Models that contain the Model Type : Synapse

Re-display model names without descriptions
    Models   Description
1. Earthworm medial giant fiber conduction velocity across electrical synapses (Heller, Crisp 2016)
The earthworm medial giant fiber (MGF) is composed of many neurons electrically coupled by high fidelity gap junctions. In addition, the MGF exhibits a distinct taper in diameter from anterior to posterior. The role of these gap junctions and their interaction with axonal taper in predicting conduction velocity has not been studied closely in the annelid. A model of an electrical synapse in the MGF was created to investigate the influence of, and interaction between, these two parameters.
2. A 1000 cell network model for Lateral Amygdala (Kim et al. 2013)
1000 Cell Lateral Amygdala model for investigation of plasticity and memory storage during Pavlovian Conditioning.
3. A computational approach/model to explore NMDA receptors functions (Keller et al 2017)
"... Here, we describe a general computational method aiming at developing kinetic Markov-chain based models of NMDARs subtypes capable of reproducing various experimental results. These models are then used to make predictions on additional (non-obvious) properties and on their role in synaptic function under various physiological and pharmacological conditions. For the purpose of this book chapter, we will focus on the method used to develop a NMDAR model that includes pharmacological site of action of different compounds. Notably, this elementary model can subsequently be included in a neuron model (not described in detail here) to explore the impact of their differential distribution on synaptic functions."
4. A dendritic disinhibitory circuit mechanism for pathway-specific gating (Yang et al. 2016)
"While reading a book in a noisy café, how does your brain ‘gate in’ visual information while filtering out auditory stimuli? Here we propose a mechanism for such flexible routing of information flow in a complex brain network (pathway-specific gating), tested using a network model of pyramidal neurons and three classes of interneurons with connection probabilities constrained by data. We find that if inputs from different pathways cluster on a pyramidal neuron dendrite, a pathway can be gated-on by a disinhibitory circuit motif. ..."
5. A dual-Ca2+-sensor model for neurotransmitter release in a central synapse (Sun et al. 2007)
"Ca2+-triggered synchronous neurotransmitter release is well described, but asynchronous release-in fact, its very existence-remains enigmatic. Here we report a quantitative description of asynchronous neurotransmitter release in calyx-of-Held synapses. ... Our results reveal that release triggered in wild-type synapses at low Ca2+ concentrations is physiologically asynchronous, and that asynchronous release completely empties the readily releasable pool of vesicles during sustained elevations of Ca2+. We propose a dual-Ca2+-sensor model of release that quantitatively describes the contributions of synchronous and asynchronous release under conditions of different presynaptic Ca2+ dynamics."
6. A fast model of voltage-dependent NMDA Receptors (Moradi et al. 2013)
These are two or triple-exponential models of the voltage-dependent NMDA receptors. Conductance of these receptors increase voltage-dependently with a "Hodgkin and Huxley-type" gating style that is also depending on glutamate-binding. Time course of the gating of these receptors in response to glutamate are also changing voltage-dependently. Temperature sensitivity and desensitization of these receptor are also taken into account. Three previous kinetic models that are able to simulate the voltage-dependence of the NMDARs are also imported to the NMODL. These models are not temperature sensitive. These models are compatible with the "event delivery system" of NEURON. Parameters that are reported in our paper are applicable to CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites.
7. A kinetic model of dopamine- and calcium-dependent striatal synaptic plasticity (Nakano et al. 2010)
A signaling pathway model of spines that express D1-type dopamine receptors was constructed to analyze the dynamic mechanisms of dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. The model incorporated all major signaling molecules, including dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with a molecular weight of 32 kDa (DARPP32), as well as AMPA receptor trafficking in the post-synaptic membrane. Simulations with dopamine and calcium inputs reproduced dopamine- and calcium-dependent plasticity. Further in silico experiments revealed that the positive feedback loop consisted of protein kinase A (PKA), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and the phosphorylation site at threonine 75 of DARPP-32 (Thr75) served as the major switch for inducing LTD and LTP. The present model elucidated the mechanisms involved in bidirectional regulation of corticostriatal synapses and will allow for further exploration into causes and therapies for dysfunctions such as drug addiction."
8. A kinetic model unifying presynaptic short-term facilitation and depression (Lee et al. 2009)
"... Here, we propose a unified theory of synaptic short-term plasticity based on realistic yet tractable and testable model descriptions of the underlying intracellular biochemical processes. Analysis of the model equations leads to a closed-form solution of the resonance frequency, a function of several critical biophysical parameters, as the single key indicator of the propensity for synaptic facilitation or depression under repetitive stimuli. This integrative model is supported by a broad range of transient and frequency response experimental data including those from facilitating, depressing or mixed-mode synapses. ... the model provides the reasons behind the switching behavior between facilitation and depression observed in experiments. ..."
9. A mathematical model of a neurovascular unit (Dormanns et al 2015, 2016) (Farrs & David 2011)
Here a lumped parameter numerical model of a neurovascular unit is presented, representing an intercellular communication system based on ion exchange through pumps and channels between neurons, astrocytes, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and the spaces between these cells: the synaptic cleft between the neuron and astrocyte, the perivascular space between the astrocyte and SMC, and the extracellular space surrounding the cells. The model contains various cellular and chemical pathways such as potassium, astrocytic calcium, and nitric oxide. The model is able to simulate neurovascular coupling, the process characterised by an increase in neuronal activity followed by a rapid dilation of local blood vessels and hence increased blood supply providing oxygen and glucose to cells in need.
10. A Method for Prediction of Receptor Activation in the Simulation of Synapses (Montes et al. 2013)
A machine-learning based method that can accurately predict relevant aspects of the behavior of synapses, such as the activation of synaptic receptors, at very low computational cost. The method is designed to learn patterns and general principles from previous Monte Carlo simulations and to predict synapse behavior from them. The resulting procedure is accurate, automatic and can predict synapse behavior under experimental conditions that are different to the ones used during the learning phase. Since our method efficiently reduces the computational costs, it is suitable for the simulation of the vast number of synapses that occur in the mammalian brain.
11. A model of cerebellar LTD including RKIP inactivation of Raf and MEK (Hepburn et al 2017)
An updated stochastic model of cerebellar Long Term Depression (LTD) with improved realism. Dissociation of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) from Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and Raf kinase are added to an earlier published model. Calcium dynamics is updated as a constant-rate influx to more closely match experiment. AMPA receptor interactions are improved by adding phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of AMPA receptors when bound to glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP). The model is tuned to reproduce experimental calcium peak vs LTD amplitude curves accurately at 4 different calcium pulse durations.
12. A model of the femur-tibia control system in stick insects (Stein et al. 2008)
We studied the femur-tibia joint control system of the insect leg, and its switch between resistance reflex in posture control and "active reaction" in walking. The "active reaction" is basically a reversal of the resistance reflex. Both responses are elicited by the same sensory input and the same neuronal network (the femur-tibia network). The femur-tibia network was modeled by fitting the responses of model neurons to those obtained in animals. Each implemented neuron has a physiological counterpart. The strengths of 16 interneuronal pathways that integrate sensory input were then assigned three different values and varied independently, generating a database of more than 43 million network variants. The uploaded version contains the model that best represented the resistance reflex. Please see the README for more help. We demonstrate that the combinatorial code of interneuronal pathways determines motor output. A switch between different behaviors such as standing to walking can thus be achieved by altering the strengths of selected sensory integration pathways.
13. A model of unitary responses from A/C and PP synapses in CA3 pyramidal cells (Baker et al. 2010)
The model was used to reproduce experimentally determined mean synaptic response characteristics of unitary AMPA and NMDA synaptic stimulations in CA3 pyramidal cells with the objective of inferring the most likely response properties of the corresponding types of synapses. The model is primarily concerned with passive cells, but models of active dendrites are included.
14. Active dendritic integration in robust and precise grid cell firing (Schmidt-Hieber et al 2017)
"... Whether active dendrites contribute to the generation of the dual temporal and rate codes characteristic of grid cell output is unknown. We show that dendrites of medial entorhinal cortex neurons are highly excitable and exhibit a supralinear input–output function in vitro, while in vivo recordings reveal membrane potential signatures consistent with recruitment of active dendritic conductances. By incorporating these nonlinear dynamics into grid cell models, we show that they can sharpen the precision of the temporal code and enhance the robustness of the rate code, thereby supporting a stable, accurate representation of space under varying environmental conditions. Our results suggest that active dendrites may therefore constitute a key cellular mechanism for ensuring reliable spatial navigation."
15. Active zone model of Ca2+ secretion coupling (Keller et al. 2015)
"... At a large model synapse, the calyx of Held, transmitter release is controlled by several Ca2+ channels in a "domain overlap" mode, at least in young animals. To study the geometrical constraints of Ca2+ channel placement in domain overlap control of release, we used stochastic MCell modelling, at active zones for which the position of docked vesicles was derived from electron microscopy (EM). ..."
16. Adaptation of Short-Term Plasticity parameters (Esposito et al. 2015)
"The anatomical connectivity among neurons has been experimentally found to be largely non-random across brain areas. This means that certain connectivity motifs occur at a higher frequency than would be expected by chance. Of particular interest, short-term synaptic plasticity properties were found to colocalize with specific motifs: an over-expression of bidirectional motifs has been found in neuronal pairs where short-term facilitation dominates synaptic transmission among the neurons, whereas an over-expression of unidirectional motifs has been observed in neuronal pairs where short-term depression dominates. In previous work we found that, given a network with fixed short-term properties, the interaction between short- and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission is sufficient for the emergence of specific motifs. Here, we introduce an error-driven learning mechanism for short-term plasticity that may explain how such observed correspondences develop from randomly initialized dynamic synapses. ..."
17. Amyloid-beta effects on release probability and integration at CA3-CA1 synapses (Romani et al. 2013)
The role of amyloid beta (Aß) in brain function and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease remains elusive. Recent publications reported that an increase in Aß concentration perturbs presynaptic release in hippocampal neurons, in particular by increasing release probability of CA3-CA1 synapses. The model predics how this alteration can affect synaptic plasticity and signal integration. The results suggest that the perturbation of release probability induced by increased Aß can significantly alter the spike probability of CA1 pyramidal neurons and thus contribute to abnormal hippocampal function during Alzheimer’s disease.
18. Application of a common kinetic formalism for synaptic models (Destexhe et al 1994)
Application to AMPA, NMDA, GABAA, and GABAB receptors is given in a book chapter. The reference paper synthesizes a comprehensive general description of synaptic transmission with Markov kinetic models. This framework is applicable to modeling ion channels, synaptic release, and all receptors. Please see the references for more details. A simple introduction to this method is given in a seperate paper Destexhe et al Neural Comput 6:14-18 , 1994). More information and papers at and through email:
19. BCM-like synaptic plasticity with conductance-based models (Narayanan Johnston, 2010)
" ... Although the BCM-like plasticity framework has been a useful formulation to understand synaptic plasticity and metaplasticity, a mechanism for the activity-dependent regulation of this modification threshold has remained an open question. In this simulation study based on CA1 pyramidal cells, we use a modification of the calcium-dependent hypothesis proposed elsewhere and show that a change in the hyperpolarization-activated, nonspecific-cation h current is capable of shifting the modification threshold. ..."
20. Behavioral time scale synaptic plasticity underlies CA1 place fields (Bittner et al. 2017)
" ... Place fields could be produced in vivo in a single trial by potentiation of input that arrived seconds before and after complex spiking.The potentiated synaptic input was not initially coincident with action potentials or depolarization.This rule, named behavioral timescale synaptic plasticity, abruptly modifies inputs that were neither causal nor close in time to postsynaptic activation. ...", " ... To determine if the above plasticity rule could be observed under more realistic model conditions, we constructed and optimized a biophysically detailed model and attempted to fully account for the experimental data. ... "
21. Ca+/HCN channel-dependent persistent activity in multiscale model of neocortex (Neymotin et al 2016)
"Neuronal persistent activity has been primarily assessed in terms of electrical mechanisms, without attention to the complex array of molecular events that also control cell excitability. We developed a multiscale neocortical model proceeding from the molecular to the network level to assess the contributions of calcium regulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels in providing additional and complementary support of continuing activation in the network. ..."
22. CA1 pyramidal neuron dendritic spine with plasticity (O`Donnell et al. 2011)
Biophysical model of a dendritic spine and adjacent dendrite with synapse. Model parameters adjusted to fit CA3-CA1 Shaffer collateral synapse data from literature. Model includes both electrical and Ca2+ dynamics, including AMPARs, NMDARs, 4 types of CaV channel, and leak conductance. Spine and synapse are plastic according to Ca2+ dependent rule. The aim of the model is to explore the effects of dendritic spine structural plasticity on the rules of synaptic plasticity.
23. CA1 pyramidal neuron: Dendritic Na+ spikes are required for LTP at distal synapses (Kim et al 2015)
This model simulates the effects of dendritic sodium spikes initiated in distal apical dendrites on the voltage and the calcium dynamics revealed by calcium imaging. It shows that dendritic sodium spike promotes large and transient calcium influxes via NMDA receptor and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, which contribute to the induction of LTP at distal synapses.
24. CA1 pyramidal neuron: Ih current (Migliore et al. 2012)
NEURON files from the paper: Migliore M, Migliore R (2012) Know Your Current Ih: Interaction with a Shunting Current Explains the Puzzling Effects of Its Pharmacological or Pathological Modulations. PLoS ONE 7(5): e36867. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036867. Experimental findings on the effects of Ih current modulation, which is particularly involved in epilepsy, appear to be inconsistent. In the paper, using a realistic model we show how and why a shunting current, such as that carried by TASK-like channels, dependent on the Ih peak conductance is able to explain virtually all experimental findings on Ih up- or down-regulation by modulators or pathological conditions.
25. CA1 pyramidal neuron: synaptic plasticity during theta cycles (Saudargiene et al. 2015)
This NEURON code implements a microcircuit of CA1 pyramidal neuron and consists of a detailed model of CA1 pyramidal cell and four types of inhibitory interneurons (basket, bistratified, axoaxonic and oriens lacunosum-moleculare cells). Synaptic plasticity during theta cycles at a synapse in a single spine on the stratum radiatum dendrite of the CA1 pyramidal cell is modeled using a phenomenological model of synaptic plasticity (Graupner and Brunel, PNAS 109(20):3991-3996, 2012). The code is adapted from the Poirazi CA1 pyramidal cell (ModelDB accession number 20212) and the Cutsuridis microcircuit model (ModelDB accession number 123815)
26. CA1 pyramidal neurons: effects of Alzheimer (Culmone and Migliore 2012)
The model predicts possible therapeutic treatments of Alzheimers's Disease in terms of pharmacological manipulations of channels' kinetic and activation properties. The results suggest how and which mechanism can be targeted by a drug to restore the original firing conditions. The simulations reproduce somatic membrane potential in control conditions, when 90% of membrane is affected by AD (Fig.4A of the paper), and after treatment (Fig.4B of the paper).
27. CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010)
In this review some of the recent work carried out in our laboratory concerning the functional role of GABAergic signalling at immature mossy fibres (MF)-CA3 principal cell synapses has been highlighted. To compare the relative strength of CA3 pyramidal cell output in relation to their MF glutamatergic or GABAergic inputs in postnatal development, a realistic model was constructed taking into account the different biophysical properties of these synapses.
28. Calcium response prediction in the striatal spines depending on input timing (Nakano et al. 2013)
We construct an electric compartment model of the striatal medium spiny neuron with a realistic morphology and predict the calcium responses in the synaptic spines with variable timings of the glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs and the postsynaptic action potentials. The model was validated by reproducing the responses to current inputs and could predict the electric and calcium responses to glutamatergic inputs and back-propagating action potential in the proximal and distal synaptic spines during up and down states.
29. Calcium waves and mGluR-dependent synaptic plasticity in CA1 pyr. neurons (Ashhad & Narayanan 2013)
A morphologically realistic, conductance-based model equipped with kinetic schemes that govern several calcium signalling modules and pathways in CA1 pyramidal neurons
30. Calyx of Held, short term plasticity (Yang Z et al. 2009)
This model investigates mechanisms contributing to short term plasticity at the calyx of Held, a giant glutamatergic synapse in the mammalian brainstem auditory system. It is a stochastic version of the model described in: Hennig, M., Postlethwaite, M., Forsythe, I.D. and Graham, B.P. (2007). A biophysical model of short-term plasticity at the calyx of Held. Neurocomputing, 70:1626-1629. This version introduces stochastic vesicle recycling and release. It has been used to investigate the information transmission properties of this synapse, as detailed in: Yang, Z., Hennig, M., Postlethwaite, M., Forsythe, I.D. and Graham, B.P. (2008). Wide-band information transmission at the calyx of Held. Neural Computation, 21(4):991-1018.
31. CaMKII system exhibiting bistability with respect to calcium (Graupner and Brunel 2007)
"... We present a detailed biochemical model of the CaMKII autophosphorylation and the protein signaling cascade governing the CaMKII dephosphorylation. ... it is shown that the CaMKII system can qualitatively reproduce results of plasticity outcomes in response to spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and presynaptic stimulation protocols. This shows that the CaMKII protein network can account for both induction, through LTP/LTD-like transitions, and storage, due to its bistability, of synaptic changes."
32. Cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) (Antunes and De Schutter 2012)
Many cellular processes involve small number of molecules and undergo stochastic fluctuations in their levels of activity. Among these processes is cerebellar long-term depression (LTD), a form of synaptic plasticity expressed as a reduction in the number of synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in Purkinje cells. Using a stochastic model of the signaling network and mechanisms of AMPAR trafficking involved in LTD, we show that the network activity in single synapses switches between two discrete stable states (LTD and non-LTD). Stochastic fluctuations affecting more intensely the level of activity of a few components of the network lead to the probabilistic induction of LTD and threshold dithering. The non-uniformly distributed stochasticity of the network allows the stable occurrence of several different macroscopic levels of depression, determining the experimentally observed sigmoidal relationship between the magnitude of depression and the concentration of the triggering signal.
33. Changes of ionic concentrations during seizure transitions (Gentiletti et al. 2016)
"... In order to investigate the respective roles of synaptic interactions and nonsynaptic mechanisms in seizure transitions, we developed a computational model of hippocampal cells, involving the extracellular space, realistic dynamics of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl - ions, glial uptake and extracellular diffusion mechanisms. We show that the network behavior with fixed ionic concentrations may be quite different from the neurons’ behavior when more detailed modeling of ionic dynamics is included. In particular, we show that in the extended model strong discharge of inhibitory interneurons may result in long lasting accumulation of extracellular K+, which sustains the depolarization of the principal cells and causes their pathological discharges. ..."
34. Code to calc. spike-trig. ave (STA) conduct. from Vm (Pospischil et al. 2007, Rudolph et al. 2007)
PYTHON code to calculate spike-triggered average (STA) conductances from intracellular recordings, according to the method published by Pospischil et al., J Neurophysiol, 2007. The method consists of a maximum likelihood estimate of the conductance STA, from the voltage STA (which is calculated from the data). The method was tested using models and dynamic-clamp experiments; for details, see the original publication (Pospischil et al., 2007). The first application of this method to experimental data was from intracellular recordings in awake cat cerebral cortex (Rudolph et al., 2007).
35. Compartmentalization of GABAergic inhibition by dendritic spines (Chiu et al. 2013)
A spiny dendrite model supports the hypothesis that only inhibitory inputs on spine heads, not shafts, compartmentalizes inhibition of calcium signals to spine heads as seen in paired inhibition with back-propagating action potential experiments on prefrontal cortex layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in mouse (Chiu et al. 2013).
36. Determinants of fast calcium dynamics in dendritic spines and dendrites (Cornelisse et al. 2007)
"... Calcium influx time course and calcium extrusion rate were both in the same range for spines and dendrites when fitted with a dynamic multi-compartment model that included calcium binding kinetics and diffusion. In a subsequent analysis we used this model to investigate which parameters are critical determinants in spine calcium dynamics. The model confirmed the experimental findings: a higher SVR (surface-to-volume ratio) is not sufficient by itself to explain the faster rise time kinetics in spines, but only when paired with a lower buffer capacity in spines. Simulations at zero calcium-dye conditions show that calmodulin is more efficiently activated in spines, which indicates that spine morphology and buffering conditions in neocortical spines favor synaptic plasticity. ..."
37. Development of orientation-selective simple cell receptive fields (Rishikesh and Venkatesh, 2003)
Implementation of a computational model for the development of simple-cell receptive fields spanning the regimes before and after eye-opening. The before eye-opening period is governed by a correlation-based rule from Miller (Miller, J. Neurosci., 1994), and the post eye-opening period is governed by a self-organizing, experience-dependent dynamics derived in the reference below.
38. Discrimination on behavioral time-scales mediated by reaction-diffusion in dendrites (Bhalla 2017)
Sequences of events are ubiquitous in sensory, motor, and cognitive function. Key computational operations, including pattern recognition, event prediction, and plasticity, involve neural discrimination of spatio-temporal sequences. Here we show that synaptically-driven reaction diffusion pathways on dendrites can perform sequence discrimination on behaviorally relevant time-scales. We used abstract signaling models to show that selectivity arises when inputs at successive locations are aligned with, and amplified by, propagating chemical waves triggered by previous inputs. We incorporated biological detail using sequential synaptic input onto spines in morphologically, electrically, and chemically detailed pyramidal neuronal models based on rat data.
39. Distance-dependent synaptic strength in CA1 pyramidal neurons (Menon et al. 2013)
Menon et al. (2013) describes the experimentally-observed variation in synaptic AMPA and NMDA conductance as a function of distance from the soma. This model explores the effect of this variation on somatic EPSPs and dendritic spike initiation, as compared to the case of uniform AMPA and NMDA conductance.
40. Effect of the initial synaptic state on the probability to induce LTP and LTD (Migliore et al. 2015)
NEURON mod files from the paper: M. Migliore, et al. (2015). In this paper, we investigate the possibility that the experimental protocols on synaptic plasticity may result in different consequences (e.g., LTD instead of LTP), according to the initial conditions of the stimulated synapses, and can generate confusing results. Using biophysical models of synaptic plasticity and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, we study how, why, and to what extent EPSPs observed at the soma after induction of LTP/LTD reflects the actual (local) synaptic state. The model and the results suggest a physiologically plausible explanation of why LTD induction is experimentally difficult, and they offer experimentally testable predictions on the stimulation protocols that may be more effective.
41. Effects of neural morphology on global and focal NMDA-spikes (Poleg-Polsky 2015)
This entry contains the NEURON files required to recreate figures 4-8 of the paper "Effects of Neural Morphology and Input Distribution on Synaptic Processing by Global and Focal NMDA-spikes" by Alon Poleg-Polsky
42. Efficient Method for Computing Synaptic Conductance (Destexhe et al 1994)
A simple model of transmitter release is used to solve first order kinetic equations of neurotransmiter/receptor binding. This method is applied to a glutamate and gabaa receptor. See reference for more details. The method is extended to more complex kinetic schemes in a seperate paper (Destexhe et al J Comp Neuro 1:195-231, 1994). Application to AMPA, NMDA, GABAA, and GABAB receptors is given in a book chapter (Destexhe et al In: The Neurobiology of Computation, Edited by Bower, J., Kluwer Academic Press, Norwell MA, 1995, pp. 9-14.) More information and papers at and through email:
43. Emergence of Connectivity Motifs in Networks of Model Neurons (Vasilaki, Giugliano 2014)
Recent evidence suggests that short-term dynamics of excitatory synaptic transmission is correlated to stereotypical connectivity motifs. We show that these connectivity motifs emerge in networks of model neurons, from the interactions between short-term synaptic dynamics (SD) and long-term spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP).
44. Endocannabinoid dynamics gate spike-timing dependent depression and potentiation (Cui et al 2016)
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is considered involved in synaptic depression. Recent reports have also linked eCBs to synaptic potentiation. However it is not known how eCB signaling may support such bidirectionality. To question the mechanisms of this phenomena in spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) at corticostriatal synapses, we combined electrophysiology experiments with biophysical modeling. We demonstrate that STDP is controlled by eCB levels and dynamics: prolonged and moderate levels of eCB lead to eCB-mediated long-term depression (eCB-tLTD) while short and large eCB transients produce eCB-mediated long-term potentiation (eCB-tLTP). Therefore, just like neurotransmitters glutamate or GABA, eCB form a bidirectional system.
45. Excitatory synaptic interactions in pyramidal neuron dendrites (Behabadi et al. 2012)
" ... We hypothesized that if two excitatory pathways bias their synaptic projections towards proximal vs. distal ends of the basal branches, the very different local spike thresholds and attenuation factors for inputs near and far from the soma might provide the basis for a classical-contextual functional asymmetry. Supporting this possibility, we found both in compartmental models and electrophysiological recordings in brain slices that the responses of basal dendrites to spatially separated inputs are indeed strongly asymmetric. ..."
46. Fast AMPA receptor signaling (Geiger et al 1997)
Glutamatergic transmission at a principal neuron-interneuron synapse was investigated by dual whole-cell patch-clamp recording in rat hippocampal slices combined with morphological analysis and modeling. Simulations based on a compartmental model of the interneuron indicated that the rapid postsynaptic conductance change determines the shape and the somatodendritic integration of EPSPs, thus enabling interneurons to detect synchronous principal neuron activity.
47. Fluctuating synaptic conductances recreate in-vivo-like activity (Destexhe et al 2001)
This model (and experiments) reported in Destexhe, Rudolh, Fellous, and Sejnowski (2001) support the hypothesis that many of the characteristics of cortical neurons in vivo can be explained by fast glutamatergic and GABAergic conductances varying stochastically. Some of these cortical neuron characteristics of fluctuating synaptic origin are a depolarized membrane potential, the presence of high-amplitude membrane potential fluctuations, a low input resistance and irregular spontaneous firing activity. In addition, the point-conductance model could simulate the enhancement of responsiveness due to background activity. For more information please contact Alain Destexhe. email:
48. Functional impact of dendritic branch point morphology (Ferrante et al., 2013)
" ... Here, we first quantified the morphological variability of branch points from two-photon images of rat CA1 pyramidal neurons. We then investigated the geometrical features affecting spike initiation, propagation, and timing with a computational model validated by glutamate uncaging experiments. The results suggest that even subtle membrane readjustments at branch point could drastically alter the ability of synaptic input to generate, propagate, and time action potentials."
49. Gap junction coupled network of striatal fast spiking interneurons (Hjorth et al. 2009)
Gap junctions between striatal FS neurons has very weak ability to synchronise spiking. Input uncorrelated between neighbouring neurons is shunted, while correlated input is not.
50. Gating of steering signals through phasic modulation of reticulospinal neurons (Kozlov et al. 2014)
" ... We use the lamprey as a model for investigating the role of this phasic modulation of the reticulospinal activity, because the brainstem–spinal cord networks are known down to the cellular level in this phylogenetically oldest extant vertebrate. We describe how the phasic modulation of reticulospinal activity from the spinal CPG ensures reliable steering/turning commands without the need for a very precise timing of on- or offset, by using a biophysically detailed large-scale (19,600 model neurons and 646,800 synapses) computational model of the lamprey brainstem–spinal cord network. To verify that the simulated neural network can control body movements, including turning, the spinal activity is fed to a mechanical model of lamprey swimming. ..."
51. Generalized Carnevale-Hines algorithm (van Elburg and van Ooyen 2009)
Demo illustrating the behaviour of the integrate-and-fire model in the parameter regime relevant for the generalized event-based Carnevale-Hines integration scheme. The demo includes the improved implementation of the IntFire4 mechanism.
52. Globus pallidus neuron models with differing dendritic Na channel expression (Edgerton et al., 2010)
A set of 9 multi-compartmental rat GP neuron models (585 compartments) differing only in their expression of dendritic fast sodium channels were compared in their synaptic integration properties. Dendritic fast sodium channels were found to increase the importance of distal synapses (both excitatory AND inhibitory), increase spike timing variability with in vivo-like synaptic input, and make the model neurons highly sensitive to clustered synchronous excitation.
53. Glutamate diffusion and AMPA receptor activation in the cerebellar glomerulus (Saftenku 2005)
Synaptic conductances are influenced markedly by the geometry of the space surrounding the synapse since the transient glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft is determined by this geometry. Our paper is an attempt to understand the reasons for slow glutamate diffusion in the cerebellar glomerulus, a structure situated around the enlarged mossy fiber terminal in the cerebellum and surrounded by a glial sheath. ... Our results suggest at least a 7- to 10-fold lower apparent diffusion coefficient of glutamate in the porous medium of the glomerulus than in water. ... See paper for details and more.
54. Grid cells from place cells (Castro & Aguiar, 2014)
" ...Here we present a novel model for the emergence of gridlike firing patterns that stands on two key hypotheses: (1) spatial information in GCs is provided from PC activity and (2) grid fields result from a combined synaptic plasticity mechanism involving inhibitory and excitatory neurons mediating the connections between PCs and GCs. ..."
55. Hippocampus CA1: Simulations of LTP signaling pathways (Kim M et al. 2011)
This is a multi-compartmental, stochastic version of the Kim et al. 2010 paper. There are a few additional reactions, and some of the rate constants have been updated. It addresses the role of molecule anchoring in PKA dependent hippocampal LTP.
56. Hippocampus CA1: Temporal sensitivity of signaling pathways underlying LTP (Kim et al. 2010)
Temporal sensitivity of signaling pathways underlying L-LTP. Single compartment, deterministic model of calcium and dopamine activated pathways, leading to CaMKII and PKA activation. Experimental verification of model prediction.
57. Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (Rabinowitch and Segev 2006a,b)
(2006a): "We investigated analytically and numerically the interplay between two opposing forms of synaptic plasticity: positive-feedback, long-term potentiation/depression (LTP/LTD), and negative-feedback, homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP). A detailed model of a CA1 pyramidal neuron, with numerous HSP-modifiable dendritic synapses, demonstrates that HSP may have an important role in selecting which spatial patterns of LTP/LTD are to last. ... Despite the negative-feedback nature of HSP, under both local and global HSP, numerous synaptic potentiations/depressions can persist. These experimentally testable results imply that HSP could be significantly involved in shaping the spatial distribution of synaptic weights in the dendrites and not just normalizing it, as is currently believed." (2006b): "Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) is an important mechanism attributed with the slow regulation of the neuron's activity. Whenever activity is chronically enhanced, HSP weakens the weights of the synapses in the dendrites and vice versa. Because dendritic morphology and its electrical properties partition the dendritic tree into functional compartments, we set out to explore the interplay between HSP and dendritic compartmentalization. ... The spatial distribution of synaptic weights throughout the dendrites will markedly differ under the local versus global HSP mechanisms. We suggest an experimental paradigm to unravel which type of HSP mechanism operates in the dendritic tree. The answer to this question will have important implications to our understanding of the functional organization of the neuron."
58. Hyperconnectivity, slow synapses in PFC mental retardation and autism model (Testa-Silva et al 2011)
The subdirectory 'matlab' contains MATLAB scripts (The Mathworks, USA) that can be used to reproduce the panels of Figures 4-5. This directory contains files to reproduce sample computer simulations presented in the 2011 paper authored by Meredith, R., Testa-Silva, G., Loebel, A., Giugliano, M., de Kock, C.; Mansvelder, H. "Hyperconnectivity and slow synapses in prefrontal cortex of a model for mental retardation and autism". ABSTRACT "... We propose that these findings are tightly linked: using a network model, we show that slower synapses are essential to counterbalance hyperconnectivity in order to maintain a dynamic range of excitatory activity. However, the slow synaptic time constants induce decreased responsiveness to low frequency stimulation, which may explain deficits in integration and information processing in attentional neuronal networks in neurodevelopmental disorders."
59. Impact of dendritic atrophy on intrinsic and synaptic excitability (Narayanan & Chattarji, 2010)
These simulations examined the atrophy induced changes in electrophysiological properties of CA3 pyramidal neurons. We found these neurons change from bursting to regular spiking as atrophy increases. Region-specific atrophy induced region-specific increases in synaptic excitability in a passive dendritic tree. All dendritic compartments of an atrophied neuron had greater synaptic excitability and a larger voltage transfer to the soma than the control neuron.
60. Information transmission in cerebellar granule cell models (Rossert et al. 2014)
" ... In this modeling study we analyse how electrophysiological granule cell properties and spike sampling influence information coded by firing rate modulation, assuming no signal-related, i.e., uncorrelated inhibitory feedback (open-loop mode). A detailed one-compartment granule cell model was excited in simulation by either direct current or mossy-fiber synaptic inputs. Vestibular signals were represented as tonic inputs to the flocculus modulated at frequencies up to 20 Hz (approximate upper frequency limit of vestibular-ocular reflex, VOR). Model outputs were assessed using estimates of both the transfer function, and the fidelity of input-signal reconstruction measured as variance-accounted-for. The detailed granule cell model with realistic mossy-fiber synaptic inputs could transmit infoarmation faithfully and linearly in the frequency range of the vestibular-ocular reflex. ... "
61. Inner hair cell auditory nerve synapse model (Deligeorges, Mountain 1997)
This model simulates the response of the synapse between the inner hair cell and an auditory nerve fiber to a square voltage pulse applied to the IHC membrane. The model output is average firing rate. More details of this model can be found in: Deligeorges and Mountain.
62. Kinetic NMDA receptor model (Kampa et al 2004)
This kinetic NMDA receptor model is based on voltage-clamp recordings of NMDA receptor-mediated currents in nucleated patches of rat neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons (Kampa et al 2004 J Physiol), this model was fit with AxoGraph directly to experimental recordings in order to obtain the optimal values for the parameters. The demo shows the behaviour of a kinetic NMDA receptor model reproducing the data in figure 2. The NMDA receptor model uses realistic rates of magnesium block and its effects on channel desensitisation. Presynaptic transmitter release is necessary for glutamate binding to the receptor. This model was written by Bjoern Kampa, Canberra, 2004.
63. Kinetic synaptic models applicable to building networks (Destexhe et al 1998)
Simplified AMPA, NMDA, GABAA, and GABAB receptor models useful for building networks are described in a book chapter. One reference paper synthesizes a comprehensive general description of synaptic transmission with Markov kinetic models which is applicable to modeling ion channels, synaptic release, and all receptors. Also a simple introduction to this method is given in a seperate paper Destexhe et al Neural Comput 6:14-18 , 1994). More information and papers at and through email:
64. Long-term adaptation with power-law dynamics (Zilany et al. 2009)
... A model of rate adaptation at the synapse between inner hair cells and auditory-nerve (AN) fibers that includes both exponential and power-law dynamics is presented here. Exponentially adapting components with rapid and short-term time constants, which are mainly responsible for shaping onset responses, are followed by two parallel paths with power-law adaptation that provide slowly and rapidly adapting responses. ... The proposed model is capable of accurately predicting several sets of AN data, including amplitude-modulation transfer functions, long-term adaptation, forward masking, and adaptation to increments and decrements in the amplitude of an ongoing stimulus.
65. LTP in cerebellar mossy fiber-granule cell synapses (Saftenku 2002)
We simulated synaptic transmission and modified a simple model of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in order to describe long-term plasticity related changes in cerebellar mossy fiber-granule cell synapses. In our model, protein autophosphorylation, leading to the maintenance of long-term plasticity, is controlled by Ca2+ entry through the NMDA receptor channels. The observed nonlinearity in the development of long-term changes of EPSP in granule cells is explained by the difference in the rate constants of two independent autocatalytic processes.
66. Mechanisms underlying subunit independence in pyramidal neuron dendrites (Behabadi and Mel 2014)
"...Using a detailed compartmental model of a layer 5 pyramidal neuron, and an improved method for quantifying subunit independence that incorporates a more accurate model of dendritic integration, we first established that the output of each dendrite can be almost perfectly predicted by the intensity and spatial configuration of its own synaptic inputs, and is nearly invariant to the rate of bAP-mediated 'cross-talk' from other dendrites over a 100-fold range..."
67. Memory savings through unified pre- and postsynaptic STDP (Costa et al 2015)
Although it is well known that long-term synaptic plasticity can be expressed both pre- and postsynaptically, the functional consequences of this arrangement have remained elusive. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity with both pre- and postsynaptic expression develops receptive fields with reduced variability and improved discriminability compared to postsynaptic plasticity alone. These long-term modifications in receptive field statistics match recent sensory perception experiments. In these simulations we demonstrate that learning with this form of plasticity leaves a hidden postsynaptic memory trace that enables fast relearning of previously stored information, providing a cellular substrate for memory savings. Our results reveal essential roles for presynaptic plasticity that are missed when only postsynaptic expression of long-term plasticity is considered, and suggest an experience-dependent distribution of pre- and postsynaptic strength changes.
68. Model of CA1 activity during working memory task (Spera et al. 2016)
"The cellular processes underlying individual differences in the Woring Memory Capacity (WMC) of humans are essentially unknown. Psychological experiments suggest that subjects with lower working memory capacity (LWMC), with respect to subjects with higher capacity (HWMC), take more time to recall items from a list because they search through a larger set of items and are much more susceptible to interference during retrieval. ... In this paper, we investigate the possible underlying mechanisms at the single neuron level by using a computational model of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which have been suggested to be deeply involved in the recognition of specific items. ..."
69. Model of working memory based on negative derivative feedback (Lim and Goldman, 2013)
We proposed a model of working memory in which recurrent synaptic interactions provide a corrective feedback that enables persistent activity to be maintained stably for prolonged durations. When recurrent excitatory and inhibitory inputs to memory neurons were balanced in strength and offset in time, drifts in activity triggered a corrective signal that counteracted memory decay. Circuits containing this mechanism temporally integrated their inputs, generated the irregular neural firing observed during persistent activity and were robust against common perturbations that severely disrupted previous models of short-term memory storage.
70. Modeling dentate granule cells heterosynaptic plasticity using STDP-BCM rule (Jedlicka et al. 2015)
... Here we study how key components of learning mechanisms in the brain, namely spike timing-dependent plasticity and metaplasticity, interact with spontaneous activity in the input pathways of the neuron. Using biologically realistic simulations we show that ongoing background activity is a key determinant of the degree of long-term potentiation and long-term depression of synaptic transmission between nerve cells in the hippocampus of freely moving animals. This work helps better understand the computational rules which drive synaptic plasticity in vivo. ...
71. Modeling maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in clustered synapses (Smolen 2015)
" ... Here a model is developed that connects ongoing, competing processes of synaptic growth and weakening to stochastic processes of receptor insertion and removal in dendritic spines. The model simulates long-term (>1 yr) persistence of groups of strong synapses. A unimodal weight distribution results. For stability of this distribution it proved essential to incorporate resource competition between synapses organized into small clusters. ..."
72. Models analysis for auditory-nerve synapse (Zhang and Carney 2005)
"A general mathematical approach was proposed to study phenomenological models of the inner-hair-cell and auditory-nerve (AN) synapse complex. Two models (Meddis, 1986; Westerman and Smith, 1988) were studied using this unified approach. The responses of both models to a constant-intensity stimulus were described mathematically, and the relationship between model parameters and response characteristics was investigated. ...". The paper then modifies these to make a more physiologically realistic model.
73. Multiple mechanisms of short term plasticity at the calyx of Held (Hennig et al. 2008)
This is a new model of the short-term dynamics of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, which incorporates multiple mechanisms acting at differing sites and across a range of different time scales (ms to tens of seconds). In the paper, we show that this model can accurately reproduce the experimentally measured time-course of short term depression across different stimulus frequencies at the calyx of Held. The model demonstrates how multiple forms of activity-dependent modulation of release probability and vesicle pool depletion interact, and shows how stimulus-history-dependent recovery from synaptic depression can arise from dynamics on multiple time scales.
74. Multiplication by NMDA receptors in Direction Selective Ganglion cells (Poleg-Polsky & Diamond 2016)
The model demonstrates how signal amplification with NMDARs depends on the synaptic environment. When direction selectivity (DS) detection is mediated by DS inhibition, NMDARs multiply other synaptic conductances. In the case of DS tuned excitation, NMDARs contribute additively.
75. Multiscale simulation of the striatal medium spiny neuron (Mattioni & Le Novere 2013)
"… We present a new event-driven algorithm to synchronize different neuronal models, which decreases computational time and avoids superfluous synchronizations. The algorithm is implemented in the TimeScales framework. We demonstrate its use by simulating a new multiscale model of the Medium Spiny Neuron of the Neostriatum. The model comprises over a thousand dendritic spines, where the electrical model interacts with the respective instances of a biochemical model. Our results show that a multiscale model is able to exhibit changes of synaptic plasticity as a result of the interaction between electrical and biochemical signaling. …"
76. NMDA receptor saturation (Chen et al 2001)
Experiments and modeling reported in the paper Chen N, Ren J, Raymond LA, and Murphy T (2001) support the hypothesis that glutamate has a relatively lower potency at NMDARs than previously thought from agonist application under equilibrium conditions. Further information and reprint requests are available from Dr T.H. Murphy thmurphy at
77. Nonlinear dendritic processing in barrel cortex spiny stellate neurons (Lavzin et al. 2012)
This is a multi-compartmental simulation of a spiny stellate neuron which is stimulated by a thalamocortical (TC) and cortico-cortical (CC) inputs. No other cells are explicitly modeled; the presynaptic network activation is represented by the number of active synapses. Preferred and non –preferred thalamic directions thus correspond to larder/smaller number of TC synapses. This simulation revealed that randomly activated synapses can cooperatively trigger global NMDA spikes, which involve participation of most of the dendritic tree. Surprisingly, we found that although the voltage profile of the cell was uniform, the calcium influx was restricted to ‘hot spots’ which correspond to synaptic clusters or large conductance synapses
78. Norns - Neural Network Studio (Visser & Van Gils 2014)
The Norns - Neural Network Studio is a software package for designing, simulation and analyzing networks of spiking neurons. It consists of three parts: 1. "Urd": a Matlab frontend with high-level functions for quickly defining networks 2. "Verdandi": an optimized C++ simulation environment which runs the simulation defined by Urd 3. "Skuld": an advanced Matlab graphical user interface (GUI) for visual inspection of simulated data.
79. Olfactory Computations in Mitral-Granule cell circuits (Migliore & McTavish 2013)
Model files for the entry "Olfactory Computations in Mitral-Granule Cell Circuits" of the Springer Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience by Michele Migliore and Tom Mctavish. The simulations illustrate two typical Mitral-Granule cell circuits in the olfactory bulb of vertebrates: distance-independent lateral inhibition and gating effects.
80. Optimal balance predicts/explains amplitude and decay time of iPSGs (Kim & Fiorillo 2017)
"Synaptic inhibition counterbalances excitation, but it is not known what constitutes optimal inhibition. We previously proposed that perfect balance is achieved when the peak of an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is exactly at spike threshold, so that the slightest variation in excitation determines whether a spike is generated. Using simulations, we show that the optimal inhibitory postsynaptic conductance (IPSG) increases in amplitude and decay rate as synaptic excitation increases from 1 to 800 Hz. As further proposed by theory, we show that optimal IPSG parameters can be learned through anti-Hebbian rules. ..."
81. Parametric computation and persistent gamma in a cortical model (Chambers et al. 2012)
Using the Traub et al (2005) model of the cortex we determined how 33 synaptic strength parameters control gamma oscillations. We used fractional factorial design to reduce the number of runs required to 4096. We found an expected multiplicative interaction between parameters.
82. Prob. Inference of Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity in Neocort. Microcircuits (Costa et al. 2013)
" ... As a solution (for Short Term Plasticity (STP) inference), we introduce a Bayesian formulation, which yields the posterior distribution over the model parameters given the data. First, we show that common STP protocols yield broad distributions over some model parameters. Using our result we propose a experimental protocol to more accurately determine synaptic dynamics parameters. Next, we infer the model parameters using experimental data from three different neocortical excitatory connection types. This reveals connection-specific distributions, which we use to classify synaptic dynamics. Our approach to demarcate connection-specific synaptic dynamics is an important improvement on the state of the art and reveals novel features from existing data."
83. Python demo of the VmT method to extract conductances from single Vm traces (Pospischil et al. 2009)
This python code implements a method to estimate synaptic conductances from single membrane potential traces (the "VmT method"), as described in Pospischil et al. (2009). The method uses a maximum likelihood procedure and was successfully tested using models and dynamic-clamp experiments in vitro (see paper for details).
84. Relative spike time coding and STDP-based orientation selectivity in V1 (Masquelier 2012)
Phenomenological spiking model of the cat early visual system. We show how natural vision can drive spike time correlations on sufficiently fast time scales to lead to the acquisition of orientation-selective V1 neurons through STDP. This is possible without reference times such as stimulus onsets, or saccade landing times. But even when such reference times are available, we demonstrate that the relative spike times encode the images more robustly than the absolute ones.
85. Rescue of plasticity by a computationally predicted protocol (Liu et al. 2013)
" ... A computational model, which simulated molecular processes underlying long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) induction, predicted a rescue protocol of five pulses of 5-HT at non-uniform interstimulus intervals that overcame the consequences of reduced CREB-binding protein (CBP) and restored LTF. ..."
86. Response of AMPA receptor kinetic model to glutamate release distance (Allam et al., 2015)
These files model the response of an AMPA receptor kinetic model to the release (and diffusion) of glutamate as a function of distance between receptor and release site.
87. Ribbon Synapse (Sikora et al 2005)
A model of the ribbon synapse was developed to replicate both pre- and postsynaptic functions of this glutamatergic juncture. The presynaptic portion of the model is rich in anatomical and physiological detail and includes multiple release sites for each ribbon based on anatomical studies of presynaptic terminals, presynaptic voltage at the terminal, the activation of voltage-gated calcium channels and a calcium-dependent release mechanism whose rate varies as a function of the calcium concentration that is monitored at two different sites which control both an ultrafast, docked pool of vesicles and a release ready pool of tethered vesicles. See paper for more and details.
88. Roles of essential kinases in induction of late hippocampal LTP (Smolen et al., 2006)
"… Convergence of multiple kinase activities to induce L-LTP helps to generate a threshold whereby the amount of L-LTP varies steeply with the number of brief (tetanic) electrical stimuli. The model simulates tetanic, -burst, pairing-induced, and chemical L-LTP, as well as L-LTP due to synaptic tagging. The model also simulates inhibition of L-LTP by inhibition of MAPK, CAMKII, PKA, or CAMKIV. The model predicts results of experiments to delineate mechanisms underlying L-LTP induction and expression. …"
89. Self-influencing synaptic plasticity (Tamosiunaite et al. 2007)
"... Similar to a previous study (Saudargiene et al., 2004) we employ a differential Hebbian learning rule to emulate spike-timing dependent plasticity and investigate how the interaction of dendritic and back-propagating spikes, as the post-synaptic signals, could influence plasticity. ..."
90. Short term plasticity at the cerebellar granule cell (Nieus et al. 2006)
The model reproduces short term plasticity of the mossy fibre to granule cell synapse. To reproduce synaptic currents recorded in experiments, a model of presynaptic release was used to determine the concentration of glutamate in the synaptic cleft that ultimately determined a synaptic response. The parameters of facilitation and depression were determined deconvolving AMPA EPSCs.
91. Short term plasticity of synapses onto V1 layer 2/3 pyramidal neuron (Varela et al 1997)
This archive contains 3 mod files for NEURON that implement the short term synaptic plasticity model described in Varela, J.A., Sen, K., Gibson, J., Fost, J., Abbott, L.R., and Nelson, S.B.. A quantitative description of short-term plasticity at excitatory synapses in layer 2/3 of rat primary visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 17:7926-7940, 1997. Contact if you have questions about this implementation of the model.
92. Signaling pathways underlying LTP in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells (Jedrzejewska-Szmek et al 2017)
" ...We investigated whether the diverse experimental evidence can be unified by creating a spatial, mechanistic model of multiple signaling pathways in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Our results show that the combination of activity of several key kinases can predict the occurrence of long-lasting forms of LTP for multiple experimental protocols. ..."
93. SN-MN neurons of Aplysia (Zhou et al. 2014)
Contribution of PKC-dependent processes to the maintenance of short-term facilitation(STF) at SN-MN synapse of Aplysia were exmained. A computational model of transmitter release demonstrated that a PKC-dependent mobilization process was sufficient to explain the maintenance of STF at nondepressed synapses and the facilitation of depressed synapses.
94. Spatially-varying glutamate diffusion coefficient at CA1 synaptic cleft space (Gupta et al. 2016)
Due to the heterogeneous macromolecular crowding and geometrical irregularity at central excitatory synapses, the diffusion coefficient of glutamate may exhibit spatial variation across the cleft space. To take into account the effect of emergent cleft heterogeneity on the generation of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), a gamma statistical distribution of the glutamate diffusion coefficient is considered and, using the principle of superstatistics, the glutamate transients are computed as well as the activation of AMPA receptors is performed. This model demonstrates the numerical simulation of the Brownian diffusion of glutamate under distributed diffusion coefficient, the subsequent stochastic activation of AMPA receptors using Milstein-Nicoll scheme and modified Gillespie algorithm with minimum time-step correction, and the eventual stochastic profile of EPSC generation. The study is based on the CA1 synapses located at the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the mammalian hippocampal region.
95. Species-specific wiring for direction selectivity in the mammalian retina (Ding et al 2016)
" ... Here we present a detailed connectomic reconstruction of SAC circuitry in mouse retina and describe two previously unknown features of synapse distributions along SAC dendrites: input and output synapses are segregated, with inputs restricted to proximal dendrites; and the distribution of inhibitory inputs is fundamentally different from that observed in rabbit retina. An anatomically constrained SAC network model suggests that SAC–SAC wiring differences between mouse and rabbit retina underlie distinct contributions of synaptic inhibition to velocity and contrast tuning and receptive field structure. In particular, the model indicates that mouse connectivity enables SACs to encode lower linear velocities that account for smaller eye diameter, thereby conserving angular velocity tuning. These predictions are confirmed with calcium imaging of mouse SAC dendrites responding to directional stimuli. ..."
96. Spike timing detection in different forms of LTD (Doi et al 2005)
To understand the spike-timing detection mechanisms in cerebellar long-term depression (LTD), we developed a kinetic model of Ca dynamics within a Purkinje dendritic spine. In our kinetic simulation, IP3 was first produced via the metabotropic pathway of parallel fiber (PF) inputs, and the Ca influx in response to the climbing fiber (CF) input triggered regenerative Ca-induced Ca release from the internal stores via the IP3 receptors activated by the increased IP3. The delay in IP3 increase caused by the PF metabotropic pathway generated the optimal PF–CF interval. The Ca dynamics revealed a threshold for large Ca2 release that decreased as IP3 increased, and it coherently explained the different forms of LTD. See paper for more and details.
97. Spiking GridPlaceMap model (Pilly & Grossberg, PLoS One, 2013)
Development of spiking grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system to represent positions in large spaces
98. Spine fusion and branching effects synaptic response (Rusakov et al 1996, 1997)
This compartmental model of a hippocampal granule cell has spinous synapses placed on the second-order dendrites. Changes in shape and connectivity of the spines usually does not effect the synaptic response of the cell unless active conductances are incorporated into the spine membrane (e.g. voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels). With active conductances, spines can generate spike-like events. We showed that changes like fusion and branching, or in fact any increase in the equivalent spine neck resistance, could trigger a dramatic increase in the spine's influence on the dendritic shaft potential.
99. Spine neck plasticity controls postsynaptic calcium signals (Grunditz et al. 2008)
This model was set up to dissect the relative contribution of different channels to the spine calcium transients measured at single spines.
100. STDP and NMDAR Subunits (Gerkin et al. 2007)
The paper argues for competing roles of NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDARs in spike-timing-dependent plasticity. This simple dynamical model recapitulates the results of STDP experiments involving selective blockers of NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDARs, for which the stimuli are pre- and postsynaptic spikes in varying combinations. Experiments were done using paired recordings from glutamatergic neurons in rat hippocampal cultures. This model focuses on the dynamics of the putative potentiation and depression modules themselves, and their interaction For detailed dynamics involving NMDARs and Ca2+ transients, see Rubin et al., J. Neurophys., 2005.
101. Steady-state Vm distribution of neurons subject to synaptic noise (Rudolph, Destexhe 2005)
This package simulates synaptic background activity similar to in vivo measurements using a model of fluctuating synaptic conductances, and compares the simulations with analytic estimates. The steady-state membrane potential (Vm) distribution is calculated numerically and compared with the "extended" analytic expression provided in the reference (see this paper for details).
102. Stochastic ion channels and neuronal morphology (Cannon et al. 2010)
"... We introduce and validate new computational tools that enable efficient generation and simulation of models containing stochastic ion channels distributed across dendritic and axonal membranes. Comparison of five morphologically distinct neuronal cell types reveals that when all simulated neurons contain identical densities of stochastic ion channels, the amplitude of stochastic membrane potential fluctuations differs between cell types and depends on sub-cellular location. ..." The code is downloadable and more information is available at <a href=""></a>
103. Stochastic LTP/LTD conditioning of a synapse (Migliore and Lansky 1999)
Protracted presynaptic activity can induce long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) of the synaptic strength. However, virtually all the experiments testing how LTP and LTD depend on the conditioning input are carried out with trains of stimuli at constant frequencies, whereas neurons in vivo most likely experience a stochastic variation of interstimulus intervals. We used a computational model of synaptic transmission to test if and to what extent the stochastic fluctuations of an input signal could alter the probability to change the state of a synapse. See paper for conclusions.
104. Synaptic integration in tuft dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (Larkum et al. 2009)
Simulations used in the paper. Voltage responses to current injections in different tuft locations; NMDA and calcium spike generation. Summation of multiple input distribution.
105. Synaptic plasticity: pyramid->pyr and pyr->interneuron (Tsodyks et al 1998)
An implementation of a model of short-term synaptic plasticity with NEURON. The model was originally described by Tsodyks et al., who assumed that the synapse acted as a current source, but this implementation treats it as a conductance change. Tsodyks, M., Pawelzik, K., Markram, H. Neural networks with dynamic synapses. Neural Computation 10:821-835, 1998. Tsodyks, M., Uziel, A., Markram, H. Synchrony generation in recurrent networks with frequency-dependent synapses. J. Neurosci. 2000 RC50.
106. Synaptic transmission at the calyx of Held (Graham et al 2001)
This model allows the user to investigate faciliation and depression in a complex Monte Carlo model of the calyx of Held, a giant synapse in the mammalian auditory system (Graham et al, 2001)
107. Synchronization by D4 dopamine receptor-mediated phospholipid methylation (Kuznetsova, Deth 2008)
"We describe a new molecular mechanism of dopamine-induced membrane protein modulation that can tune neuronal oscillation frequency to attention related gamma rhythm. This mechanism is based on the unique ability of D4 dopamine receptors (D4R) to carry out phospholipid methylation (PLM) that may affect the kinetics of ion channels. We show that by deceasing the inertia of the delayed rectifier potassium channel, a transition to 40 Hz oscillations can be achieved. ..."
108. Tag Trigger Consolidation (Clopath and Ziegler et al. 2008)
This model simulates different phases of LTP/D, i.e. the induction or early phase, the setting of synaptic tags, a trigger process for protein synthesis, and a slow transition leading to synaptic consolidation namely the late phase of synaptic plasticity. The model explains a large body of experimental data on synaptic tagging and capture, cross-tagging, and the late phases of LTP and LTD. Moreover, the model accounts for the dependence of LTP and LTD induction on voltage and presynaptic stimulation frequency.
109. The neocortical microcircuit collaboration portal (Markram et al. 2015)
"This portal provides an online public resource of the Blue Brain Project's first release of a digital reconstruction of the microcircuitry of juvenile Rat somatosensory cortex, access to experimental data sets used in the reconstruction, and the resulting models."
110. Vertical System (VS) tangential cells network model (Trousdale et al. 2014)
Network model of the VS tangential cell system, with 10 cells per hemisphere. Each cell is a two compartment model with one compartment for dendrites and one for the axon. The cells are coupled through axonal gap junctions. The code allows to simulate responses of the VS network to a variety of visual stimuli to investigate coding as a function of gap junction strength.
111. Vesicular pool simulations of synaptic depression (Aristizabal and Glavinovic 2004)
"Synaptic release was simulated using a Simulink sequential storage model with three vesicular pools. Modeling was modular and easily extendable to the systems with greater number of vesicular pools, parallel input, or time-varying parameters. ... Finally, the method was tested experimentally using the rat phrenic-diaphragm neuromuscular junction." See paper for more and details.
112. Voltage-based STDP synapse (Clopath et al. 2010)
Implementation of the STDP rule by Clopath et al., Nat. Neurosci. 13(3):344-352,2010 STDP mechanism added to the AlphaSynapse in NEURON.
113. Wang-Buzsaki Interneuron (Talathi et al., 2010)
The submitted code provides the relevant C++ files, matlabfiles and the data files essential to reproduce the figures in the JCNS paper titled Control of neural synchrony using channelrhodopsin-2: A computational study.

Re-display model names without descriptions