Most animal species operate according to a 24-hour period set by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The rhythmic activity of the SCN modulates hippocampal-dependent memory, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms that account for this effect remain largely unknown. In McCauley et al. 2020 , we identify cell-type specific structural and functional changes that occur with circadian rhythmicity in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal area CA1. Pyramidal neurons change the surface expression of NMDA receptors. Astrocytes change their proximity clustered excitatory synaptic inputs, ultimately shaping hippocampal-dependent learning in vivo. We identify to synapses. Together, these phenomena alter glutamate clearance, receptor activation and integration of temporally corticosterone as a key contributor to changes in synaptic strength. These findings highlight important mechanisms through which neurons and astrocytes modify the molecular composition and structure of the synaptic environment, contribute to the local storage of information in the hippocampus and alter the temporal dynamics of cognitive processing.
 "Circadian modulation of neurons and astrocytes controls synaptic plasticity in hippocampal area CA1" by J.P. McCauley, M.A. Petroccione, L.Y. D’Brant, G.C. Todd, N. Affinnih, J.J. Wisnoski, S. Zahid, S. Shree, A.A. Sousa, R.M. De Guzman, R. Migliore, A. Brazhe, R.D. Leapman, A. Khmaladze, A. Semyanov, D.G. Zuloaga, M. Migliore and A. Scimemi.
Cell Reports (2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108255
McCauley JP, Petroccione MA, D'Brant LY, Todd GC, Affinnih N, Wisnoski JJ, Zahid S, Shree S, Sousa AA, De Guzman RM, Migliore R, Brazhe A, Leapman RD, Khmaladze A, Semyanov A, Zuloaga DG, Migliore M, Scimemi A (2020) Circadian Modulation of Neurons and Astrocytes Controls Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampal Area CA1. Cell Rep 33:108255 [PubMed]