Models that contain the Model Concept : Detailed Neuronal Models

(Detailed neuronal models typically contain reconstructed cell morphologies and intrinsic or synaptic currents that were experimentally measured.)
Re-display model names without descriptions
    Models   Description
1. 3D model of the olfactory bulb (Migliore et al. 2014)
This entry contains a link to a full HD version of movie 1 and the NEURON code of the paper: "Distributed organization of a brain microcircuit analysed by three-dimensional modeling: the olfactory bulb" by M Migliore, F Cavarretta, ML Hines, and GM Shepherd.
2. A detailed and fast model of extracellular recordings (Camunas-Mesa & Qurioga 2013)
"We present a novel method to generate realistic simulations of extracellular recordings. The simulations were obtained by superimposing the activity of neurons placed randomly in a cube of brain tissue. Detailed models of individual neurons were used to reproduce the extracellular action potentials of close-by neurons. ..."
3. A detailed Purkinje cell model (Masoli et al 2015)
The Purkinje cell is one of the most complex type of neuron in the central nervous system and is well known for its massive dendritic tree. The initiation of the action potential was theorized to be due to the high calcium channels presence in the dendritic tree but, in the last years, this idea was revised. In fact, the Axon Initial Segment, the first section of the axon was seen to be critical for the spontaneous generation of action potentials. The model reproduces the behaviours linked to the presence of this fundamental sections and the interplay with the other parts of the neuron.
4. A model for recurrent spreading depolarizations (Conte et al. 2017)
A detailed biophysical model for a neuron/astrocyte network is developed in order to explore mechanisms responsible for cortical spreading depolarizations. This includes a model for the Na+-glutamate transporter, which allows for a detailed description of reverse glutamate uptake. In particular, we consider the specific roles of elevated extracellular glutamate and K+ in the initiation, propagation and recurrence of spreading depolarizations.
5. A model of the femur-tibia control system in stick insects (Stein et al. 2008)
We studied the femur-tibia joint control system of the insect leg, and its switch between resistance reflex in posture control and "active reaction" in walking. The "active reaction" is basically a reversal of the resistance reflex. Both responses are elicited by the same sensory input and the same neuronal network (the femur-tibia network). The femur-tibia network was modeled by fitting the responses of model neurons to those obtained in animals. Each implemented neuron has a physiological counterpart. The strengths of 16 interneuronal pathways that integrate sensory input were then assigned three different values and varied independently, generating a database of more than 43 million network variants. The uploaded version contains the model that best represented the resistance reflex. Please see the README for more help. We demonstrate that the combinatorial code of interneuronal pathways determines motor output. A switch between different behaviors such as standing to walking can thus be achieved by altering the strengths of selected sensory integration pathways.
6. A multi-compartment model for interneurons in the dLGN (Halnes et al. 2011)
This model for dLGN interneurons is presented in two parameterizations (P1 & P2), which were fitted to current-clamp data from two different interneurons (IN1 & IN2). The model qualitatively reproduces the responses in IN1 & IN2 under 8 different experimental condition, and quantitatively reproduces the I/O-relations (#spikes elicited as a function of injected current).
7. A set of reduced models of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (Bahl et al. 2012)
These are the NEURON files for 10 different models of a reduced L5 pyramidal neuron. The parameters were obtained by automatically fitting the models to experimental data using a multi objective evolutionary search strategy. Details on the algorithm can be found at <a href="http://www.g-node.org/emoo">www.g-node.org/emoo</a> and in Bahl et al. (2012).
8. A simplified cerebellar Purkinje neuron (the PPR model) (Brown et al. 2011)
These models were implemented in NEURON by Sherry-Ann Brown in the laboratory of Leslie M. Loew. The files reproduce Figures 2c-f from Brown et al, 2011 "Virtual NEURON: a Strategy For Merged Biochemical and Electrophysiological Modeling".
9. Active dendrites and spike propagation in a hippocampal interneuron (Saraga et al 2003)
We create multi-compartment models of an Oriens-Lacunosum/Moleculare (O-LM) hippocampal interneuron using passive properties, channel kinetics, densities and distributions specific to this cell type, and explore its signaling characteristics. We find that spike initiation depends on both location and amount of input, as well as the intrinsic properties of the interneuron. Distal synaptic input always produces strong back-propagating spikes whereas proximal input could produce both forward and back-propagating spikes depending on the input strength. Please see paper for more details.
10. Active dendrites shape signaling microdomains in hippocampal neurons (Basak & Narayanan 2018)
The spatiotemporal spread of biochemical signals in neurons and other cells regulate signaling specificity, tuning of signal propagation, along with specificity and clustering of adaptive plasticity. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated a critical role for cellular morphology and the topology of signaling networks in regulating this spread. In this study, we add a significantly complex dimension to this narrative by demonstrating that voltage-gated ion channels (A-type Potassium channels and T-type Calcium channels) on the plasma membrane could actively amplify or suppress the strength and spread of downstream signaling components. We employed a multiscale, multicompartmental, morphologically realistic, conductance-based model that accounted for the biophysics of electrical signaling and the biochemistry of calcium handling and downstream enzymatic signaling in a hippocampal pyramidal neuron. We chose the calcium – calmodulin – calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) – protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) signaling pathway owing to its critical importance to several forms of neuronal plasticity, and employed physiologically relevant theta-burst stimulation (TBS) or theta-burst pairing (TBP) protocol to initiate a calcium microdomain through NMDAR activation at a synapse.
11. Adaptive robotic control driven by a versatile spiking cerebellar network (Casellato et al. 2014)
" ... We have coupled a realistic cerebellar spiking neural network (SNN) with a real robot and challenged it in multiple diverse sensorimotor tasks. ..."
12. Alcohol action in a detailed Purkinje neuron model and an efficient simplified model (Forrest 2015)
" ... we employ a novel reduction algorithm to produce a 2 compartment model of the cerebellar Purkinje neuron from a previously published, 1089 compartment model. It runs more than 400 times faster and retains the electrical behavior of the full model. So, it is more suitable for inclusion in large network models, where computational power is a limiting issue. We show the utility of this reduced model by demonstrating that it can replicate the full model’s response to alcohol, which can in turn reproduce experimental recordings from Purkinje neurons following alcohol application. ..."
13. Alcohol excites Cerebellar Golgi Cells by inhibiting the Na+/K+ ATPase (Botta et al.2010)
Patch-clamp in cerebellar slices and computer modeling show that ethanol excites Golgi cells by inhibiting the Na+/K+ ATPase. In particular, voltage-clamp recordings of Na+/K+ ATPase currents indicated that ethanol partially inhibits this pump and this effect could be mimicked by low concentrations of the Na+/K+ ATPase blocker ouabain. The partial inhibition of Na+/K+ ATPase in a computer model of the Golgi cell reproduced these experimental findings that established a novel mechanism of action of ethanol on neural excitability.
14. Amyloid beta (IA block) effects on a model CA1 pyramidal cell (Morse et al. 2010)
The model simulations provide evidence oblique dendrites in CA1 pyramidal neurons are susceptible to hyper-excitability by amyloid beta block of the transient K+ channel, IA. See paper for details.
15. AP back-prop. explains threshold variability and rapid rise (McCormick et al. 2007, Yu et al. 2008)
This simple axon-soma model explained how the rapid rising phase in the somatic spike is derived from the propagated axon initiated spike, and how the somatic spike threshold variance is affected by spike propagation.
16. Biophysically realistic neuron models for simulation of cortical stimulation (Aberra et al. 2018)
This archive instantiates the single-cell cortical models used in (Aberra et al. 2018) and sets up extracellular stimulation with either a point-current source, to simulate intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), or a uniform E-field distribution, with a monophasic, rectangular pulse waveform in both cases.
17. CA1 oriens alveus interneurons: signaling properties (Minneci et al. 2007)
The model supports the experimental findings showing that the dynamic interaction between cells with various firing patterns could differently affect GABAergic signaling, leading to a wide range of interneuronal communication within the hippocampal network.
18. CA1 pyr cell: Inhibitory modulation of spatial selectivity+phase precession (Grienberger et al 2017)
Spatially uniform synaptic inhibition enhances spatial selectivity and temporal coding in CA1 place cells by suppressing broad out-of-field excitation.
19. CA1 pyramidal neuron (Migliore et al 1999)
Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron model from the paper M.Migliore, D.A Hoffman, J.C. Magee and D. Johnston (1999) Role of an A-type K+ conductance in the back-propagation of action potentials in the dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, J. Comput. Neurosci. 7, 5-15. Instructions are provided in the below README file.Contact michele.migliore@pa.ibf.cnr.it if you have any questions about the implementation of the model.
20. CA1 pyramidal neuron synaptic integration (Jarsky et al. 2005)
"The perforant-path projection to the hippocampus forms synapses in the apical tuft of CA1 pyramidal neurons. We used computer modeling to examine the function of these distal synaptic inputs, which led to three predictions that we confirmed in experiments using rat hippocampal slices. ... This 'gating' of dendritic spike propagation may be an important activation mode of CA1 pyramidal neurons, and its modulation by neurotransmitters or long-term, activity-dependent plasticity may be an important feature of dendritic integration during mnemonic processing in the hippocampus."
21. CA1 pyramidal neuron synaptic integration (Li and Ascoli 2006, 2008)
The model shows how different input patterns (irregular & asynchronous, irregular & synchronous, regular & asynchronous, regular & synchronous) affect the neuron's output rate when 1000 synapses are distributed in the proximal apical dendritic tree of a hippocampus CA1 pyramidal neuron.
22. CA1 pyramidal neuron to study INaP properties and repetitive firing (Uebachs et al. 2010)
A model of a CA1 pyramidal neuron containing a biophysically realistic morphology and 15 distributed voltage and Ca2+-dependent conductances. Repetitive firing is modulated by maximal conductance and the voltage dependence of the persistent Na+ current (INaP).
23. CA1 pyramidal neuron: as a 2-layer NN and subthreshold synaptic summation (Poirazi et al 2003)
We developed a CA1 pyramidal cell model calibrated with a broad spectrum of in vitro data. Using simultaneous dendritic and somatic recordings, and combining results for two different response measures (peak vs. mean EPSP), two different stimulus formats (single shock vs. 50 Hz trains), and two different spatial integration conditions (within vs. between-branch summation), we found the cell's subthreshold responses to paired inputs are best described as a sum of nonlinear subunit responses, where the subunits correspond to different dendritic branches. In addition to suggesting a new type of experiment and providing testable predictions, our model shows how conclusions regarding synaptic arithmetic can be influenced by an array of seemingly innocuous experimental design choices.
24. CA1 pyramidal neuron: calculation of MRI signals (Cassara et al. 2008)
NEURON mod files from the paper: Cassarà AM, Hagberg GE, Bianciardi M, Migliore M, Maraviglia B. Realistic simulations of neuronal activity: A contribution to the debate on direct detection of neuronal currents by MRI. Neuroimage. 39:87-106 (2008). In this paper, we use a detailed calculation of the magnetic field produced by the neuronal currents propagating over a hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron placed inside a cubic MR voxel of length 1.2 mm to estimate the Magnetic Resonance signal.
25. CA1 pyramidal neuron: conditional boosting of dendritic APs (Watanabe et al 2002)
Model files from the paper Watanabe S, Hoffman DA, Migliore M, Johnston D (2002). The experimental and modeling results support the hypothesis that dendritic K-A channels and the boosting of back-propagating action potentials contribute to the induction of LTP in CA1 neurons. See the paper for details. Questions about the model may be addressed to Michele Migliore: michele.migliore@pa.ibf.cnr.it
26. CA1 pyramidal neuron: Dendritic Na+ spikes are required for LTP at distal synapses (Kim et al 2015)
This model simulates the effects of dendritic sodium spikes initiated in distal apical dendrites on the voltage and the calcium dynamics revealed by calcium imaging. It shows that dendritic sodium spike promotes large and transient calcium influxes via NMDA receptor and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, which contribute to the induction of LTP at distal synapses.
27. CA1 pyramidal neuron: dendritic spike initiation (Gasparini et al 2004)
NEURON mod files from the paper: Sonia Gasparini, Michele Migliore, and Jeffrey C. Magee On the initiation and propagation of dendritic spikes in CA1 pyramidal neurons, J. Neurosci., J. Neurosci. 24:11046-11056 (2004).
28. CA1 pyramidal neuron: effects of Ih on distal inputs (Migliore et al 2004)
NEURON mod files from the paper: M. Migliore, L. Messineo, M. Ferrante Dendritic Ih selectively blocks temporal summation of unsynchronized distal inputs in CA1 pyramidal neurons, J.Comput. Neurosci. 16:5-13 (2004). The model demonstrates how the dendritic Ih in pyramidal neurons could selectively suppress AP generation for a volley of excitatory afferents when they are asynchronously and distally activated.
29. CA1 pyramidal neuron: effects of Lamotrigine on dendritic excitability (Poolos et al 2002)
NEURON mod files from N. Poolos, M. Migliore, and D. Johnston, Nature Neuroscience (2002). The experimental and modeling results in this paper demonstrate for the first time that neuronal excitability can be altered by pharmaceuticals acting selectively on dendrites, and suggest an important role for Ih in controlling dendritic excitability and epileptogenesis.
30. CA1 pyramidal neuron: functional significance of axonal Kv7 channels (Shah et al. 2008)
The model used in this paper confirmed the experimental findings suggesting that axonal Kv7 channels are critically and uniquely required for determining the inherent spontaneous firing of hippocampal CA1 pyramids, independently of alterations in synaptic activity. The model predicts that the axonal Kv7 density could be 3-5 times that at the soma.
31. CA1 pyramidal neuron: h channel-dependent deficit of theta oscill. resonance (Marcelin et al. 2008)
This model was used to confirm and support experimental data suggesting that the neuronal/circuitry changes associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, including Ih-dependent inductive mechanisms, can disrupt hippocampal theta function.
32. CA1 pyramidal neuron: Ih current (Migliore et al. 2012)
NEURON files from the paper: Migliore M, Migliore R (2012) Know Your Current Ih: Interaction with a Shunting Current Explains the Puzzling Effects of Its Pharmacological or Pathological Modulations. PLoS ONE 7(5): e36867. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036867. Experimental findings on the effects of Ih current modulation, which is particularly involved in epilepsy, appear to be inconsistent. In the paper, using a realistic model we show how and why a shunting current, such as that carried by TASK-like channels, dependent on the Ih peak conductance is able to explain virtually all experimental findings on Ih up- or down-regulation by modulators or pathological conditions.
33. CA1 pyramidal neuron: integration of subthreshold inputs from PP and SC (Migliore 2003)
The model shows how the experimentally observed increase in the dendritic density of Ih and IA could have a major role in constraining the temporal integration window for the main CA1 synaptic inputs.
34. CA1 pyramidal neuron: Persistent Na current mediates steep synaptic amplification (Hsu et al 2018)
This paper shows that persistent sodium current critically contributes to the subthreshold nonlinear dynamics of CA1 pyramidal neurons and promotes rapidly reversible conversion between place-cell and silent-cell in the hippocampus. A simple model built with realistic axo-somatic voltage-gated sodium channels in CA1 (Carter et al., 2012; Neuron 75, 1081–1093) demonstrates that the biophysics of persistent sodium current is sufficient to explain the synaptic amplification effects. A full model built previously (Grienberger et al., 2017; Nature Neuroscience, 20(3): 417–426) with detailed morphology, ion channel types and biophysical properties of CA1 place cells naturally reproduces the steep voltage dependence of synaptic responses.
35. CA1 pyramidal neuron: rebound spiking (Ascoli et al.2010)
The model demonstrates that CA1 pyramidal neurons support rebound spikes mediated by hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih), and normally masked by A-type potassium channels (KA). Partial KA reduction confined to one or few branches of the apical tuft may be sufficient to elicit a local spike following a train of synaptic inhibition. These data suggest that the plastic regulation of KA can provide a dynamic switch to unmask post-inhibitory spiking in CA1 pyramidal neurons, further increasing the signal processing power of the CA1 synaptic microcircuitry.
36. Ca1 pyramidal neuron: reduction model (Marasco et al. 2012)
"... Here we introduce a new, automatic and fast method to map realistic neurons into equivalent reduced models running up to >40 times faster while maintaining a very high accuracy of the membrane potential dynamics during synaptic inputs, and a direct link with experimental observables. The mapping of arbitrary sets of synaptic inputs, without additional fine tuning, would also allow the convenient and efficient implementation of a new generation of large-scale simulations of brain regions reproducing the biological variability observed in real neurons, with unprecedented advances to understand higher brain functions."
37. CA1 pyramidal neuron: schizophrenic behavior (Migliore et al. 2011)
NEURON files from the paper: A modeling study suggesting how a reduction in the context-dependent input on CA1 pyramidal neurons could generate schizophrenic behavior. by M. Migliore, I. De Blasi, D. Tegolo, R. Migliore, Neural Networks,(2011), doi:10.1016/j.neunet.2011.01.001. Starting from the experimentally supported assumption on hippocampal neurons we explore an experimentally testable prediction at the single neuron level. The model shows how and to what extent a pathological hypofunction of a contextdependent distal input on a CA1 neuron can generate hallucinations by altering the normal recall of objects on which the neuron has been previously tuned. The results suggest that a change in the context during the recall phase may cause an occasional but very significant change in the set of active dendrites used for features recognition, leading to a distorted perception of objects.
38. CA1 pyramidal neuron: signal propagation in oblique dendrites (Migliore et al 2005)
NEURON mod files from the paper: M. Migliore, M. Ferrante, GA Ascoli (2005). The model shows how the back- and forward propagation of action potentials in the oblique dendrites of CA1 neurons could be modulated by local properties such as morphology or active conductances.
39. CA1 Pyramidal Neuron: slow Na+ inactivation (Migliore 1996)
Model files from the paper: M. Migliore, Modeling the attenuation and failure of action potentials in the dendrites of hippocampal neurons, Biophys. J. 71:2394-403 (1996). Please see the below readme file for installation and use instructions. Contact michele.migliore@pa.ibf.cnr.it if you have any questions about the implementation of the model.
40. CA1 pyramidal neurons: binding properties and the magical number 7 (Migliore et al. 2008)
NEURON files from the paper: Single neuron binding properties and the magical number 7, by M. Migliore, G. Novara, D. Tegolo, Hippocampus, in press (2008). In an extensive series of simulations with realistic morphologies and active properties, we demonstrate how n radial (oblique) dendrites of these neurons may be used to bind n inputs to generate an output signal. The results suggest a possible neural code as the most effective n-ple of dendrites that can be used for short-term memory recollection of persons, objects, or places. Our analysis predicts a straightforward physiological explanation for the observed puzzling limit of about 7 short-term memory items that can be stored by humans.
41. CA1 pyramidal neurons: effect of external electric field from power lines (Cavarretta et al. 2014)
The paper discusses the effects induced by an electric field at power lines frequency.
42. CA1 pyramidal neurons: effects of a Kv7.2 mutation (Miceli et al. 2009)
NEURON mod files from the paper: Miceli et al, Neutralization of a unique, negatively-charged residue in the voltage sensor of K(V)7.2 subunits in a sporadic case of benign familial neonatal seizures, Neurobiol Dis., in press (2009). In this paper, the model revealed that the gating changes introduced by a mutation in K(v)7.2 genes encoding for the neuronal KM current in a case of benign familial neonatal seizures, increased cell firing frequency, thereby triggering the neuronal hyperexcitability which underlies the observed neonatal epileptic condition.
43. CA1 pyramidal neurons: effects of Alzheimer (Culmone and Migliore 2012)
The model predicts possible therapeutic treatments of Alzheimers's Disease in terms of pharmacological manipulations of channels' kinetic and activation properties. The results suggest how and which mechanism can be targeted by a drug to restore the original firing conditions. The simulations reproduce somatic membrane potential in control conditions, when 90% of membrane is affected by AD (Fig.4A of the paper), and after treatment (Fig.4B of the paper).
44. CA1 pyramidal: Stochastic amplification of KCa in Ca2+ microdomains (Stanley et al. 2011)
This minimal model investigates stochastic amplification of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) currents. Amplification results from calcium being released in short high amplitude pulses associated with the stochastic gating of calcium channels in microdomains. This model predicts that such pulsed release of calcium significantly increases subthreshold SK2 currents above what would be produced by standard deterministic models. However, there is little effect on a simple sAHP current kinetic scheme. This suggests that calcium stochasticity and microdomains should be considered when modeling certain KCa currents near subthreshold conditions.
45. CA1 stratum radiatum interneuron multicompartmental model (Katona et al. 2011)
The model examines dendritic NMDA-spike generation and propagation in the dendrites of CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons. It contains NMDA-channels in a clustered pattern on a dendrite and K-channels. The simulation shows the whole NMDA spike and the rising phase of the traces in separate windows.
46. CA3 pyramidal neuron (Lazarewicz et al 2002)
The model shows how using a CA1-like distribution of active dendritic conductances in a CA3 morphology results in dendritic initiation of spikes during a burst.
47. CA3 Pyramidal Neuron (Migliore et al 1995)
Model files from the paper: M. Migliore, E. Cook, D.B. Jaffe, D.A. Turner and D. Johnston, Computer simulations of morphologically reconstructed CA3 hippocampal neurons, J. Neurophysiol. 73, 1157-1168 (1995). Demonstrates how the same cell could be bursting or non bursting according to the Ca-independent conductance densities. Includes calculation of intracellular Calcium. Instructions are provided in the below README file. Contact michele.migliore@pa.ibf.cnr.it if you have any questions about the implementation of the model.
48. CA3 pyramidal neuron (Safiulina et al. 2010)
In this review some of the recent work carried out in our laboratory concerning the functional role of GABAergic signalling at immature mossy fibres (MF)-CA3 principal cell synapses has been highlighted. To compare the relative strength of CA3 pyramidal cell output in relation to their MF glutamatergic or GABAergic inputs in postnatal development, a realistic model was constructed taking into account the different biophysical properties of these synapses.
49. CA3 pyramidal neuron: firing properties (Hemond et al. 2008)
In the paper, this model was used to identify how relative differences in K+ conductances, specifically KC, KM, & KD, between cells contribute to the different characteristics of the three types of firing patterns observed experimentally.
50. Calcium dynamics depend on dendritic diameters (Anwar et al. 2014)
"... in dendrites there is a strong contribution of morphology because the peak calcium levels are strongly determined by the surface to volume ratio (SVR) of each branch, which is inversely related to branch diameter. In this study we explore the predicted variance of dendritic calcium concentrations due to local changes in dendrite diameter and how this is affected by the modeling approach used. We investigate this in a model of dendritic calcium spiking in different reconstructions of cerebellar Purkinje cells and in morphological analysis of neocortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. ..."
51. CaMKII system exhibiting bistability with respect to calcium (Graupner and Brunel 2007)
"... We present a detailed biochemical model of the CaMKII autophosphorylation and the protein signaling cascade governing the CaMKII dephosphorylation. ... it is shown that the CaMKII system can qualitatively reproduce results of plasticity outcomes in response to spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and presynaptic stimulation protocols. This shows that the CaMKII protein network can account for both induction, through LTP/LTD-like transitions, and storage, due to its bistability, of synaptic changes."
52. Cerebellar gain and timing control model (Yamazaki & Tanaka 2007)(Yamazaki & Nagao 2012)
This paper proposes a hypothetical computational mechanism for unified gain and timing control in the cerebellum. The hypothesis is justified by computer simulations of a large-scale spiking network model of the cerebellum.
53. Cerebellar Nucleus Neuron (Steuber, Schultheiss, Silver, De Schutter & Jaeger, 2010)
This is the GENESIS 2.3 implementation of a multi-compartmental deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN) neuron model with a full dendritic morphology and appropriate active conductances. We generated a good match of our simulations with DCN current clamp data we recorded in acute slices, including the heterogeneity in the rebound responses. We then examined how inhibitory and excitatory synaptic input interacted with these intrinsic conductances to control DCN firing. We found that the output spiking of the model reflected the ongoing balance of excitatory and inhibitory input rates and that changing the level of inhibition performed an additive operation. Rebound firing following strong Purkinje cell input bursts was also possible, but only if the chloride reversal potential was more negative than -70 mV to allow de-inactivation of rebound currents. Fast rebound bursts due to T-type calcium current and slow rebounds due to persistent sodium current could be differentially regulated by synaptic input, and the pattern of these rebounds was further influenced by HCN current. Our findings suggest that active properties of DCN neurons could play a crucial role for signal processing in the cerebellum.
54. Cerebellar purkinje cell (De Schutter and Bower 1994)
Tutorial simulation of a cerebellar Purkinje cell. This tutorial is based upon a GENESIS simulation of a cerebellar Purkinje cell, modeled and fine-tuned by Erik de Schutter. The tutorial assumes that you have a basic knowledge of the Purkinje cell and its synaptic inputs. It gives visual insight in how different properties as concentrations and channel conductances vary and interact within a real Purkinje cell.
55. Cerebellar purkinje cell: K and Ca channels regulate APs (Miyasho et al 2001)
We adopted De Schutter and Bower's model as the starting point, then modified the descriptions of several ion channels, such as the P-type Ca channel and the delayed rectifier K channel, and added class-E Ca channels and D-type K channels to the model. Our new model reproduces most of our experimental results and supports the conclusions of our experimental study that class-E Ca channels and D-type K channels are present and functioning in the dendrites of Purkinje neurons.
56. Channel density variability among CA1 neurons (Migliore et al. 2018)
The peak conductance of many ion channel types measured in any given animal is highly variable across neurons, both within and between neuronal populations. The current view is that this occurs because a neuron needs to adapt its intrinsic electrophysiological properties either to maintain the same operative range in the presence of abnormal inputs or to compensate for the effects of pathological conditions. Limited experimental and modeling evidence suggests this might be implemented via the correlation and/or degeneracy in the function of multiple types of conductances. To study this mechanism in hippocampal CA1 neurons and interneurons, we systematically generated a set of morphologically and biophysically accurate models. We then analyzed the ensembles of peak conductance obtained for each model neuron. The results suggest that the set of conductances expressed in the various neuron types may be divided into two groups: one group is responsible for the major characteristics of the firing behavior in each population and the other more involved with degeneracy. These models provide experimentally testable predictions on the combination and relative proportion of the different conductance types that should be present in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons.
57. Chirp stimulus responses in a morphologically realistic model (Narayanan and Johnston, 2007)
...we built a multicompartmental model with a morphologically realistic three-dimensional reconstruction of a CA1 pyramidal neuron. The only active conductance we added to the model was the h conductance. ... We conclude that experimentally observed gradient in density of h channels could theoretically account for experimentally observed gradient in resonance properties (Narayanan and Johnston, 2007).
58. Coincidence detection in avian brainstem (Simon et al 1999)
A detailed biophysical model of coincidence detector neurons in the nucleus laminaris (auditory brainstem) which are purported to detect interaural time differences (ITDs) from Simon et al 1999.
59. Complex CA1-neuron to study AP initiation (Wimmer et al. 2010)
Complex model of a pyramidal CA1-neuron, adapted from Royeck, M., et al. Role of axonal NaV1.6 sodium channels in action potential initiation of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Journal of neurophysiology 100, 2361-2380 (2008). It contains a biophysically realistic morphology comprising 265 compartments (829 segments) and 15 different distributed Ca2+- and/or voltage-dependent conductances.
60. Computational model of bladder small DRG neuron soma (Mandge & Manchanda 2018)
Bladder small DRG neurons, which are putative nociceptors pivotal to urinary bladder function, express more than a dozen different ionic membrane mechanisms: ion channels, pumps and exchangers. Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SKCa) channels which were earlier thought to be gated solely by intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca]i ) have recently been shown to exhibit inward rectification with respect to membrane potential. The effect of SKCa inward rectification on the excitability of these neurons is unknown. Furthermore, studies on the role of KCa channels in repetitive firing and their contributions to different types of afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in these neurons are lacking. In order to study these phenomena, we first constructed and validated a biophysically detailed single compartment model of bladder small DRG soma constrained by physiological data. The model includes twenty-two major known membrane mechanisms along with intracellular Ca2+ dynamics comprising Ca2+ diffusion, cytoplasmic buffering, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial mechanisms. Using modelling studies, we show that inward rectification of SKCa is an important parameter regulating neuronal repetitive firing and that its absence reduces action potential (AP) firing frequency. We also show that SKCa is more potent in reducing AP spiking than the large-conductance KCa channel (BKCa) in these neurons. Moreover, BKCa was found to contribute to the fast AHP (fAHP) and SKCa to the medium-duration (mAHP) and slow AHP (sAHP). We also report that the slow inactivating A-type K+ channel (slow KA) current in these neurons is composed of 2 components: an initial fast inactivating (time constant ~ 25-100 ms) and a slow inactivating (time constant ~ 200-800 ms) current. We discuss the implications of our findings, and how our detailed model can help further our understanding of the role of C-fibre afferents in the physiology of urinary bladder as well as in certain disorders.
61. Computer models of corticospinal neurons replicate in vitro dynamics (Neymotin et al. 2017)
"Corticospinal neurons (SPI), thick-tufted pyramidal neurons in motor cortex layer 5B that project caudally via the medullary pyramids, display distinct class-specific electrophysiological properties in vitro: strong sag with hyperpolarization, lack of adaptation, and a nearly linear frequency-current (FI) relationship. We used our electrophysiological data to produce a pair of large archives of SPI neuron computer models in two model classes: 1. Detailed models with full reconstruction; 2. Simplified models with 6 compartments. We used a PRAXIS and an evolutionary multiobjective optimization (EMO) in sequence to determine ion channel conductances. ..."
62. Correcting space clamp in dendrites (Schaefer et al. 2003 and 2007)
In voltage-clamp experiments, incomplete space clamp distorts the recorded currents, rendering accurate analysis impossible. Here, we present a simple numerical algorithm that corrects such distortions. The method enabled accurate retrieval of the local densities, kinetics, and density gradients of somatic and dendritic channels. The correction method was applied to two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings of K currents from the apical dendrite of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons. The generality and robustness of the algorithm make it a useful tool for voltage-clamp analysis of voltage-gated currents in structures of any morphology that is amenable to the voltage-clamp technique.
63. Cortical Layer 5b pyr. cell with [Na+]i mechanisms, from Hay et al 2011 (Zylbertal et al 2017)
" ... Based on a large body of experimental recordings from both the soma and dendrites of L5b pyramidal cells in adult rats, we characterized key features of the somatic and dendritic firing and quantified their statistics. We used these features to constrain the density of a set of ion channels over the soma and dendritic surface via multi-objective optimization with an evolutionary algorithm, thus generating a set of detailed conductance-based models that faithfully replicate the back-propagating action potential activated Ca(2+) spike firing and the perisomatic firing response to current steps, as well as the experimental variability of the properties. Furthermore, we show a useful way to analyze model parameters with our sets of models, which enabled us to identify some of the mechanisms responsible for the dynamic properties of L5b pyramidal cells as well as mechanisms that are sensitive to morphological changes. ..."
64. Cortical network model of posttraumatic epileptogenesis (Bush et al 1999)
This simulation from Bush, Prince, and Miller 1999 shows the epileptiform response (Fig. 6C) to a brief single stimulation in a 500 cell network of multicompartment models, some of which have active dendrites. The results which I obtained under Redhat Linux is shown in result.gif. Original 1997 code from Paul Bush modified slightly by Bill Lytton to make it work with current version of NEURON (5.7.139). Thanks to Paul Bush and Ken Miller for making the code available.
65. Dendritic L-type Ca currents in motoneurons (Carlin et al 2000)
A component of recorded currents demonstrated kinetics consistent with a current originating at a site spatially segregated from the soma. In response to step commands this component was seen as a late-onset, low amplitude persistent current whilst in response to depolarizing-repolarizing ramp commands a low voltage clockwise current hysteresis was recorded. Simulations using a neuromorphic motoneuron model could reproduce these currents only if a noninactivating calcium conductance was placed in the dendritic compartments.
66. Dendritic Na+ spike initiation and backpropagation of APs in active dendrites (Nevian et al. 2007)
NEURON model used to create simulations shown in figure 6 of the paper. The model includes two point processes; one for dendritic spike initiation and the other for somatic action potential generation. The effect of filtering by imperfect recording electrode can be examined in somatic and dendritic locations.
67. Dendritic signals command firing dynamics in a Cerebellar Purkinje Cell model (Genet et al. 2010)
This model endows the dendrites of a reconstructed Purkinje cells (PC) with the mechanism of Ca-dependent plateau potentials and spikes described in Genet, S., and B. Delord. 2002. A biophysical model of nonlinear dynamics underlying plateau potentials and calcium spikes in Purkinje cell dendrites. J. Neurophysiol. 88:2430–2444). It is a part of a comprehensive mathematical study suggesting that active electric signals in the dendrites of PC command epochs of firing and silencing of the PC soma.
68. Dendritica (Vetter et al 2001)
Dendritica is a collection of programs for relating dendritic geometry and signal propagation. The programs are based on those used for the simulations described in: Vetter, P., Roth, A. & Hausser, M. (2001) For reprint requests and additional information please contact Dr. M. Hausser, email address: m.hausser@ucl.ac.uk
69. Dentate Basket Cell: spatial summation of inhibitory synaptic inputs (Bartos et al 2001)
Spatial summation of inhibitory synaptic input in a passive model of a basket cell from the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampus. Reproduces Figs. 5Ac and d in Bartos, M., Vida, I., Frotscher, M., Geiger, J.R.P, and Jonas, P.. Rapid signaling at inhibitory synapses in a dentate gyrus interneuron network. Journal of Neuroscience 21:2687-2698, 2001.
70. Dentate granule cell: mAHP & sAHP; SK & Kv7/M channels (Mateos-Aparicio et al., 2014)
The model is based on that of Aradi & Holmes (1999; Journal of Computational Neuroscience 6, 215-235). It was used to help understand the contribution of M and SK channels to the medium afterhyperpolarization (mAHP) following one or seven spikes, as well as the contribution of M channels to the slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP). We found that SK channels are the main determinants of the mAHP, in contrast to CA1 pyramidal cells where the mAHP is primarily caused by the opening of M channels. The model reproduced these experimental results, but we were unable to reproduce the effects of the M-channel blocker XE991 on the sAHP. It is suggested that either the XE991-sensitive component of the sAHP is not due to M channels, or that when contributing to the sAHP, these channels operate in a mode different from that associated with the mAHP.
71. Detailed passive cable model of Dentate Gyrus Basket Cells (Norenberg et al. 2010)
Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (BCs) play a key role in feedforward and feedback inhibition in the hippocampus. ... To quantitatively address this question, we developed detailed passive cable models of BCs in the dentate gyrus based on dual somatic or somatodendritic recordings and complete morphologic reconstructions. Both specific membrane capacitance and axial resistivity were comparable to those of pyramidal neurons, but the average somatodendritic specific membrane resistance (R(m)) was substantially lower in BCs. Furthermore, R(m) was markedly nonuniform, being lowest in soma and proximal dendrites, intermediate in distal dendrites, and highest in the axon. ... Further computational analysis revealed that these unique cable properties accelerate the time course of synaptic potentials at the soma in response to fast inputs, while boosting the efficacy of slow distal inputs. These properties will facilitate both rapid phasic and efficient tonic activation of BCs in hippocampal microcircuits.
72. Dichotomy of action-potential backpropagation in CA1 pyramidal neuron dendrites (Golding et al 2001)
From reference below and Corrigendum: J Neurophysiol 87:1a, 2002 (better versions of figures 2, 3, 5 and 7 because of poor print quality in the original article; as of 2/2006, these figures are perfectly fine in the PDF of the original article that is currently available from the publisher's WWW site). Examines the anatomical and biophysical factors that account for the fact that retrograde invasion of spikes into the apical dendritic tree past 300 um succeeds in some CA1 pyramidal neurons but fails in others.
73. Differential modulation of pattern and rate in a dopamine neuron model (Canavier and Landry 2006)
"A stylized, symmetric, compartmental model of a dopamine neuron in vivo shows how rate and pattern can be modulated either concurrently or differentially. If two or more parameters in the model are varied concurrently, the baseline firing rate and the extent of bursting become decorrelated, which provides an explanation for the lack of a tight correlation in vivo and is consistent with some independence of the mechanisms that generate baseline firing rates versus bursting. ..." See paper for more and details.
74. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal model (Amir, Devor 2003)
The model shows that an electrically excitable soma is not necessary for spike through-conduction in the t-shaped geometry of a dorsal root ganglion neuron axon. Electrical excitability of the soma is required, however, for soma spike invasion. See papers for details and more.
75. Effects of electric fields on cognitive functions (Migliore et al 2016)
The paper discusses the effects induced by an electric field at power lines frequency on neuronal activity during cognitive processes.
76. Effects of neural morphology on global and focal NMDA-spikes (Poleg-Polsky 2015)
This entry contains the NEURON files required to recreate figures 4-8 of the paper "Effects of Neural Morphology and Input Distribution on Synaptic Processing by Global and Focal NMDA-spikes" by Alon Poleg-Polsky
77. Electrotonic transform and EPSCs for WT and Q175+/- spiny projection neurons (Goodliffe et al 2018)
This model achieves electrotonic transform and computes mean inward and outward attenuation from 0 to 500 Hz input; and randomly activates synapses along dendrites to simulate AMPAR mediated EPSCs. For electrotonic analysis, in Elec folder, the entry file is MSNelec_transform.hoc. For EPSC simulation, in Syn folder, the entry file is randomepsc.hoc. Run read_EPSCsims_mdb_alone.m next with the simulated parameter values specified to compute the mean EPSC.
78. Emergent properties of networks of biological signaling pathways (Bhalla, Iyengar 1999)
Biochemical signaling networks were constructed with experimentally obtained constants and analyzed by computational methods to understand their role in complex biological processes. These networks exhibit emergent properties such as integration of signals across multiple time scales, generation of distinct outputs depending on input strength and duration, and self-sustaining feedback loops. Properties of signaling networks raise the possibility that information for "learned behavior" of biological systems may be stored within intracellular biochemical reactions that comprise signaling pathways.
79. Engaging distinct oscillatory neocortical circuits (Vierling-Claassen et al. 2010)
"Selective optogenetic drive of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons (INs) leads to enhanced local field potential (LFP) power across the traditional “gamma” frequency band (20–80 Hz; Cardin et al., 2009). In contrast, drive to regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal cells enhances power at lower frequencies, with a peak at 8 Hz. The first result is consistent with previous computational studies emphasizing the role of FS and the time constant of GABAA synaptic inhibition in gamma rhythmicity. However, the same theoretical models do not typically predict low-frequency LFP enhancement with RS drive. To develop hypotheses as to how the same network can support these contrasting behaviors, we constructed a biophysically principled network model of primary somatosensory neocortex containing FS, RS, and low-threshold spiking (LTS) INs. ..."
80. Excitability of PFC Basal Dendrites (Acker and Antic 2009)
".. We carried out multi-site voltage-sensitive dye imaging of membrane potential transients from thin basal branches of prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons before and after application of channel blockers. We found that backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) are predominantly controlled by voltage-gated sodium and A-type potassium channels. In contrast, pharmacologically blocking the delayed rectifier potassium, voltage-gated calcium or Ih, conductance had little effect on dendritic action potential propagation. Optically recorded bAP waveforms were quantified and multicompartmental modeling (NEURON) was used to link the observed behavior with the underlying biophysical properties. The best-fit model included a non-uniform sodium channel distribution with decreasing conductance with distance from the soma, together with a non-uniform (increasing) A-type potassium conductance. AP amplitudes decline with distance in this model, but to a lesser extent than previously thought. We used this model to explore the mechanisms underlying two sets of published data involving high frequency trains of action potentials, and the local generation of sodium spikelets. ..."
81. Excitatory synaptic interactions in pyramidal neuron dendrites (Behabadi et al. 2012)
" ... We hypothesized that if two excitatory pathways bias their synaptic projections towards proximal vs. distal ends of the basal branches, the very different local spike thresholds and attenuation factors for inputs near and far from the soma might provide the basis for a classical-contextual functional asymmetry. Supporting this possibility, we found both in compartmental models and electrophysiological recordings in brain slices that the responses of basal dendrites to spatially separated inputs are indeed strongly asymmetric. ..."
82. Fast AMPA receptor signaling (Geiger et al 1997)
Glutamatergic transmission at a principal neuron-interneuron synapse was investigated by dual whole-cell patch-clamp recording in rat hippocampal slices combined with morphological analysis and modeling. Simulations based on a compartmental model of the interneuron indicated that the rapid postsynaptic conductance change determines the shape and the somatodendritic integration of EPSPs, thus enabling interneurons to detect synchronous principal neuron activity.
83. Firing neocortical layer V pyramidal neuron (Reetz et al. 2014; Stadler et al. 2014)
Neocortical Layer V model with firing behaviour adjusted to in vitro observations. The model was used to investigate the effects of IFN and PKC on the excitability of neurons (Stadler et al 2014, Reetz et al. 2014). The model contains new channel simulations for HCN1, HCN2 and the big calcium dependent potassium channel BK.
84. FS Striatal interneuron: K currents solve signal-to-noise problems (Kotaleski et al 2006)
... We show that a transient potassium (KA) current allows the Fast Spiking (FS) interneuron to strike a balance between sensitivity to correlated input and robustness to noise, thereby increasing its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). First, a compartmental FS neuron model was created to match experimental data from striatal FS interneurons in cortex–striatum–substantia nigra organotypic cultures. Densities of sodium, delayed rectifier, and KA channels were optimized to replicate responses to somatic current injection. Spontaneous AMPA and GABA synaptic currents were adjusted to the experimentally measured amplitude, rise time, and interevent interval histograms. Second, two additional adjustments were required to emulate the remaining experimental observations. GABA channels were localized closer to the soma than AMPA channels to match the synaptic population reversal potential. Correlation among inputs was required to produce the observed firing rate during up-states. In this final model, KA channels were essential for suppressing down-state spikes while allowing reliable spike generation during up-states. ... Our results suggest that KA channels allow FS interneurons to operate without a decrease in SNR during conditions of increased dopamine, as occurs in response to reward or anticipated reward. See paper for more and details.
85. Gap junction coupled network of striatal fast spiking interneurons (Hjorth et al. 2009)
Gap junctions between striatal FS neurons has very weak ability to synchronise spiking. Input uncorrelated between neighbouring neurons is shunted, while correlated input is not.
86. Gating of steering signals through phasic modulation of reticulospinal neurons (Kozlov et al. 2014)
" ... We use the lamprey as a model for investigating the role of this phasic modulation of the reticulospinal activity, because the brainstem–spinal cord networks are known down to the cellular level in this phylogenetically oldest extant vertebrate. We describe how the phasic modulation of reticulospinal activity from the spinal CPG ensures reliable steering/turning commands without the need for a very precise timing of on- or offset, by using a biophysically detailed large-scale (19,600 model neurons and 646,800 synapses) computational model of the lamprey brainstem–spinal cord network. To verify that the simulated neural network can control body movements, including turning, the spinal activity is fed to a mechanical model of lamprey swimming. ..."
87. Generation of granule cell dendritic morphology (Schneider et al. 2014)
The following code was used to generate a complete population of 1.2 million granule cell dendritic morphologies within a realistic three-dimensional context. These generated dendritic morphologies match the known biological variability and context-dependence of morphological features.
88. Globus pallidus multi-compartmental model neuron with realistic morphology (Gunay et al. 2008)
"Globus pallidus (GP) neurons recorded in brain slices show significant variability in intrinsic electrophysiological properties. To investigate how this variability arises, we manipulated the biophysical properties of GP neurons using computer simulations. ... Our results indicated that most of the experimental variability could be matched by varying conductance densities, which we confirmed with additional partial block experiments. Further analysis resulted in two key observations: (1) each voltage-gated conductance had effects on multiple measures such as action potential waveform and spontaneous or stimulated spike rates; and (2) the effect of each conductance was highly dependent on the background context of other conductances present. In some cases, such interactions could reverse the effect of the density of one conductance on important excitability measures. ..."
89. Globus pallidus neuron models with differing dendritic Na channel expression (Edgerton et al., 2010)
A set of 9 multi-compartmental rat GP neuron models (585 compartments) differing only in their expression of dendritic fast sodium channels were compared in their synaptic integration properties. Dendritic fast sodium channels were found to increase the importance of distal synapses (both excitatory AND inhibitory), increase spike timing variability with in vivo-like synaptic input, and make the model neurons highly sensitive to clustered synchronous excitation.
90. Impact of dendritic atrophy on intrinsic and synaptic excitability (Narayanan & Chattarji, 2010)
These simulations examined the atrophy induced changes in electrophysiological properties of CA3 pyramidal neurons. We found these neurons change from bursting to regular spiking as atrophy increases. Region-specific atrophy induced region-specific increases in synaptic excitability in a passive dendritic tree. All dendritic compartments of an atrophied neuron had greater synaptic excitability and a larger voltage transfer to the soma than the control neuron.
91. Impact of dendritic size and topology on pyramidal cell burst firing (van Elburg and van Ooyen 2010)
The code provided here was written to systematically investigate which of the physical parameters controlled by dendritic morphology underlies the differences in spiking behaviour observed in different realizations of the 'ping-pong'-model. Structurally varying dendritic topology and length in a simplified model allows us to separate out the physical parameters derived from morphology underlying burst firing. To perform the parameter scans we created a new NEURON tool the MultipleRunControl which can be used to easily set up a parameter scan and write the simulation results to file. Using this code we found that not input conductance but the arrival time of the return current, as measured provisionally by the average electrotonic path length, determines whether the pyramidal cell (with ping-pong model dynamics) will burst or fire single spikes.
92. Impedance spectrum in cortical tissue: implications for LFP signal propagation (Miceli et al. 2017)
" ... Here, we performed a detailed investigation of the frequency dependence of the conductivity within cortical tissue at microscopic distances using small current amplitudes within the typical (neuro)physiological micrometer and sub-nanoampere range. We investigated the propagation of LFPs, induced by extracellular electrical current injections via patch-pipettes, in acute rat brain slice preparations containing the somatosensory cortex in vitro using multielectrode arrays. Based on our data, we determined the cortical tissue conductivity over a 100-fold increase in signal frequency (5-500 Hz). Our results imply at most very weak frequency-dependent effects within the frequency range of physiological LFPs. Using biophysical modeling, we estimated the impact of different putative impedance spectra. Our results indicate that frequency dependencies of the order measured here and in most other studies have negligible impact on the typical analysis and modeling of LFP signals from extracellular brain recordings."
93. Interacting synaptic conductances during, distorting, voltage clamp (Poleg-Polsky and Diamond 2011)
This simulation examines the accuracy of the voltage clamp technique in detecting the excitatory and the inhibitory components of the synaptic drive.
94. Interneuron Specific 3 Interneuron Model (Guet-McCreight et al, 2016)
In this paper we develop morphologically detailed multi-compartment models of Hippocampal CA1 interneuron specific 3 interneurons using cell current-clamp recordings and dendritic calcium imaging data. In doing so, we developed several variant models, as outlined in the associated README.html file.
95. Intracortical synaptic potential modulation by presynaptic somatic potential (Shu et al. 2006, 2007)
" ... Here we show that the voltage fluctuations associated with dendrosomatic synaptic activity propagate significant distances along the axon, and that modest changes in the somatic membrane potential of the presynaptic neuron modulate the amplitude and duration of axonal action potentials and, through a Ca21- dependent mechanism, the average amplitude of the postsynaptic potential evoked by these spikes. These results indicate that synaptic activity in the dendrite and soma controls not only the pattern of action potentials generated, but also the amplitude of the synaptic potentials that these action potentials initiate in local cortical circuits, resulting in synaptic transmission that is a mixture of triggered and graded (analogue) signals."
96. Intrinsic sensory neurons of the gut (Chambers et al. 2014)
A conductance base model of intrinsic neurons neurons in the gastrointestinal tract. The model contains all the major voltage-gated and calcium-gated currents observed in these neurons. This model can reproduce physiological observations such as the response to multiple brief depolarizing currents, prolonged depolarizing currents and hyperpolarizing currents. This model can be used to predict how different currents influence the excitability of intrinsic sensory neurons in the gut.
97. KV1 channel governs cerebellar output to thalamus (Ovsepian et al. 2013)
The output of the cerebellum to the motor axis of the central nervous system is orchestrated mainly by synaptic inputs and intrinsic pacemaker activity of deep cerebellar nuclear (DCN) projection neurons. Herein, we demonstrate that the soma of these cells is enriched with KV1 channels produced by mandatory multi-merization of KV1.1, 1.2 alpha andKV beta2 subunits. Being constitutively active, the K+ current (IKV1) mediated by these channels stabilizes the rate and regulates the temporal precision of self-sustained firing of these neurons. ... Through the use of multi-compartmental modelling and ... the physiological significance of the described functions for processing and communication of information from the lateral DCN to thalamic relay nuclei is established.
98. L5 PFC pyramidal neurons (Papoutsi et al. 2017)
" ... Here, we use a modeling approach to investigate whether and how the morphology of the basal tree mediates the functional output of neurons. We implemented 57 basal tree morphologies of layer 5 prefrontal pyramidal neurons of the rat and identified morphological types which were characterized by different response features, forming distinct functional types. These types were robust to a wide range of manipulations (distribution of active ionic mechanisms, NMDA conductance, somatic and apical tree morphology or the number of activated synapses) and supported different temporal coding schemes at both the single neuron and the microcircuit level. We predict that the basal tree morphological diversity among neurons of the same class mediates their segregation into distinct functional pathways. ..."
99. L5b PC model constrained for BAC firing and perisomatic current step firing (Hay et al., 2011)
"... L5b pyramidal cells have been the subject of extensive experimental and modeling studies, yet conductance-based models of these cells that faithfully reproduce both their perisomatic Na+-spiking behavior as well as key dendritic active properties, including Ca2+ spikes and back-propagating action potentials, are still lacking. Based on a large body of experimental recordings from both the soma and dendrites of L5b pyramidal cells in adult rats, we characterized key features of the somatic and dendritic firing and quantified their statistics. We used these features to constrain the density of a set of ion channels over the soma and dendritic surface via multi-objective optimization with an evolutionary algorithm, thus generating a set of detailed conductance-based models that faithfully replicate the back-propagating action potential activated Ca2+ spike firing and the perisomatic firing response to current steps, as well as the experimental variability of the properties. ... The models we present provide several experimentally-testable predictions and can serve as a powerful tool for theoretical investigations of the contribution of single-cell dynamics to network activity and its computational capabilities. "
100. Lamprey spinal CPG neuron (Huss et al. 2007)
This is a model of a generic locomotor network neuron in the lamprey spinal cord. The given version is assumed to correspond to an interneuron; motoneurons can also be modelled by changing the dendritic tree morphology.
101. Large scale model of the olfactory bulb (Yu et al., 2013)
The readme file currently contains links to the results for all the 72 odors investigated in the paper, and the movie showing the network activity during learning of odor k3-3 (an aliphatic ketone).
102. Layer V PFC pyramidal neuron used to study persistent activity (Sidiropoulou & Poirazi 2012)
"... Here, we use a compartmental modeling approach to search for discriminatory features in the properties of incoming stimuli to a PFC pyramidal neuron and/or its response that signal which of these stimuli will result in persistent activity emergence. Furthermore, we use our modeling approach to study cell-type specific differences in persistent activity properties, via implementing a regular spiking (RS) and an intrinsic bursting (IB) model neuron. ... Collectively, our results pinpoint to specific features of the neuronal response to a given stimulus that code for its ability to induce persistent activity and predict differential roles of RS and IB neurons in persistent activity expression. "
103. Leech Heart (HE) Motor Neuron conductances contributions to NN activity (Lamb & Calabrese 2013)
"... To explore the relationship between conductances, and in particular how they influence the activity of motor neurons in the well characterized leech heartbeat system, we developed a new multi-compartmental Hodgkin-Huxley style leech heart motor neuron model. To do so, we evolved a population of model instances, which differed in the density of specific conductances, capable of achieving specific output activity targets given an associated input pattern. ... We found that the strengths of many conductances, including those with differing dynamics, had strong partial correlations and that these relationships appeared to be linked by their influence on heart motor neuron activity. Conductances that had positive correlations opposed one another and had the opposite effects on activity metrics when perturbed whereas conductances that had negative correlations could compensate for one another and had similar effects on activity metrics. "
104. Leech Mechanosensory Neurons: Synaptic Facilitation by Reflected APs (Baccus 1998)
This model by Stephen Baccus explores the phenomena of action potential (AP) propagation at branch boints in axons. APs are sometimes transmitted down the efferent processes and sometimes are reflected back to the axon of AP origin or neither. See the paper for details. The model zip file contains a readme.txt which list introductory steps to follow to run the simulation. Stephen Baccus's email address: baccus@fas.harvard.edu
105. Linear vs non-linear integration in CA1 oblique dendrites (Gómez González et al. 2011)
The hippocampus in well known for its role in learning and memory processes. The CA1 region is the output of the hippocampal formation and pyramidal neurons in this region are the elementary units responsible for the processing and transfer of information to the cortex. Using this detailed single neuron model, it is investigated the conditions under which individual CA1 pyramidal neurons process incoming information in a complex (non-linear) as opposed to a passive (linear) manner. This detailed compartmental model of a CA1 pyramidal neuron is based on one described previously (Poirazi, 2003). The model was adapted to five different reconstructed morphologies for this study, and slightly modified to fit the experimental data of (Losonczy, 2006), and to incorporate evidence in pyramidal neurons for the non-saturation of NMDA receptor-mediated conductances by single glutamate pulses. We first replicate the main findings of (Losonczy, 2006), including the very brief window for nonlinear integration using single-pulse stimuli. We then show that double-pulse stimuli increase a CA1 pyramidal neuron’s tolerance for input asynchrony by at last an order of magnitude. Therefore, it is shown using this model, that the time window for nonlinear integration is extended by more than an order of magnitude when inputs are short bursts as opposed to single spikes.
106. Low Threshold Calcium Currents in TC cells (Destexhe et al 1998)
In Destexhe, Neubig, Ulrich, and Huguenard (1998) experiments and models examine low threshold calcium current's (IT, or T-current) distribution in thalamocortical (TC) cells. Multicompartmental modeling supports the hypothesis that IT currents have a density at least several fold higher in the dendrites than the soma. The IT current contributes significantly to rebound bursts and is thought to have important network behavior consequences. See the paper for details. See also http://cns.iaf.cnrs-gif.fr Correspondance may be addressed to Alain Destexhe: Destexhe@iaf.cnrs-gif.fr
107. MCCAIS model (multicompartmental cooperative AIS) (Öz et al 2015)
Action potential initiation in a multi-compartmental model with cooperatively gating Na channels in the axon initial segment.
108. Mechanisms of fast rhythmic bursting in a layer 2/3 cortical neuron (Traub et al 2003)
This simulation is based on the reference paper listed below. This port was made by Roger D Traub and Maciej T Lazarewicz (mlazarew at seas.upenn.edu) Thanks to Ashlen P Reid for help with porting a morphology of the cell.
109. Mechanisms of very fast oscillations in axon networks coupled by gap junctions (Munro, Borgers 2010)
Axons connected by gap junctions can produce very fast oscillations (VFOs, > 80 Hz) when stimulated randomly at a low rate. The models here explore the mechanisms of VFOs that can be seen in an axonal plexus, (Munro & Borgers, 2009): a large network model of an axonal plexus, small network models of axons connected by gap junctions, and an implementation of the model underlying figure 12 in Traub et al. (1999) . The large network model consists of 3,072 5-compartment axons connected in a random network. The 5-compartment axons are the 5 axonal compartments from the CA3 pyramidal cell model in Traub et al. (1994) with a fixed somatic voltage. The random network has the same parameters as the random network in Traub et al. (1999), and axons are stimulated randomly via a Poisson process with a rate of 2/s/axon. The small network models simulate waves propagating through small networks of axons connected by gap junctions to study how local connectivity affects the refractory period.
110. Mechanisms underlying subunit independence in pyramidal neuron dendrites (Behabadi and Mel 2014)
"...Using a detailed compartmental model of a layer 5 pyramidal neuron, and an improved method for quantifying subunit independence that incorporates a more accurate model of dendritic integration, we first established that the output of each dendrite can be almost perfectly predicted by the intensity and spatial configuration of its own synaptic inputs, and is nearly invariant to the rate of bAP-mediated 'cross-talk' from other dendrites over a 100-fold range..."
111. Microcircuits of L5 thick tufted pyramidal cells (Hay & Segev 2015)
"... We simulated detailed conductance-based models of TTCs (Layer 5 thick tufted pyramidal cells) forming recurrent microcircuits that were interconnected as found experimentally; the network was embedded in a realistic background synaptic activity. ... Our findings indicate that dendritic nonlinearities are pivotal in controlling the gain and the computational functions of TTCs microcircuits, which serve as a dominant output source for the neocortex. "
112. Mirror Neuron (Antunes et al 2017)
Modeling Mirror Neurons Through Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity. This script reproduces Figure 3B.
113. Model of arrhythmias in a cardiac cells network (Casaleggio et al. 2014)
" ... Here we explore the possible processes leading to the occasional onset and termination of the (usually) non-fatal arrhythmias widely observed in the heart. Using a computational model of a two-dimensional network of cardiac cells, we tested the hypothesis that an ischemia alters the properties of the gap junctions inside the ischemic area. ... In conclusion, our model strongly supports the hypothesis that non-fatal arrhythmias can develop from post-ischemic alteration of the electrical connectivity in a relatively small area of the cardiac cell network, and suggests experimentally testable predictions on their possible treatments."
114. Modeling interactions in Aplysia neuron R15 (Yu et al 2004)
"The biophysical properties of neuron R15 in Aplysia endow it with the ability to express multiple modes of oscillatory electrical activity, such as beating and bursting. Previous modeling studies examined the ways in which membrane conductances contribute to the electrical activity of R15 and the ways in which extrinsic modulatory inputs alter the membrane conductances by biochemical cascades and influence the electrical activity. The goals of the present study were to examine the ways in which electrical activity influences the biochemical cascades and what dynamical properties emerge from the ongoing interactions between electrical activity and these cascades." See paper for more and details.
115. Modeling temperature changes in AMPAR kinetics (Postlethwaite et al 2007)
This model was used to simulate glutamatergic, AMPA receptor mediated mEPSCs (miniature EPSCs, resulting from spontaneous vesicular transmitter release) at the calyx of Held synapse. It was used to assess the influence of temperature (physiological vs. subphysiological) on the amplitude and time course of mEPSCs. In the related paper, simulation results were directly compared to the experimental data, and it was concluded that an increase of temperature accelerates AMPA receptor kinetics.
116. Multi-comp. CA1 O-LM interneuron model with varying dendritic Ih distributions (Sekulic et al 2015)
The model presented here was used to investigate possible dendritic distributions of the HCN channel-mediated current (Ih) in models of oriens-lacunosum/moleculare (O-LM) CA1 hippocampal interneurons. Physiological effects of varying the dendritic distributions consisted of examining back-propagating action potential speeds.
117. Multicompartmental cerebellar granule cell model (Diwakar et al. 2009)
A detailed multicompartmental model was used to study neuronal electroresponsiveness of cerebellar granule cells in rats. Here we show that, in cerebellar granule cells, Na+ channels are enriched in the axon, especially in the hillock, but almost absent from soma and dendrites. Numerical simulations indicated that granule cells have a compact electrotonic structure allowing EPSPs to diffuse with little attenuation from dendrites to axon. The spike arose almost simultaneously along the whole axonal ascending branch and invaded the hillock, whose activation promoted spike back-propagation with marginal delay (<200 micros) and attenuation (<20 mV) into the somato-dendritic compartment. For details check the cited article.
118. MyFirstNEURON (Houweling, Sejnowski 1997)
MyFirstNEURON is a NEURON demo by Arthur Houweling and Terry Sejnowski. Perform experiments from the book 'Electrophysiology of the Neuron, A Companion to Shepherd's Neurobiology, An Interactive Tutorial' by John Huguenard & David McCormick, Oxford University Press 1997, or design your own one or two cell simulation.
119. NAcc medium spiny neuron: effects of cannabinoid withdrawal (Spiga et al. 2010)
Cannabinoid withdrawal produces a hypofunction of dopaminergic neurons targeting medium spiny neurons (MSN) of the forebrain. Administration of a CB1 receptor antagonist to control rats provoked structural abnormalities, reminiscent of those observed in withdrawal conditions and support the regulatory role of cannabinoids in neurogenesis, axonal growth and synaptogenesis. Experimental observations were incorporated into a realistic computational model which predicts a strong reduction in the excitability of morphologically-altered MSN, yielding a significant reduction in action potential output. These paper provided direct morphological evidence for functional abnormalities associated with cannabinoid dependence at the level of dopaminergic neurons and their post synaptic counterpart, supporting a hypodopaminergic state as a distinctive feature of the “addicted brain”.
120. Neocort. pyramidal cells subthreshold somatic voltage controls spike propagation (Munro Kopell 2012)
There is suggestive evidence that pyramidal cell axons in neocortex may be coupled by gap junctions into an ``axonal plexus" capable of generating Very Fast Oscillations (VFOs) with frequencies exceeding 80 Hz. It is not obvious, however, how a pyramidal cell in such a network could control its output when action potentials are free to propagate from the axons of other pyramidal cells into its own axon. We address this problem by means of simulations based on 3D reconstructions of pyramidal cells from rat somatosensory cortex. We show that somatic depolarization enables propagation via gap junctions into the initial segment and main axon, while somatic hyperpolarization disables it. We show further that somatic voltage cannot effectively control action potential propagation through gap junctions on minor collaterals; action potentials may therefore propagate freely from such collaterals regardless of somatic voltage. In previous work, VFOs are all but abolished during the hyperpolarization phase of slow-oscillations induced by anesthesia in vivo. This finding constrains the density of gap junctions on collaterals in our model and suggests that axonal sprouting due to cortical lesions may result in abnormally high gap junction density on collaterals, leading in turn to excessive VFO activity and hence to epilepsy via kindling.
121. Nigral dopaminergic neurons: effects of ethanol on Ih (Migliore et al. 2008)
We use a realistic computational model of dopaminergic neurons in vivo to suggest that ethanol, through its effects on Ih, modifies the temporal structure of the spiking activity. The model predicts that the dopamine level may increase much more during bursting than pacemaking activity, especially in those brain regions with a slow dopamine clearance rate. The results suggest that a selective pharmacological remedy could thus be devised against the rewarding effects of ethanol that are postulated to mediate alcohol abuse and addiction, targeting the specific HCN genes expressed in dopaminergic neurons.
122. Nonlinear dendritic processing in barrel cortex spiny stellate neurons (Lavzin et al. 2012)
This is a multi-compartmental simulation of a spiny stellate neuron which is stimulated by a thalamocortical (TC) and cortico-cortical (CC) inputs. No other cells are explicitly modeled; the presynaptic network activation is represented by the number of active synapses. Preferred and non –preferred thalamic directions thus correspond to larder/smaller number of TC synapses. This simulation revealed that randomly activated synapses can cooperatively trigger global NMDA spikes, which involve participation of most of the dendritic tree. Surprisingly, we found that although the voltage profile of the cell was uniform, the calcium influx was restricted to ‘hot spots’ which correspond to synaptic clusters or large conductance synapses
123. Norns - Neural Network Studio (Visser & Van Gils 2014)
The Norns - Neural Network Studio is a software package for designing, simulation and analyzing networks of spiking neurons. It consists of three parts: 1. "Urd": a Matlab frontend with high-level functions for quickly defining networks 2. "Verdandi": an optimized C++ simulation environment which runs the simulation defined by Urd 3. "Skuld": an advanced Matlab graphical user interface (GUI) for visual inspection of simulated data.
124. Numerical Integration of Izhikevich and HH model neurons (Stewart and Bair 2009)
The Parker-Sochacki method is a new technique for the numerical integration of differential equations applicable to many neuronal models. Using this method, the solution order can be adapted according to the local conditions at each time step, enabling adaptive error control without changing the integration timestep. We apply the Parker-Sochacki method to the Izhikevich ‘simple’ model and a Hodgkin-Huxley type neuron, comparing the results with those obtained using the Runge-Kutta and Bulirsch-Stoer methods.
125. O-LM interneuron model (Lawrence et al. 2006)
Exploring the kinetics and distribution of the muscarinic potassium channel, IM, in 2 O-LM interneuron morphologies. Modulation of the ion channel by drugs such as XE991 (antagonist) and retigabine (agonist) are simulated in the models to examine the role of IM in spiking properties.
126. Olfactory bulb mitral and granule cell column formation (Migliore et al. 2007)
In the olfactory bulb, the processing units for odor discrimination are believed to involve dendrodendritic synaptic interactions between mitral and granule cells. There is increasing anatomical evidence that these cells are organized in columns, and that the columns processing a given odor are arranged in widely distributed arrays. Experimental evidence is lacking on the underlying learning mechanisms for how these columns and arrays are formed. We have used a simplified realistic circuit model to test the hypothesis that distributed connectivity can self-organize through an activity-dependent dendrodendritic synaptic mechanism. The results point to action potentials propagating in the mitral cell lateral dendrites as playing a critical role in this mechanism, and suggest a novel and robust learning mechanism for the development of distributed processing units in a cortical structure.
127. Olfactory bulb mitral and granule cell: dendrodendritic microcircuits (Migliore and Shepherd 2008)
This model shows how backpropagating action potentials in the long lateral dendrites of mitral cells, together with granule cell actions on mitral cells within narrow columns forming glomerular units, can provide a mechanism to activate strong local inhibition between arbitrarily distant mitral cells. The simulations predict a new role for the dendrodendritic synapses in the multicolumnar organization of the granule cells.
128. Olfactory Computations in Mitral-Granule cell circuits (Migliore & McTavish 2013)
Model files for the entry "Olfactory Computations in Mitral-Granule Cell Circuits" of the Springer Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience by Michele Migliore and Tom Mctavish. The simulations illustrate two typical Mitral-Granule cell circuits in the olfactory bulb of vertebrates: distance-independent lateral inhibition and gating effects.
129. Olfactory Mitral Cell (Bhalla, Bower 1993)
This is a conversion to NEURON of the mitral cell model described in Bhalla and Bower (1993). The original model was written in GENESIS and is available by joining BABEL, the GENESIS users' group here http://www.genesis-sim.org/GENESIS/babel.html
130. Optical stimulation of a channelrhodopsin-2 positive pyramidal neuron model (Foutz et al 2012)
A computational tool to explore the underlying principles of optogenetic neural stimulation. This "light-neuron" model consists of theoretical representations of the light dynamics generated by a fiber optic in brain tissue, coupled to a multicompartment cable model of a cortical pyramidal neuron (Hu et al. 2009, ModelDB #123897) embedded with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) membrane dynamics. Simulations predict that the activation threshold is sensitive to many of the properties of ChR2 (density, conductivity, and kinetics), tissue medium (scattering and absorbance), and the fiber-optic light source (diameter and numerical aperture). This model system represents a scientific instrument to characterize the effects of optogenetic neuromodulation, as well as an engineering design tool to help guide future development of optogenetic technology.
131. Paradoxical GABA-mediated excitation (Lewin et al. 2012)
"GABA is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system, but in some circumstances can lead to a paradoxical excitation that has been causally implicated in diverse pathologies from endocrine stress responses to diseases of excitability including neuropathic pain and temporal lobe epilepsy. We undertook a computational modeling approach to determine plausible ionic mechanisms of GABAA-dependent excitation in isolated post-synaptic CA1 hippocampal neurons because it may constitute a trigger for pathological synchronous epileptiform discharge. In particular, the interplay intracellular chloride accumulation via the GABAA receptor and extracellular potassium accumulation via the K/Cl co-transporter KCC2 in promoting GABAA-mediated excitation is complex. ..."
132. Parvalbumin-positive basket cells differentiate among hippocampal pyramidal cells (Lee et al. 2014)
This detailed microcircuit model explores the network level effects of sublayer specific connectivity in the mouse CA1. The differences in strengths and numbers of synapses between PV+ basket cells and either superficial sublayer or deep sublayer pyramidal cells enables a routing of inhibition from superficial to deep pyramidal cells. At the network level of this model, the effects become quite prominent when one compares the effect on firing rates when either the deep or superficial pyramidal cells receive a selective increase in excitation.
133. Principles of Computational Modelling in Neuroscience (Book) (Sterratt et al. 2011)
"... This book provides a step-by-step account of how to model the neuron and neural circuitry to understand the nervous system at all levels, from ion channels to networks. Starting with a simple model of the neuron as an electrical circuit, gradually more details are added to include the effects of neuronal morphology, synapses, ion channels and intracellular signaling. The principle of abstraction is explained through chapters on simplifying models, and how simplified models can be used in networks. This theme is continued in a final chapter on modeling the development of the nervous system. Requiring an elementary background in neuroscience and some high school mathematics, this textbook is an ideal basis for a course on computational neuroscience."
134. Proximal inhibition of Renshaw cells (Bui et al 2005)
Inhibitory synaptic inputs to Renshaw cells are concentrated on the soma and the juxtasomatic dendrites. In the present study, we investigated whether this proximal bias leads to more effective inhibition under different neuronal operating conditions. Using compartmental models based on detailed anatomical measurements of intracellularly stained Renshaw cells, we compared the inhibition produced by GABAA synapses when distributed with a proximal bias to the inhibition produced when the same synapses were distributed uniformly. See paper for more and details.
135. Pyramidal Neuron Deep, Superficial; Aspiny, Stellate (Mainen and Sejnowski 1996)
This package contains compartmental models of four reconstructed neocortical neurons (layer 3 Aspiny, layer 4 Stellate, layer 3 and layer 5 Pyramidal neurons) with active dendritic currents using NEURON. Running this simulation demonstrates that an entire spectrum of firing patterns can be reproduced in this set of model neurons which share a common distribution of ion channels and differ only in their dendritic geometry. The reference paper is: Z. F. Mainen and T. J. Sejnowski (1996) Influence of dendritic structure on firing pattern in model neocortical neurons. Nature 382: 363-366. See also http://www.cnl.salk.edu/~zach/methods.html and http://www.cnl.salk.edu/~zach/ More info in readme.txt file below made visible by clicking on the patdemo folder and then on the readme.txt file.
136. Rapid desynchronization of an electrically coupled Golgi cell network (Vervaeke et al. 2010)
Electrical synapses between interneurons contribute to synchronized firing and network oscillations in the brain. However, little is known about how such networks respond to excitatory synaptic input. In addition to detailed electrophysiological recordings and histological investigations of electrically coupled Golgi cells in the cerebellum, a detailed network model of these cells was created. The cell models are based on reconstructed Golgi cell morphologies and the active conductances are taken from an earlier abstract Golgi cell model (Solinas et al 2007, accession no. 112685). Our results show that gap junction coupling can sometimes be inhibitory and either promote network synchronization or trigger rapid network desynchronization depending on the synaptic input. The model is available as a neuroConstruct project and can executable scripts can be generated for the NEURON simulator.
137. Rat LGN Thalamocortical Neuron (Connelly et al 2015, 2016)
" ... Here, combining data from fluorescence-targeted dendritic recordings and Ca2+ imaging from low-threshold spiking cells in rat brain slices with computational modeling, the cellular mechanism responsible for LTS (Low Threshold Spike) generation is established. ..." " ... Using dendritic recording, 2-photon glutamate uncaging, and computational modeling, we investigated how rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus thalamocortical neurons integrate excitatory corticothalamic feedback. ..."
138. Regulation of the firing pattern in dopamine neurons (Komendantov et al 2004)
Midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vivo exhibit two major firing patterns: single-spike firing and burst firing. The firing pattern expressed is dependent on both the intrinsic properties of the neurons and their excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Experimental data suggest that the activation of NMDA and GABAA receptors is crucial contributor to the initiation and suppression of burst firing, respectively, and that blocking calcium-activated potassium channels can facilitate burst firing. This multi-compartmental model of a DA neuron with a branching structure was developed and calibrated based on in vitro experimental data to explore the effects of different levels of activation of NMDA and GABAA receptors as well as the modulation of the SK current on the firing activity.
139. Rhesus Monkey Layer 3 Pyramidal Neurons: V1 vs PFC (Amatrudo, Weaver et al. 2012)
Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and high-resolution 3D morphometric analyses of layer 3 pyramidal neurons in in vitro slices of monkey primary visual cortex (V1) and dorsolateral granular prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) revealed that neurons in these two brain areas possess highly distinctive structural and functional properties. ... Three-dimensional reconstructions of V1 and dlPFC neurons were incorporated into computational models containing Hodgkin-Huxley and AMPA- and GABAA-receptor gated channels. Morphology alone largely accounted for observed passive physiological properties, but led to AP firing rates that differed more than observed empirically, and to synaptic responses that opposed empirical results. Accordingly, modeling predicts that active channel conductances differ between V1 and dlPFC neurons. The unique features of V1 and dlPFC neurons are likely fundamental determinants of area-specific network behavior. The compact electrotonic arbor and increased excitability of V1 neurons support the rapid signal integration required for early processing of visual information. The greater connectivity and dendritic complexity of dlPFC neurons likely support higher level cognitive functions including working memory and planning.
140. Rhesus Monkey Layer 3 Pyramidal Neurons: Young vs aged PFC (Coskren et al. 2015)
Layer 3 (L3) pyramidal neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) of rhesus monkeys exhibit dendritic regression, spine loss and increased action potential (AP) firing rates during normal aging. The relationship between these structural and functional alterations, if any, is unknown. Computational models using the digital reconstructions with Hodgkin-Huxley and AMPA channels allowed us to assess relationships between demonstrated age-related changes and to predict physiological changes that have not yet been tested empirically. Tuning passive parameters for each model predicted significantly higher membrane resistance (Rm) in aged versus young neurons. This Rm increase alone did not account for the empirically observed fI-curves, but coupling these Rm values with subtle differences in morphology and membrane capacitance Cm did. The predicted differences in passive parameters (or other parameters with similar effects) are mathematically plausible, but must be tested empirically.
141. Rhesus Monkey Young and Aged L3 PFC Pyramidal Neurons (Rumbell et al. 2016)
A stereotypical pyramidal neuron morphology with ion channel parameter combinations that reproduce firing patterns of one young and one aged rhesus monkey L3 PFC pyramidal neurons. Parameters were found through an automated optimization method.
142. Salamander retinal ganglian cells: morphology influences firing (Sheasby, Fohlmeister 1999)
Nerve impulse entrainment and other excitation and passive phenomena are analyzed for a morphologically diverse and exhaustive data set (n=57) of realistic (3-dimensional computer traced) soma-dendritic tree structures of ganglion cells in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) retina.
143. Salamander retinal ganglion cell: ion channels (Fohlmeister, Miller 1997)
A realistic five (5) channel spiking model reproduces the bursting behavior of tiger salamander ganglion cells in the retina. Please see the readme for more information.
144. Schiz.-linked gene effects on intrinsic single-neuron excitability (Maki-Marttunen et al. 2016)
Python scripts for running NEURON simulations that model a layer V pyramidal cell with certain genetic variants implemented. The genes included are obtained from genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia.
145. Shaping NMDA spikes by timed synaptic inhibition on L5PC (Doron et al. 2017)
This work (published in "Timed synaptic inhibition shapes NMDA spikes, influencing local dendritic processing and global I/O properties of cortical neurons", Doron et al, Cell Reports, 2017), examines the effect of timed inhibition over dendritic NMDA spikes on L5PC (Based on Hay et al., 2011) and CA1 cell (Based on Grunditz et al. 2008 and Golding et al. 2001).
146. Single compartment Dorsal Lateral Medium Spiny Neuron w/ NMDA and AMPA (Biddell and Johnson 2013)
A biophysical single compartment model of the dorsal lateral striatum medium spiny neuron is presented here. The model is an implementation then adaptation of a previously described model (Mahon et al. 2002). The model has been adapted to include NMDA and AMPA receptor models that have been fit to dorsal lateral striatal neurons. The receptor models allow for excitation by other neuron models.
147. Sloppy morphological tuning in identified neurons of the crustacean STG (Otopalik et al 2017)
" ...Theoretical studies suggest that morphology is tightly tuned to minimize wiring and conduction delay of synaptic events. We utilize high-resolution confocal microscopy and custom computational tools to characterize the morphologies of four neuron types in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the crab Cancer borealis. Macroscopic branching patterns and fine cable properties are variable within and across neuron types. We compare these neuronal structures to synthetic minimal spanning neurite trees constrained by a wiring cost equation and find that STG neurons do not adhere to prevailing hypotheses regarding wiring optimization principles. In this highly-modulated and oscillating circuit, neuronal structures appear to be governed by a space-filling mechanism that outweighs the cost of inefficient wiring."
148. Smoothing of, and parameter estimation from, noisy biophysical recordings (Huys & Paninski 2009)
" ... Sequential Monte Carlo (“particle filtering”) methods, in combination with a detailed biophysical description of a cell, are used for principled, model-based smoothing of noisy recording data. We also provide an alternative formulation of smoothing where the neural nonlinearities are estimated in a non-parametric manner. Biophysically important parameters of detailed models (such as channel densities, intercompartmental conductances, input resistances, and observation noise) are inferred automatically from noisy data via expectation-maximisation. ..."
149. Space clamp problems in neurons with voltage-gated conductances (Bar-Yehuda and Korngreen 2008)
" ... using numerical simulations, we show that the distortions of voltage-gated K+ and Ca2+ currents are substantial even in neurons with short dendrites. The simulations also demonstrate that passive cable theory cannot be used to justify voltage-clamping of neurons, due to significant shunting to the reversal potential of the voltage-gated conductance during channel activation. ... "
150. Spatial summation of excitatory and inhibitory inputs in pyramidal neurons (Hao et al. 2010)
"... Based on realistic modeling and experiments in rat hippocampal slices, we derived a simple arithmetic rule for spatial summation of concurrent excitatory glutamatergic inputs (E) and inhibitory GABAergic inputs (I). The somatic response can be well approximated as the sum of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP), and a nonlinear term proportional to their product (k*EPSP*IPSP), where the coefficient k reflects the strength of shunting effect. ..."
151. Spike Initiation in Neocortical Pyramidal Neurons (Mainen et al 1995)
This model reproduces figure 3A from the paper Mainen ZF, Joerges J, Huguenard JR, Sejnowski TJ (1995). Please see the paper for detail whose full text is available at http://www.cnl.salk.edu/~zach/methods.html Email Zach Mainen for questions: mainen@cshl.org
152. Spike propagation and bouton activation in terminal arborizations (Luscher, Shiner 1990)
Action potential propagation in axons with bifurcations involving short collaterals with synaptic boutons has been simulated ... The architecture of the terminal arborizations has a profound effect on the activation pattern of synapses, suggesting that terminal arborizations not only distribute neural information to postsynaptic cells but may also be able to process neural information presynaptically. Please see paper for details.
153. Spike-timing dependent inhibitory plasticity for gating bAPs (Wilmes et al 2017)
"Inhibition is known to influence the forward-directed flow of information within neurons. However, also regulation of backward-directed signals, such as backpropagating action potentials (bAPs), can enrich the functional repertoire of local circuits. Inhibitory control of bAP spread, for example, can provide a switch for the plasticity of excitatory synapses. Although such a mechanism is possible, it requires a precise timing of inhibition to annihilate bAPs without impairment of forward-directed excitatory information flow. Here, we propose a specific learning rule for inhibitory synapses to automatically generate the correct timing to gate bAPs in pyramidal cells when embedded in a local circuit of feedforward inhibition. Based on computational modeling of multi-compartmental neurons with physiological properties, we demonstrate that a learning rule with anti-Hebbian shape can establish the required temporal precision. ..."
154. Spiking GridPlaceMap model (Pilly & Grossberg, PLoS One, 2013)
Development of spiking grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system to represent positions in large spaces
155. Spine fusion and branching effects synaptic response (Rusakov et al 1996, 1997)
This compartmental model of a hippocampal granule cell has spinous synapses placed on the second-order dendrites. Changes in shape and connectivity of the spines usually does not effect the synaptic response of the cell unless active conductances are incorporated into the spine membrane (e.g. voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels). With active conductances, spines can generate spike-like events. We showed that changes like fusion and branching, or in fact any increase in the equivalent spine neck resistance, could trigger a dramatic increase in the spine's influence on the dendritic shaft potential.
156. Stochastic 3D model of neonatal rat spinal motoneuron (Ostroumov 2007)
" ... Although existing models of motoneurons have indicated the distributed role of certain conductances in regulating firing, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of certain currents is ultimately shaping motoneuron output. Thus, it would be helpful to build a bridge between histological and electrophysiological data. The present report is based on the construction of a 3D motoneuron model based on available parameters applicable to the neonatal spinal cord. ..."
157. Stochastic ion channels and neuronal morphology (Cannon et al. 2010)
"... We introduce and validate new computational tools that enable efficient generation and simulation of models containing stochastic ion channels distributed across dendritic and axonal membranes. Comparison of five morphologically distinct neuronal cell types reveals that when all simulated neurons contain identical densities of stochastic ion channels, the amplitude of stochastic membrane potential fluctuations differs between cell types and depends on sub-cellular location. ..." The code is downloadable and more information is available at <a href="http://www.psics.org/">http://www.psics.org/</a>
158. Stochastic model of the olfactory cilium transduction and adaptation (Antunes et al 2014)
" ... In this work, we have combined stochastic computational modeling and a systematic pharmacological study of different signaling pathways to investigate their impact during short-term adaptation (STA). ... These results suggest that G-coupled receptors (GPCRs) cycling is involved with the occurrence of STA. To gain insights on the dynamical aspects of this process, we developed a stochastic computational model. The model consists of the olfactory transduction currents mediated by the cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channels and calcium ion (Ca2+)-activated chloride (CAC) channels, and the dynamics of their respective ligands, cAMP and Ca2+, and it simulates the EOG (electroolfactogram) results obtained under different experimental conditions through changes in the amplitude and duration of cAMP and Ca2+ response, two second messengers implicated with STA occurrence. The model reproduced the experimental data for each pharmacological treatment and provided a mechanistic explanation for the action of GPCR cycling in the levels of second messengers modulating the levels of STA. All together, these experimental and theoretical results indicate the existence of a mechanism of regulation of STA by signaling pathways that control GPCR cycling and tune the levels of second messengers in OSNs, and not only by CNG channel desensitization as previously thought. "
159. Striatal D1R medium spiny neuron, including a subcellular DA cascade (Lindroos et al 2018)
We are investigating how dopaminergic modulation of single channels can be combined to make the D1R possitive MSN more excitable. We also connect multiple channels to substrates of a dopamine induced subcellular cascade to highlight that the classical pathway is too slow to explain DA induced kinetics in the subsecond range (Howe and Dombeck, 2016. doi: 10.1038/nature18942)
160. Striatal NN model of MSNs and FSIs investigated effects of dopamine depletion (Damodaran et al 2015)
This study investigates the mechanisms that are affected in the striatal network after dopamine depletion and identifies potential therapeutic targets to restore normal activity.
161. Synaptic integration in a model of granule cells (Gabbiani et al 1994)
We have developed a compartmental model of a turtle cerebellar granule cell consisting of 13 compartments that represent the soma and 4 dendrites. We used this model to investigate the synaptic integration of mossy fiber inputs in granule cells. See reference or abstract at PubMed link below for more information.
162. Synaptic integration in tuft dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (Larkum et al. 2009)
Simulations used in the paper. Voltage responses to current injections in different tuft locations; NMDA and calcium spike generation. Summation of multiple input distribution.
163. Synchronicity of fast-spiking interneurons balances medium-spiny neurons (Damodaran et al. 2014)
This study investigates the role of feedforward and feedback inhibition in maintaining the balance between D1 and D2 MSNs of the striatum. The synchronized firing of FSIs are found to be critical in this mechanism and specifically the gap junction connections between FSIs.
164. Thalamic reticular neurons: the role of Ca currents (Destexhe et al 1996)
The experiments and modeling reported in this paper show how intrinsic bursting properties of RE cells may be explained by dendritic calcium currents.
165. The neocortical microcircuit collaboration portal (Markram et al. 2015)
"This portal provides an online public resource of the Blue Brain Project's first release of a digital reconstruction of the microcircuitry of juvenile Rat somatosensory cortex, access to experimental data sets used in the reconstruction, and the resulting models."
166. Theta phase precession in a model CA3 place cell (Baker and Olds 2007)
"... The present study concerns a neurobiologically based computational model of the emergence of theta phase precession in which the responses of a single model CA3 pyramidal cell are examined in the context of stimulation by realistic afferent spike trains including those of place cells in entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus, and other CA3 pyramidal cells. Spike-timing dependent plasticity in the model CA3 pyramidal cell leads to a spatially correlated associational synaptic drive that subsequently creates a spatially asymmetric expansion of the model cell’s place field. ... Through selective manipulations of the model it is possible to decompose theta phase precession in CA3 into the separate contributing factors of inheritance from upstream afferents in the dentate gyrus and entorhinal cortex, the interaction of synaptically controlled increasing afferent drive with phasic inhibition, and the theta phase difference between dentate gyrus granule cell and CA3 pyramidal cell activity."
167. Transfer properties of Neuronal Dendrites (Korogod et al 1998)
The somatopetal current transfer was studied in mathematical models of a reconstructed brainstem motoneuron with tonically activated excitatory synaptic inputs uniformly distributed over the dendritic arborization. See paper and below readme.txt for more information.
168. Using Strahler`s analysis to reduce realistic models (Marasco et al, 2013)
Building on our previous work (Marasco et al., (2012)), we present a general reduction method based on Strahler's analysis of neuron morphologies. We show that, without any fitting or tuning procedures, it is possible to map any morphologically and biophysically accurate neuron model into an equivalent reduced version. Using this method for Purkinje cells, we demonstrate how run times can be reduced up to 200-fold, while accurately taking into account the effects of arbitrarily located and activated synaptic inputs.
169. Voltage attenuation in CA1 pyramidal neuron dendrites (Golding et al 2005)
Voltage attenuation in the apical dendritic field of CA1 pyramidal neurons is particularly strong for epsps spreading toward the soma. High cytoplasmic resistivity and high membrane (leak) conductance appear to be the major determinants of voltage attenuation over most of the apical field, but H current may be responsible for as much as half of the attenuation of distal apical epsps.
170. Voltage- and Branch-specific Climbing Fiber Responses in Purkinje Cells (Zang et al 2018)
"Climbing fibers (CFs) provide instructive signals driving cerebellar learning, but mechanisms causing the variable CF responses in Purkinje cells (PCs) are not fully understood. Using a new experimentally validated PC model, we unveil the ionic mechanisms underlying CF-evoked distinct spike waveforms on different parts of the PC. We demonstrate that voltage can gate both the amplitude and the spatial range of CF-evoked Ca2+ influx by the availability of K+ currents. ... The voltage- and branch-specific CF responses can increase dendritic computational capacity and enable PCs to actively integrate CF signals."

Re-display model names without descriptions