Models that contain the Modeling Application : GENESIS (Home Page)

(GENESIS (short for GEneral NEural SImulation System) is a general purpose simulation platform which was developed to support the simulation of neural systems ranging from complex models of single neurons to simulations of large networks made up of more abstract neuronal components. GENESIS has provided the basis for laboratory courses in neural simulation at both Caltech and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA, as well as many other institutions. Most current GENESIS applications involve realistic simulations of biological neural systems. Although the software can also model more abstract networks, other simulators are more suitable for backpropagation and similar connectionist modeling.)
Re-display model names without descriptions
    Models   Description
1. 5-neuron-model of neocortex for producing realistic extracellular AP shapes (Van Dijck et al. 2012)
This is a 5-neuron model of neocortex, containing one tufted layer-5 pyramidal cell, two non-tufted pyramidal cells, and two inhibitory interneurons. It was used to reproduce extracellular spike shapes in a study comparing algorithms for spike sorting and electrode selection. The neuron models are adapted from Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen et al. (2005).
2. A kinetic model of dopamine- and calcium-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity (Nakano et al. 2010)
A signaling pathway model of spines that express D1-type dopamine receptors was constructed to analyze the dynamic mechanisms of dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. The model incorporated all major signaling molecules, including dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with a molecular weight of 32 kDa (DARPP32), as well as AMPA receptor trafficking in the post-synaptic membrane. Simulations with dopamine and calcium inputs reproduced dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. Further in silico experiments revealed that the positive feedback loop consisted of protein kinase A (PKA), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and the phosphorylation site at threonine 75 of DARPP-32 (Thr75) served as the major switch for inducing LTD and LTP. The present model elucidated the mechanisms involved in bidirectional regulation of corticostriatal synapses and will allow for further exploration into causes and therapies for dysfunctions such as drug addiction."
3. A multilayer cortical model to study seizure propagation across microdomains (Basu et al. 2015)
A realistic neural network was used to simulate a region of neocortex to obtain extracellular LFPs from ‘virtual micro-electrodes’ and produce test data for comparison with multisite microelectrode recordings. A model was implemented in the GENESIS neurosimulator. A simulated region of cortex was represented by layers 2/3, 5/6 (interneurons and pyramidal cells) and layer 4 stelate cells, spaced at 25 µm in each horizontal direction. Pyramidal cells received AMPA and NMDA inputs from neighboring cells at the basal and apical dendrites. The LFP data was generated by simulating 16-site electrode array with the help of ‘efield’ objects arranged at the predetermined positions with respect to the surface of the simulated network. The LFP for the model is derived from a weighted average of the current sources summed over all cellular compartments. Cell models were taken from from Traub et al. (2005) J Neurophysiol 93(4):2194-232.
4. Activity dependent changes in motoneurones (Dai Y et al 2002, Gardiner et al 2002)
These two papers review various experimental papers and examine the effects of activity on motoneurons in a similar 5 compartment model with 10 active conductances. Included are slow (S) and fast (F) type and fast fatigue resistant (FR) and fast fatigable (FF) models corresponding to the types of motoneurons. See papers for more and details.
5. Auditory cortex layer IV network model (Beeman 2013)
"... The primary objective of this modeling study was to determine the effects of axonal conduction velocity (often neglected, but significant), as well as synaptic time constants, on the ability of such a network to create and propagate cortical waves. ... The model is also being used to study the interaction between single and two-tone input and normal background activity, and the effects of synaptic depression from thalamic inputs. The simulation scripts have the additional purpose of serving as tutorial examples for the construction of cortical networks with GENESIS. The present model has fostered the development of the G-3 Python network analysis and visualization tools used in this study... It is my hope that this short tutorial and the example simulation scripts can provide a head start for a graduate student or postdoc who is beginning a cortical modeling project. "
6. Brain networks simulators - a comparative study (Tikidji-Hamburyan et al 2017)
" ... In this article, we select the three most popular simulators, as determined by the number of models in the ModelDB database, such as NEURON, GENESIS, and BRIAN, and perform an independent evaluation of these simulators. In addition, we study NEST, one of the lead simulators of the Human Brain Project. First, we study them based on one of the most important characteristics, the range of supported models. Our investigation reveals that brain network simulators may be biased toward supporting a specific set of models. ... we carry out an evaluation using two case studies: a large network with simplified neural and synaptic models and a small network with detailed models. These two case studies allow us to avoid any bias toward a particular software package ..."
7. Calcium influx during striatal upstates (Evans et al. 2013)
"... To investigate the mechanisms that underlie the relationship between calcium and AP timing, we have developed a realistic biophysical model of a medium spiny neuron (MSN). ... Using this model, we found that either the slow inactivation of dendritic sodium channels (NaSI) or the calcium inactivation of voltage-gated calcium channels (CDI) can cause high calcium corresponding to early APs and lower calcium corresponding to later APs. We found that only CDI can account for the experimental observation that sensitivity to AP timing is dependent on NMDA receptors. Additional simulations demonstrated a mechanism by which MSNs can dynamically modulate their sensitivity to AP timing and show that sensitivity to specifically timed pre- and postsynaptic pairings (as in spike timing-dependent plasticity protocols) is altered by the timing of the pairing within the upstate. …"
8. Cerebellar granular layer (Maex and De Schutter 1998)
Circuit model of the granular layer representing a one-dimensional array of single-compartmental granule cells (grcs) and Golgi cells (Gocs). This paper examines the effects of feedback inhibition (grc -> Goc -> grc) versus feedforward inhibition (mossy fibre -> Goc -> grc) on synchronization and oscillatory behaviour.
9. Cerebellar Nucleus Neuron (Steuber, Schultheiss, Silver, De Schutter & Jaeger, 2010)
This is the GENESIS 2.3 implementation of a multi-compartmental deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN) neuron model with a full dendritic morphology and appropriate active conductances. We generated a good match of our simulations with DCN current clamp data we recorded in acute slices, including the heterogeneity in the rebound responses. We then examined how inhibitory and excitatory synaptic input interacted with these intrinsic conductances to control DCN firing. We found that the output spiking of the model reflected the ongoing balance of excitatory and inhibitory input rates and that changing the level of inhibition performed an additive operation. Rebound firing following strong Purkinje cell input bursts was also possible, but only if the chloride reversal potential was more negative than -70 mV to allow de-inactivation of rebound currents. Fast rebound bursts due to T-type calcium current and slow rebounds due to persistent sodium current could be differentially regulated by synaptic input, and the pattern of these rebounds was further influenced by HCN current. Our findings suggest that active properties of DCN neurons could play a crucial role for signal processing in the cerebellum.
10. Cerebellar purkinje cell (De Schutter and Bower 1994)
Tutorial simulation of a cerebellar Purkinje cell. This tutorial is based upon a GENESIS simulation of a cerebellar Purkinje cell, modeled and fine-tuned by Erik de Schutter. The tutorial assumes that you have a basic knowledge of the Purkinje cell and its synaptic inputs. It gives visual insight in how different properties as concentrations and channel conductances vary and interact within a real Purkinje cell.
11. Comparison of full and reduced globus pallidus models (Hendrickson 2010)
In this paper, we studied what features of realistic full model activity patterns can and cannot be preserved by morphologically reduced models. To this end, we reduced the morphological complexity of a full globus pallidus neuron model possessing active dendrites and compared its spontaneous and driven responses to those of the reduced models.
12. Dendritic processing of excitatory synaptic input in GnRH neurons (Roberts et al. 2006)
"... we used electrophysiological recordings and neuronal reconstructions to generate computer models of (Gonadotopin-Releasing Hormone) GnRH neurons to examine the effects of synaptic inputs at varying distances from the soma along dendrites. ... analysis of reduced morphology models indicated that this population of cells is unlikely to exhibit low-frequency tonic spiking in the absence of synaptic input. ... applying realistic patterns of synaptic input to modeled GnRH neurons indicates that synapses located more than about 30% of the average dendrite length from the soma cannot drive firing at frequencies consistent with neuropeptide release. Thus, processing of synaptic input to dendrites of GnRH neurons is probably more complex than simple summation."
13. Firing patterns in stuttering fast-spiking interneurons (Klaus et al. 2011)
This is a morphologically extended version of the fast-spiking interneuron by Golomb et al. (2007). The model captures the stuttering firing pattern and subthreshold oscillations in response to step current input as observed in many cortical and striatal fast-spiking cells.
14. FS Striatal interneuron: K currents solve signal-to-noise problems (Kotaleski et al 2006)
... We show that a transient potassium (KA) current allows the Fast Spiking (FS) interneuron to strike a balance between sensitivity to correlated input and robustness to noise, thereby increasing its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). First, a compartmental FS neuron model was created to match experimental data from striatal FS interneurons in cortex–striatum–substantia nigra organotypic cultures. Densities of sodium, delayed rectifier, and KA channels were optimized to replicate responses to somatic current injection. Spontaneous AMPA and GABA synaptic currents were adjusted to the experimentally measured amplitude, rise time, and interevent interval histograms. Second, two additional adjustments were required to emulate the remaining experimental observations. GABA channels were localized closer to the soma than AMPA channels to match the synaptic population reversal potential. Correlation among inputs was required to produce the observed firing rate during up-states. In this final model, KA channels were essential for suppressing down-state spikes while allowing reliable spike generation during up-states. ... Our results suggest that KA channels allow FS interneurons to operate without a decrease in SNR during conditions of increased dopamine, as occurs in response to reward or anticipated reward. See paper for more and details.
15. Gap junction coupled network of striatal fast spiking interneurons (Hjorth et al. 2009)
Gap junctions between striatal FS neurons has very weak ability to synchronise spiking. Input uncorrelated between neighbouring neurons is shunted, while correlated input is not.
16. Gating of steering signals through phasic modulation of reticulospinal neurons (Kozlov et al. 2014)
" ... We use the lamprey as a model for investigating the role of this phasic modulation of the reticulospinal activity, because the brainstem–spinal cord networks are known down to the cellular level in this phylogenetically oldest extant vertebrate. We describe how the phasic modulation of reticulospinal activity from the spinal CPG ensures reliable steering/turning commands without the need for a very precise timing of on- or offset, by using a biophysically detailed large-scale (19,600 model neurons and 646,800 synapses) computational model of the lamprey brainstem–spinal cord network. To verify that the simulated neural network can control body movements, including turning, the spinal activity is fed to a mechanical model of lamprey swimming. ..."
17. Globus pallidus multi-compartmental model neuron with realistic morphology (Gunay et al. 2008)
"Globus pallidus (GP) neurons recorded in brain slices show significant variability in intrinsic electrophysiological properties. To investigate how this variability arises, we manipulated the biophysical properties of GP neurons using computer simulations. ... Our results indicated that most of the experimental variability could be matched by varying conductance densities, which we confirmed with additional partial block experiments. Further analysis resulted in two key observations: (1) each voltage-gated conductance had effects on multiple measures such as action potential waveform and spontaneous or stimulated spike rates; and (2) the effect of each conductance was highly dependent on the background context of other conductances present. In some cases, such interactions could reverse the effect of the density of one conductance on important excitability measures. ..."
18. Globus pallidus neuron models with differing dendritic Na channel expression (Edgerton et al., 2010)
A set of 9 multi-compartmental rat GP neuron models (585 compartments) differing only in their expression of dendritic fast sodium channels were compared in their synaptic integration properties. Dendritic fast sodium channels were found to increase the importance of distal synapses (both excitatory AND inhibitory), increase spike timing variability with in vivo-like synaptic input, and make the model neurons highly sensitive to clustered synchronous excitation.
19. GP Neuron, somatic and dendritic phase response curves (Schultheiss et al. 2011)
Phase response analysis of a GP neuron model showing type I PRCs for somatic inputs and type II PRCs for dendritic excitation. Analysis of intrinsic currents underlying type II dendritic PRCs.
20. Granule Cells of the Olfactory Bulb (Simoes_De_Souza et al. 2014)
Electrical responses of three classes of granule cells of the olfactory bulb to synaptic activation in different dendritic locations. The constructed models were based on morphological detailed compartmental reconstructions of three granule cell classes of the olfactory bulb with active dendrites described by Bhalla and Bower (J. Neurophysiol. 69: 1948-1965, 1993) and dendritic spine distributions described by Woolf et al. (J. Neurosci. 11: 1837-1854, 1991). The computational studies with the model neurons showed that different quantities of spines have to be activated in each dendritic region to induce an action potential, which always was originated in the active terminal dendrites, independently of the location of the stimuli and the morphology of the dendritic tree.
21. Hippocampal CA3 network and circadian regulation (Stanley et al. 2013)
This model produces the hippocampal CA3 neural network model used in the paper below. It has two modes of operation, a default mode and a circadian mode. In the circadian mode, parameters are swept through a range of values. This model can be quite easily adapted to produce theta and gamma oscillations, as certain parameter sweeps will reveal (see Figures). BASH scripts interact with GENESIS 2.3 to implement parameter sweeps. The model contains four cell types derived from prior papers. CA3 pyramidal are derived from Traub et al (1991); Basket, stratum oriens (O-LM), and Medial Septal GABAergic (MSG) interneurons are taken from Hajos et al (2004).
22. Lamprey spinal CPG neuron (Huss et al. 2007)
This is a model of a generic locomotor network neuron in the lamprey spinal cord. The given version is assumed to correspond to an interneuron; motoneurons can also be modelled by changing the dendritic tree morphology.
23. Leech Heart (HE) Motor Neuron conductances contributions to NN activity (Lamb & Calabrese 2013)
"... To explore the relationship between conductances, and in particular how they influence the activity of motor neurons in the well characterized leech heartbeat system, we developed a new multi-compartmental Hodgkin-Huxley style leech heart motor neuron model. To do so, we evolved a population of model instances, which differed in the density of specific conductances, capable of achieving specific output activity targets given an associated input pattern. ... We found that the strengths of many conductances, including those with differing dynamics, had strong partial correlations and that these relationships appeared to be linked by their influence on heart motor neuron activity. Conductances that had positive correlations opposed one another and had the opposite effects on activity metrics when perturbed whereas conductances that had negative correlations could compensate for one another and had similar effects on activity metrics. "
24. Leech heart interneuron network model (Hill et al 2001, 2002)
We have created a computational model of the timing network that paces the heartbeat of the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis. In the intact nerve cord, segmental oscillators are mutually entrained to the same cycle period. Although experiments have shown that the segmental oscillators are coupled by inhibitory coordinating interneurons, the underlying mechanisms of intersegmental coordination have not yet been elucidated. To help understand this coordination, we have created a simple computational model with two variants: symmetric and asymmetric. See references for more details. Biologically realistic network models with two, six, and eight cells and a tutorial are available at the links to Calabrese's web site below.
25. Modulation of septo-hippocampal theta activity by GABAA receptors (Hajos et al. 2004)
Theta frequency oscillation of the septo-hippocampal system has been considered as a prominent activity associated with cognitive function and affective processes. ... In the present experiments we applied a combination of computational and physiological techniques to explore the functional role of GABAA receptors in theta oscillation. ... In parallel to these experimental observations, a computational model has been constructed by implementing a septal GABA neuron model with a CA1 hippocampal model containing three types of neurons (including oriens and basket interneurons and pyramidal cells; latter modeled by multicompartmental techniques; for detailed model description with network parameters see online addendum: http://geza.kzoo.edu/theta). This connectivity made the network capable of simulating the responses of the septo-hippocampal circuitry to the modulation of GABAA transmission, and the presently described computational model proved suitable to reveal several aspects of pharmacological modulation of GABAA receptors. In addition, computational findings indicated different roles of distinctively located GABAA receptors in theta generation.
26. Multiscale interactions between chemical and electric signaling in LTP (Bhalla 2011)
"Synaptic plasticity leads to long-term changes in excitability, whereas cellular homeostasis maintains excitability. Both these processes involve interactions between molecular events, electrical events, and network activity. Here I explore these intersections with a multilevel model that embeds molecular events following synaptic calcium influx into a multicompartmental electrical model of a CA1 hippocampal neuron. ..."
27. Networks of spiking neurons: a review of tools and strategies (Brette et al. 2007)
This package provides a series of codes that simulate networks of spiking neurons (excitatory and inhibitory, integrate-and-fire or Hodgkin-Huxley type, current-based or conductance-based synapses; some of them are event-based). The same networks are implemented in different simulators (NEURON, GENESIS, NEST, NCS, CSIM, XPP, SPLIT, MVAspike; there is also a couple of implementations in SciLab and C++). The codes included in this package are benchmark simulations; see the associated review paper (Brette et al. 2007). The main goal is to provide a series of benchmark simulations of networks of spiking neurons, and demonstrate how these are implemented in the different simulators overviewed in the paper. See also details in the enclosed file Appendix2.pdf, which describes these different benchmarks. Some of these benchmarks were based on the Vogels-Abbott model (Vogels TP and Abbott LF 2005).
28. NMDA subunit effects on Calcium and STDP (Evans et al. 2012)
Effect of NMDA subunit on spike timing dependent plasticity.
29. Parameter estimation for Hodgkin-Huxley based models of cortical neurons (Lepora et al. 2011)
Simulation and fitting of two-compartment (active soma, passive dendrite) for different classes of cortical neurons. The fitting technique indirectly matches neuronal currents derived from somatic membrane potential data rather than fitting the voltage traces directly. The method uses an analytic solution for the somatic ion channel maximal conductances given approximate models of the channel kinetics, membrane dynamics and dendrite. This approach is tested on model-derived data for various cortical neurons.
30. Periodicity in Na channel properties alters model neuron excitability (Majumdar and Sikdar 2007)
"... We have shown earlier that the duration and amplitude of a prolonged depolarization alter all the steady state and kinetic parameters of rNav1.2a voltage gated Na channel in a pseudo-oscillatory fashion. In the present study, we show that the Hodgkin–Huxley voltage and time dependent rate constants of activation (am and bm) and fast inactivation (ah and bh), obtained from the analyses of Na currents and steady state activation and inactivation plots, following application of prepulses in both slow (1–100 s) and fast (100–1000 ms) ranges, vary with the duration of a prepulse in a pseudo-oscillatory manner. ..."
31. Pyramidal Neuron Deep: Constrained by experiment (Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen et al. 2005)
"... As a practical demonstration of the use of CoCoDat we constructed a detailed computer model of an intrinsically bursting (IB) layer V pyramidal neuron from the rat barrel cortex supplementing experimental data (Schubert et al., 2001) with information extracted from the database. The pyramidal neuron morphology (Fig. 10B) was reconstructed from histological sections of a biocytin-stained IB neuron using the NeuroLucida software package..."
32. Robust transmission in the inhibitory Purkinje Cell to Cerebellar Nuclei pathway (Abbasi et al 2017)
33. Specific inhibition of dendritic plateau potential in striatal projection neurons (Du et al 2017)
We explored dendritic plateau potentials in a biophysically detailed SPN model. We coupled the dendritic plateaus to different types of inhibitions (dendritic fast and slow inhibitions, perisomatic inhibition from FS interneurons , etc.) We found the inhibition provides precise control over the plateau potential, and thus the spiking output of SPNs.
34. Striatal NN model of MSNs and FSIs investigated effects of dopamine depletion (Damodaran et al 2015)
This study investigates the mechanisms that are affected in the striatal network after dopamine depletion and identifies potential therapeutic targets to restore normal activity.
35. Striatal Spiny Projection Neuron (SPN) plasticity rule (Jedrzejewska-Szmek et al 2016)
36. Synaptic integration of an identified nonspiking interneuron in crayfish (Takashima et al 2006)
This GENESIS simulation shows how a single or compound excitatory synaptic potential evoked by mechanosensory stimulation spreads over the dendrites of the LDS interneuron that is one of the identified nonspiking interneurons in the central nervous system of crayfish Procambarus clarkii. The model is based on physiological experiments carried out by Akira Takashima using single-electrode voltage clamp techniques and also 3-D morphometry of the interneuron carried out by Ryou Hikosaka using confocal laser scanning microscopic techniques. The physiological and morphological studies were coordinated by Masakazu Takahata.
37. Synchronicity of fast-spiking interneurons balances medium-spiny neurons (Damodaran et al. 2014)
This study investigates the role of feedforward and feedback inhibition in maintaining the balance between D1 and D2 MSNs of the striatum. The synchronized firing of FSIs are found to be critical in this mechanism and specifically the gap junction connections between FSIs.
38. Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006)
This is a model of the visual cortex of freshwater turtles that is based upon the known anatomy and physiology of individual neurons. The model was published in three papers (Nenadic et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2006), which should be consulted for full details on its construction. The model has also been used in several papers (Robbins and Senseman, 2004; Du et al., 2005; Du et al., 2006). It is implemented in GENESIS (Bower and Beeman, 1998).
39. VTA dopamine neuron (Tarfa, Evans, and Khaliq 2017)
In our model of a midbrain VTA dopamine neuron, we show that the decay kinetics of the A-type potassium current can control the timing of rebound action potentials.

Re-display model names without descriptions