRITE cali VALENCE 2
    RANGE pump, cainf, taur, drive

    (molar) = (1/liter) 
    (mM) = (millimolar)
    (um) = (micron)
    (mA) = (milliamp)
    (msM) = (ms mM)
    FARADAY = (faraday) (coulomb)

    drive = 10000 (1)
    depth = 0.1 (um)
    cainf = 10e-6 (mM)
    taur = 43 (ms)
    kt = 1e-4 (mM/ms)
    kd = 1e-4 (mM)
    pump = 0.02

STATE { cali (mM) }

INITIAL { cali = cainf }

    ical (mA/cm2)
    drive_channel (mM/ms)
    drive_pump (mM/ms)
    SOLVE state METHOD cnexp

    drive_channel = -drive*ical/(2*FARADAY*depth)
    if (drive_channel <= 0.) { drive_channel = 0. }
    drive_pump = -kt*cali/(cali+kd)
    cali' = (drive_channel+pump*drive_pump+(cainf-cali)/taur)


Original NEURON model by Wolf (2005) and Destexhe (1992).  Adaptation by
Alexander Kozlov <>.

[1] Wolf JA, Moyer JT, Lazarewicz MT, Contreras D, Benoit-Marand M,
O'Donnell P, Finkel LH (2005) NMDA/AMPA ratio impacts state transitions
and entrainment to oscillations in a computational model of the nucleus
accumbens medium spiny projection neuron. J Neurosci 25(40):9080-95.