The virtual slice setup (Lytton et al. 2008)

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Accession:116838
"In an effort to design a simulation environment that is more similar to that of neurophysiology, we introduce a virtual slice setup in the NEURON simulator. The virtual slice setup runs continuously and permits parameter changes, including changes to synaptic weights and time course and to intrinsic cell properties. The virtual slice setup permits shocks to be applied at chosen locations and activity to be sampled intra- or extracellularly from chosen locations. ..."
Reference:
1 . Lytton WW, Neymotin SA, Hines ML (2008) The virtual slice setup. J Neurosci Methods 171:309-15 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network; Extracellular;
Brain Region(s)/Organism:
Cell Type(s):
Channel(s):
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s):
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s):
Simulation Environment: NEURON;
Model Concept(s):
Implementer(s): Lytton, William [billl at neurosim.downstate.edu]; Neymotin, Sam [samn at neurosim.downstate.edu];
/
b09jan08
README.html
intf_.mod
misc.mod *
nstim.mod *
stats.mod
vecst.mod
misc.h
mosinit.hoc
screenshot.jpg
                            
// Created 01/06/09 12:35:25 by "/usr/site/scripts/loadfiles batch.hoc"
//================================================================
// INSERTED batch.hoc
// =Id=  init.hoc,v 1.16 2008/11/06 21:02:51 billl Exp 

showdemo=1
xwindows=1
show_panel=0
pwd()
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/setup.hoc
// =Id=  setup.hoc,v 1.24 2006/11/08 00:51:51 billl Exp 
// variables normally controlled by SIMCTRL

// load_file("setup.hoc")
load_file("stdgui.hoc")
show_panel=0
strdef simname, filename, output_file, datestr, uname, comment, section, osname
objref tmpfile,nil,graphItem,sfunc
sfunc = hoc_sf_  // from stdlib.hoc
proc chop () { sfunc.left($s1,sfunc.len($s1)-1) }

tmpfile = new File()
simname = "sim"      // helpful if running multiple simulations simultaneously
runnum = 1           // updated at end of run
system("uname -m",uname)  // keep track of type of machine for byte compatibility
chop(uname)
system("date +%y%b%d",datestr)
chop(datestr) // may prefer to downcase later
sprint(output_file,"data/%s.%02d",datestr,runnum)  // assumes a subdir called data
if (unix_mac_pc()==1) osname = "Linux" else if (unix_mac_pc()==2) { 
    osname = "Mac" } else if (unix_mac_pc()==3) osname = "PC"
printStep = 0.25 // time interval for saving to vector
graph_flag=0
batch_flag=1
xwindows = 0     // can still save but not look without xwindows

// load_file("nrnoc.hoc")
// END /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/setup.hoc
//================================================================
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/simctrl/hoc/nrnoc.hoc
// =Id=  nrnoc.hoc,v 1.74 2007/11/20 07:51:52 billl Exp 

proc nrnoc () {}

// Users should not edit nrnoc.hoc or default.hoc.  Any local 
// changes to these files should be made in local.hoc.

// key '*&*' is picked up by to indicate command for emacs
proc elisp () { printf("*&* %s\n",$s1) }
// if (not exists(simname)) { strdef simname, output_file, datestr, comment }

// Simctrl.hoc will automatically load stdgraph.hoc which automatically
// loads stdrun.hoc
strdef temp_string_, user_string_  // needed for simctrl
/* Global variable default values.  NOTE that stdrun.hoc, stdgraph.hoc
and simctrl.hoc all contain variable definitions and thus default.hoc
should be loaded after these files */
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/simctrl/hoc/default.hoc
// =Id=  default.hoc,v 1.5 2003/07/08 16:16:52 billl Exp 
/* This file contains various global defaults for hoc

** Users should not edit nrnoc.hoc or default.hoc.  Any local 
changes to these files should be made in local.hoc.
----------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*------------------------------------------------------------
Object defaults
------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*** Define a "nil" object ***/
objectvar nil

/*------------------------------------------------------------
String defaults
------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*** "Section" is used if errors are found in the initializiations ***/
strdef section

/*** Misc defines used by graphic routines ***/
temp_string_ = "t"
tempvar = 0

/*------------------------------------------------------------
Simulation defaults
------------------------------------------------------------*/

                        /* To be consistent w/the nmodl values */
FARADAY = 96520.        /* Hoc default = 96484.56 */
PI      = 3.14159       /* Hoc default = 3.1415927 */

                        /* 0=off, 1=on */
print_flag  = 0         /* Write to output file */
graph_flag  = 1         /* Plot output */
iv_flag     = 1         /* Using Interviews plotting */
batch_flag  = 0         /* Using batch_run() */
compress_flag = 0       /* Compress output file when saved */
stoprun     = 0         /* 0=running, 1=stopped */
iv_loaded   = 0         /* Load initial iv stuff on once */

init_seed   = 830529
run_seed    = 680612

t           = 0         /* msec */
dt          = .01       /* msec */
tstop       = 100       /* msec */
printStep   = 0.1       /* msec */
plotStep    = 0.1       /* msec */
flushStep   = 0.1       /* msec */
eventStep   = 50        /* Number of nstep's before a doEvent */

secondorder = 0

celsius     = 6.3       /* degC */

v_init      = -70       /* (mV) */
global_ra   = 200       /* (ohm-cm) specific axial resisitivity */

/*** Ion parameters ***/
ca_init     = 50e-6     /* mM */
na_init     = 10        /* mM */
k_init      = 54.4      /* mM */

// END /usr/site/nrniv/simctrl/hoc/default.hoc
//================================================================

/* Allows arrays of strings */
objref hoc_obj_[2]
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/simctrl/hoc/simctrl.hoc
// =Id=  simctrl.hoc,v 1.14 2000/11/27 21:59:33 billl Exp 
// Graphic routines for neuremacs simulation control

proc sim_panel () {
    xpanel(simname)
          xvarlabel(output_file)
  	xbutton("Init", "stdinit()")
  	xbutton("Init & Run", "run()")
  	xbutton("Stop", "stoprun=1")
  	xbutton("Continue till Tstop", "continueRun(tstop)")
  	xvalue("Continue till", "runStopAt", 1, "{continueRun(runStopAt) stoprun=1}", 1, 1)
  	xvalue("Continue for", "runStopIn", 1, "{continueRun(t + runStopIn) stoprun=1}", 1,1)
  	xbutton("Single Step", "steprun()")
  	xvalue("Tstop", "tstop", 1, "tstop_changed()", 0, 1)
  	graphmenu()
  	sim_menu_bar()
  	misc_menu_bar()
    xpanel()
  }

proc misc_menu_bar() {
    xmenu("Miscellaneous")
      xbutton("Label Graphs", "labelgrs()")
      xbutton("Label With String", "labelwith()")
      xbutton("Label Panel", "labelpanel()")
  	xbutton("Parameterized Function", "load_template(\"FunctionFitter\") makefitter()")
    xmenu()
  }

proc sim_menu_bar() {
    xmenu("Simulation Control")
      xbutton("File Vers", "elisp(\"sim-current-files\")")
      xbutton("File Status...", "elisp(\"sim-rcs-status\")")
      xbutton("Sim Status", "elisp(\"sim-portrait\")")
      xbutton("Load Current Files", "elisp(\"sim-load-sim\")")
      xbutton("Load Templates", "elisp(\"sim-load-templates\")") 
      xbutton("Load File...", "elisp(\"sim-load-file\")") 
      xbutton("Save Sim...", "elisp(\"sim-save-sim\")")
      xbutton("Set File Vers...", "elisp(\"sim-set-file-ver\")")
      xbutton("Read Current Vers From Index", "elisp(\"sim-read-index-file\")")
      xbutton("Read Last Saved Vers", "elisp(\"sim-read-recent-versions\")")
      xbutton("Output to sim buffer", "elisp(\"sim-direct-output\")")
    xmenu()
  }

proc labelpanel() {
    xpanel(simname,1)
  	xvarlabel(output_file)
    xpanel()
  }

proc labels () {
    labelwith($s1)
    labelgrs()
  }

proc labelgrs () { local i, j, cnt
    for j=0,n_graph_lists-1 {
        cnt = graphList[j].count() - 1
        for i=0,cnt labelgr(graphList[j].object(i))
      }
  }

proc labelwith () { local i, j, cnt
    temp_string_ = user_string_  // save the old one
    if (numarg() == 1) { /* interactive mode */  
        user_string_ = $s1
      } else {
        string_dialog("write what?", user_string_)
      }
    for j=0,n_graph_lists-1 {
        cnt = graphList[j].count() - 1
        for i=0,cnt {
            graphList[j].object(i).color(0)
            graphList[j].object(i).label(0.5,0.9,temp_string_)
            graphList[j].object(i).color(1)
            graphList[j].object(i).label(0.5,0.9,user_string_)
          }
      }
  }

proc labelgr () { local i
    $o1.color(0)  // white overwrite
    for (i=0;i<10;i=i+1) { // erase every possible runnum for this date
        sprint(temp_string_,"%s %d%d",datestr,i,i)
        $o1.label(0.1,0.7,temp_string_) }
    $o1.color(1) // back to basic black
    sprint(temp_string_,"%s %02d",datestr,runnum)
    $o1.label(0.1,0.7,temp_string_)
  }

// END /usr/site/nrniv/simctrl/hoc/simctrl.hoc
//================================================================

proc run () {
    running_ = 1
    stdinit()
    continueRun(tstop)
    finish()
  }

proc continueRun () { local rt, rtstart, ts
    if (numarg()==1) ts=$1 else ts=t+1e3
    realtime = 0  rt = screen_update_invl  rtstart = startsw()
    eventcount=0
    eventslow=1
    stoprun = 0
    if (using_cvode_) {
        if (cvode.use_local_dt || (cvode.current_method()%10) == 0) {
            cvode.solve(ts)
            flushPlot()
            realtime = startsw() - rtstart
            return
          }
      } else {
        ts -= dt/2
      }
    while (t<ts && stoprun==0) {
        step()
        realtime = startsw() - rtstart
        if (realtime >= rt) {
            //                        if (!stdrun_quiet) fastflushPlot()
            screen_update()
            //really compute for at least screen_update_invl
            realtime = startsw() - rtstart
            rt = realtime + screen_update_invl
          }
      }
    if (using_cvode_ && stoprun == 0) { // handle the "tstop" event
        step() // so all recordings take place at tstop
      }
    flushPlot()
    realtime = startsw() - rtstart
  }

proc stdinit() {
          cvode_simgraph()
          realtime = 0
          setdt()
          init()
          initPlot()
  }

proc init () {
    cvode_simgraph()
    initMech()
    initMisc1()
  
    // Initialize state vars then calculate currents
    // If user hand-set v in initMisc1() then v_init should be > 1000,
    // else all compartments will be set to v_init
    if (v_init < 1000) {
        finitialize(v_init)
      } else {
        finitialize()
      }
  
    // Set ca pump and leak channel for steady state
    setMemb()
  
    initMisc2()
    if (cvode_active()) cvode.re_init() else fcurrent()
    frecord_init()
  }

// Initialization of mechanism variables
// NOTE: if any changes are made to the NEURON block of any local mod
// file, the user must add the necessary inits to initMisc1()
proc initMech () { 
    forall {
        if ((!ismembrane("pas")) && (!ismembrane("Passive"))) { 
            // Allow for either pas or Passive mod file usage
            // errorMsg("passive not inserted") 
          }
    
        if (ismembrane("na_ion")) { 
            nai = na_init
            nai0_na_ion = na_init
          }
        
        if (ismembrane("k_ion")) {
            ki = k_init
            ki0_k_ion = k_init
          }
        
        if (ismembrane("ca_ion")) { 
            cai = ca_init
            cai0_ca_ion = ca_init
          }
      }
  }

//* setMemb complex -- multiple names for passive mech
//** declarations
iterator scase() { local i
    for i = 1, numarg() { temp_string_ = $si iterator_statement }}
objref paslist,pasvars[3],XO
double pasvals[2],x[1]
paslist = new List()
for ii=0,2 pasvars[ii]= new String()
for scase("fastpas","pas","Pass","Passive") paslist.append(new String(temp_string_))

//** getval(),setval() -- return/set the hoc value of a string
func retval () { return getval($s1) }
func getval () { 
    sprint(temp_string2_,"x=%s",$s1)
    execute(temp_string2_)
    return x
  }
proc setval () { 
    sprint(temp_string2_,"%s=%g",$s1,$2)
    execute(temp_string2_)
  }

//** findpas()
// assumes that we are starting in a live section since looks for pass mech there
qx_=0
proc findpas () {
    for ii=0,paslist.count-1 {
        XO=paslist.object(ii)
        if (ismembrane(XO.s)) {
            // print XO.s,"found"
            pasvars[2].s=XO.s
            sprint(pasvars[0].s,"g_%s(qx_)",XO.s)
            for scase("e","erev","XXXX") {  // look for the proper prefix
                sprint(temp_string_,"%s_%s",temp_string_,XO.s)
                if (name_declared(temp_string_)==1) break
              }
            if (name_declared(temp_string_)==0) { // not found
                printf("SetMemb() in nrnoc.hoc: Can't find proper 'erev' prefix for %s\n",XO.s)
              } else {
                sprint(pasvars[1].s,"%s(qx_)",temp_string_)
              }
          }
      }
  }

proc setMemb () {
    if (!secp()) return
    findpas() // assume that passive name is the same in all sections
    forall for (qx_,0) {  // will eventually want 'for (x)' to handle all the segments
        if (ismembrane(pasvars[2].s)) {
              for ii=0,1 pasvals[ii]=getval(pasvars[ii].s)
              setmemb2()
              for ii=0,1 setval(pasvars[ii].s,pasvals[ii])
          }
      }
  }

// secp() determine whether any sections exist
func secp () { local n
    n=0
    forall n+=1
    if (n>0) return 1 else return 0
  }

func setother () {return 0} // callback stub
proc setmemb2 () { local iSum, ii, epas, gpas
    if (!secp()) return
    gpas=pasvals[0] epas=pasvals[1]
    // Setup steady state voltage using leak channel
    iSum = 0.0
    if (ismembrane("na_ion")) { iSum += ina(qx_) }
    if (ismembrane("k_ion"))  { iSum += ik(qx_)  }
    if (ismembrane("ca_ion")) { iSum += ica(qx_) }
    iSum += setother()
  
    if (iSum == 0) {        // Passive cmp so set e_pas = v
        epas = v
      } else {
        if (gpas > 0) {    // Assume g set by user, calc e
            epas = v + iSum/gpas
      
          } else {            // Assume e set by user, calc g
            if (epas != v) {
                gpas = iSum/(epas - v)
              } else { gpas=0 }
          }
        if (gpas < 0) errorMsg("bad g", gpas)
        if (epas < -100 || epas > 0) {
            printf(".")
            // printf("%s erev: %g %g %g\n",secname(),e_pas,ina,ik)
          }
      }
    pasvals[0]=gpas pasvals[1]=epas
  }

proc finish () {
    /* Called following completion of continueRun() */
  
  finishMisc()
  
  if (graph_flag == 1) {
      if (iv_flag == 1) {
          flushPlot()
          doEvents()
        } else {
          graphmode(-1)
          plt(-1)
        }
    }
  
  if (print_flag == 1) {
      wopen("")
    }
  }

/*------------------------------------------------------------
User definable GRAPHICS and PRINTING routines
------------------------------------------------------------*/

proc outputData() {
    // Default procedure - if outputData() doesn't exist in the run file
  
    if (graph_flag == 1) {
        if (iv_flag == 1) {
            Plot()
            rt = stopsw()
            if (rt > realtime) {
                realtime = rt
                fastflushPlot()
                doNotify()
                if (realtime == 2 && eventcount > 50) {
                    eventslow = int(eventcount/50) + 1
                  }
                eventcount = 0
              }else{
                eventcount = eventcount + 1
                if ((eventcount%eventslow) == 0) {
                    doEvents()
                  }
              }
      
          } else {
            graph(t)
          }
      }
  
    if (print_flag == 1) { 
        if (t%printStep <= printStep) { printOut() }
      }
  }

proc printOut() {
    /* Default procedure - if printOut() doesn't exist in the run file */
  }

proc initGraph() {
    /* Default procedure - if initGraph() doesn't exist in the run file */
  
  graph()
  }

proc initPrint() {
    /* Default procedure - if initPrint() doesn't exist in the run file */
  
  wopen(output_file)
  }

/*------------------------------------------------------------
User definable BATCH RUN routines
------------------------------------------------------------*/

proc nextrun() {
    // Called from finishmisc() following completion of batch in an autorun
    wopen("")   
    runnum = runnum + 1
    sprint(output_file,"data/b%s.%02d", datestr, runnum)
  }                       

// commands for emacs
proc update_runnum() { 
    runnum = $1
    sprint(output_file,"data/%s.%02d", datestr, runnum)
    print "^&^ (progn (sim-index-revert)(setq sim-runnum ",runnum,"))" }
proc nrn_write_index() { printf("&INDEX& %s\n",$s1) }
proc nrn_update () { elisp("nrn-update") }
proc nrn_message () { printf("!&! %s\n",$s1) } 

/*------------------------------------------------------------
User definable INITIALIZATION and FINISH routines
------------------------------------------------------------*/

// Default procedure - if initMisc1() doesn't exist in the run file 
// Initializations performed prior to finitialize() 
// This should contain point process inits and inits for any changes 
//        made to the NEURON block of any local mod file 
proc initMisc1() { }

// Default procedure - if initMisc2() doesn't exist in the run file 
// Initializations performed after finitialize() 
proc initMisc2() { }

// Default procedure - if finishMisc() doesn't exist in the run file 
proc finishMisc() { }

/*------------------------------------------------------------
Miscellaneous routines
------------------------------------------------------------*/

proc errorMsg() {
    /* Print warning, assumes arg1 is string and arg2 if present is a
    variable value */
  
  sectionname(section)
  
  if (numarg() == 0) {
      printf("ERROR in errorMsg(): Needs at least 1 argument.\n")
    } else if (numarg() == 1) {
      printf("ERROR: %s in section %s.\n", $s1, section)
    } else {
      printf("ERROR: %s in section %s (var=%g).\n", $s1, section, $2)
    }
  }

proc clear() {
    /* Clear non-interviews plot window */
  plt(-3)
  }

func mod() { local x, y
    /* Mod function for non-integers */
  
  x=$1
  y=$2
  
  return (x/y - int(x/y))
  }

proc whatSection() { print secname() }

proc print_pp_location() { local x //arg1 must be a point process
     x = $o1.get_loc()
     sectionname(temp_string_)
     printf("%s located at %s(%g)\n", $o1, temp_string_, x)
     pop_section()
  }

//* set method with method()
proc method () { local prc
    if (numarg()==0) {
        if (cvode_active() && cvode_local()) { printf("\tlocal atol=%g\n",cvode.atol)
          } else if (cvode_active()) { printf("\tglobal atol=%g\n",cvode.atol)
          } else if (secondorder==2) { printf("\tCrank-Nicholson dt=%g\n",dt)
          } else if (secondorder==0) { printf("\timplicit dt=%g\n",dt)
          } else { printf("\tMethod unrecognized\n") }
        return
      }
    if (numarg()==2) prc = $2 else prc=0
    finitialize()
    if (strcmp($s1,"global")==0) {
        cvode_active(1)
        cvode.condition_order(2)
        if (prc) cvode.atol(prc)
      } else if (strcmp($s1,"local")==0) {
        cvode_local(1)
        cvode.condition_order(2)
        if (prc) cvode.atol(prc)
      } else if (strcmp($s1,"implicit")==0) {
        secondorder=0
        cvode_active(1)
        cvode_active(0)
        if (prc) dt=prc
      } else if (strcmp($s1,"CN")==0) {
        secondorder=2
        cvode_active(1) // this turns off local
        cvode_active(0)
        if (prc) dt=prc
      } else {
        printf("Integration method %s not recognized\n",$s1)
      }
  }

//* Load local modifications to nrnoc.hoc and default.hoc
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/simctrl/hoc/local.hoc
//  $Header: /usr/site/nrniv/simctrl/hoc/RCS/local.hoc,v 1.15 2003/02/13 15:32:06 billl Exp $
//
//  This file contains local modifications to nrnoc.hoc and default.hoc
//
//  Users should not edit nrnoc.hoc or default.hoc.  Any local 
//  changes to these files should be made in this file.

// ------------------------------------------------------------
//* MODIFICATIONS TO NRNOC.HOC
// The procedures declared here will overwrite any duplicate
// procedures in nrnoc.hoc.
// ------------------------------------------------------------

//*MODIFICATIONS TO DEFAULT.HOC
//
// Vars added here may not be handled properly within nrnoc.hoc
//------------------------------------------------------------

//** String defaults

//** Simulation defaults

long_dt     = .001      // msec 

objref sfunc,tmpfile
sfunc = hoc_sf_   // needed to use is_name()
tmpfile = new File()  // check for existence before opening a user's local.hoc file

proc write_comment () {
    tmpfile.aopen("index")
    tmpfile.printf("%s\n",$s1)
    tmpfile.close()  
  }

func asin () { return atan($1/sqrt(1-$1*$1)) }
func acos () { return atan(sqrt(1-$1*$1)/$1) }

objref mt[2]
mt = new MechanismType(0)
proc uninsert_all () { local ii
    forall for ii=0,mt.count()-1 {
        mt.select(ii)
        mt.selected(temp_string_)
        if (strcmp(temp_string_,"morphology")==0) continue
        if (strcmp(temp_string_,"capacitance")==0) continue
        if (strcmp(temp_string_,"extracellular")==0) continue
        if (sfunc.substr(temp_string_,"_ion")!=-1) continue
        mt.remove()
        // print ii,temp_string_
      }
  }

condor_run = 0  // define for compatability
// END /usr/site/nrniv/simctrl/hoc/local.hoc
//================================================================

if (xwindows && graph_flag) { nrnmainmenu() } // pwman_place(50,50)

print "Init complete.\n"
// END /usr/site/nrniv/simctrl/hoc/nrnoc.hoc
//================================================================
load_file("nrngui.hoc")
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/xgetargs.hoc
// =Id=  xgetargs.hoc,v 1.20 2008/05/11 17:19:11 billl Exp 

xgahfl=0
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/decvec.hoc
// =Id=  decvec.hoc,v 1.395 2009/01/02 15:59:07 billl Exp 

proc decvec() {}

//* Declarations
objref ind, tvec, vec, vec0, vec1, tmpvec, vrtmp, veclist, veccollect, pwm
objref tmpobj, XO, YO, rdm, dir
strdef filename,dblform,tabform,xtmp
{dblform="%.4g" tabform=" "}

dir = new List()
tmpfile = new File()
if (! name_declared("datestr")) load_file("setup.hoc")
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/declist.hoc
// =Id=  declist.hoc,v 1.152 2008/10/13 20:17:23 billl Exp 

//* Declarations
strdef mchnms
objref tmplist,tmplist2,tmpobj,aa,XO,YO
if (! name_declared("datestr")) load_file("setup.hoc")
tmplist = new List()
proc declist() {}

//* Templates
//** template String2
begintemplate String2
public s,t,x,append,prepend,exec,tinit
strdef s,t
proc init() {
    if (numarg() == 1) { s=$s1 }
    if (numarg() == 2) { s=$s1 t=$s2 }
    if (numarg() == 3) { s=$s1 t=$s2 x=$3 }
  }
proc append () { local i
    if (argtype(1)==2) sprint(t,"%s%s",s,$s1)
    for i=2,numarg() sprint(t,"%s%s",t,$si)
  }
proc prepend () { local i
    if (argtype(1)==2) sprint(t,"%s%s",$s1,s)
    for i=2,numarg() sprint(t,"%s%s",$si,t)
  }
proc exec () {
    if (numarg()==1) sprint(t,"%s%s",$s1,s)
    execute(t)
  }
proc tinit() { t=$s1 }

endtemplate String2

//** template DBL
begintemplate DBL
  public x
  proc init () { if (numarg()==1) x=$1 else x=0 }
endtemplate DBL

//** template Union
// USAGE: XO=new Union(val) where val can be a number string or object
//        XO=new Union(list,index) will pick up a string or object from list
//        XO=new Union(vec,index)  will pick up a number from vector
//        XO=new Union(&dbl,index) will pick up a number from double array
// Union allows storage of a double, string or object
// 2 ways of storing strings: directly in XO.s (t,u,v) OR 
//   using XO.set("NAME","STR") which is returned by XO.get("NAME").s
// It is useful as a localobj in an obfunc since it will permit returning anything
// It also makes it easy to pick up any kind of value out of a list, vector or array
// declared() not yet declared
if (!name_declared("isobj")) execute1("func isobj(){return 0}") // place holder
if (!name_declared("isassigned")) execute1("func isassigned(){return 0}") // place holder
if (!name_declared("llist")) execute1("proc llist(){}") // place holder
begintemplate Union
public ty,x,s,t,u,v,o,xptr,xg,xs,optr,og,os,get,set,xl,ol,fi,inc,list,err,pr
strdef s,t,u,v,tstr
objref o[10],xl,ol,this,xo
double x[10],sz[1],err[1]
external sfunc,isobj,isassigned,nil,DBL,llist
// 1arg -- store a num, string or obj
// 2arg -- pick up type out of list
proc init () { local ii,i,ox,xx,sx,flag
    ox=xx=sx=0 ty=argtype(1) // 'type' of Union defined by 1st arg on creation
    sz=10 // 10 is default size of arrays; for ii=0,sz-1 
    for ii=0,sz-1 x[ii]=ERR
    // special case of number in a vector or something in a list -- 2 args: list or vec,index
    err=1 flag=0
    if (numarg()/2==int(numarg()/2)) for (i=1;i<numarg();i+=2) {
        if (argtype(i)!=2 || argtype(i+1)==2) break
        flag=1
      }
    if (flag) { // "name",val,etc
        for (i=1;i<numarg();i+=1) {
            tstr=$si i+=1 
            if (argtype(i)==0) set(tstr,$i) else set(tstr,$oi)
          }
        s="" // used as temp storage only
      } else if (argtype(1)==1 && argtype(2)==0 && argtype(3)==-1) {
        ii=$2
        // printf("Union WARNING: taking single element out of a Vector or List\n")
        if (argtype(1)==1) {
            if (isobj($o1,"Vector")) { 
                if (ii<0 || ii>=$o1.size) {
                    printf("Union ERR: vec index (%d) out of bounds for %s\n",ii,$o1)
                    return }
                ty=0 x=$o1.x[ii] o=$o1
              } else if (isobj($o1,"List")) {
                if (ii<0 || ii>=$o1.count) {
                    printf("Union ERR: list index (%d) out of bounds for %s\n",ii,$o1)
                    return }
                if (isobj($o1.object(ii),"String")) { // will handle String2
                    ty=2 s=$o1.object(ii).s o=$o1.object(ii) x=ii
                  } else { ty=1 o=$o1.object(ii) x=ii }
              }
          } else if (argtype(1)==3) {
            ty=0 x=$&1[ii] // could check - but no + bound checking possible
          }
      } else for i=1,numarg() {
        ii=argtype(i)
        if (ii==0) { 
            if (xx<sz) { 
                x[xx]=$i xx+=1 
              } else printf("Only have %d doubles available so can't store %g\n",sz,$i)
          } else if (ii==2) { 
            if (sx==0) s=$si else if (sx==1) t=$si else if (sx==2) u=$si else if (sx==3) v=$si else {
                printf("Only have 4 strings available so can't store %s\n",$si) }
            sx+=1
          } else if (ii==1) { 
            if (ox<sz) { o[ox]=$oi ox+=1
              } else printf("Only have %d objects available so can't store %s\n",sz,$oi)
          } else printf("Union ERR: argtype not recognized numarg %d %d\n",i,ii)
      }
    err=0
  }

proc pr () { print "Use Union[].list" }

proc list () { local flag
    flag=0
    if (ol!=nil) {
        for ii=0,sz-1 if ((! isojt(ol,ol.o(ii)))||o[ii]!=nil) printf("%10s\t%s\n",ol.o(ii).s,o[ii])
        printf("%s\n","================================") 
        flag=1
      }
    if (xl!=nil) {
        for ii=0,sz-1 if ((! isojt(xl,xl.o(ii)))||x[ii]!=ERR) printf("%10s\t%g\n",xl.o(ii).s,x[ii])
        printf("%s\n","================================") 
        flag=1
      }
    if (!flag) {
        printf("%s\nSCALARS: ","================================") 
        for ii=0,sz-1 if (x[ii]!=ERR) printf("%d:%g ",ii,x[ii])
        printf("\n%s\nOBJECTS: ","================================") 
        for ii=0,sz-1 if (o[ii]!=nil) printf("%d:%s ",ii,o[ii])
        printf("\n%s\n","================================") 
      }
    if (sfunc.len(s)>0) printf("%10s\t%s\n","s",s)
    if (sfunc.len(t)>0) printf("%10s\t%s\n","t",t)
    if (sfunc.len(u)>0) printf("%10s\t%s\n","u",u)
    if (sfunc.len(v)>0) printf("%10s\t%s\n","v",v)
  }

// full List
obfunc newl () { localobj o
    o=new List() 
    for ii=0,sz-1 o.append(o)
    return o
  } 
proc repl () { 
    if (isobj($o1.o($2),"String")) { $o1.o($2).s=$s3
      } else { $o1.remove($2) $o1.insrt($2,new String($s3)) }
  }

func fi () { local ii
    fif=-1
    for ii=0,sz-1 {
        if ($o1.o(ii)==$o1) {
            if (fif==-1) fif=ii // first empty slot if any
          } else if (strcmp($o1.o(ii).s,$s2)==0) return ii
      }
    return ERR
  }
// put in pointers for the x values
func xptr () { local i,ii
    if (numarg()>sz) {printf("More names (%d) than x items (%d) in %s:xptr\n",numarg(),sz,this) 
        error()}
    if (!isassigned(xl)) xl=newl()
    for i=1,numarg() repl(xl,i-1,$si)
    return xl.count
  }
func optr () { local i,ii
    if (numarg()>sz) {printf("More names %d than o items (%d) in %s:optr\n",numarg(),sz,this) error()}
    if (!isassigned(ol)) ol=newl()
    for i=1,numarg()  repl(ol,i-1,$si)
    return ol.count
  }
// xg() associative get of a num
func xg () { local ii
    ii=fi(xl,$s1)
    if (ii==ERR) {printf("Union:og (num get) failed -- \"%s\" not found\n",$s1) return ERR}
    return x[ii] 
  }
// xg() associative get of an obj
obfunc og () { local ii
    ii=fi(ol,$s1)
    if (ii==ERR) {printf("Union:og (obj get) failed -- \"%s\" not found\n",$s1) return nil}
    return o[ii] 
  }
// xs(index,"label",num) set a specific location using a string -- see set()
// xs("label",num) set an existing one only
func xs () { local ii,i
    if (!isassigned(xl)) xl=newl()
    if (argtype(1)==0) {
        i=3 ii=$1 // an index
        repl(xl,ii,$s2)
      } else {
        i=2 ii=fi(xl,$s1)
        if (ii==ERR) {printf("Union:xs (num set) failed -- no %s found\n",$s1) return ERR}
      }
    if (argtype(i)!=0) {printf("Union:xs err -- arg %d must be object\n",i) return ERR}
    x[ii]=$i
    return $i
  }
// os(index,"label",obj) set a specific location using a string -- see set()
// os("label",obj) set an existing one only
obfunc os () { local ii,i
    if (!isassigned(ol)) ol=newl()
    if (argtype(1)==0) {
        i=3 ii=$1 // $1 is an index
        repl(ol,ii,$s2)
      } else {
        i=2 ii=fi(ol,$s1)
        if (ii==ERR) {printf("Union:os (obj set) failed -- \"%s\" not found\n",$s1) return nil}
      }
    if (argtype(i)!=1) {printf("Union:os err -- arg %d must be object\n",i) return nil}
    o[ii]=$oi
    return $oi
  }

// get() get any type
obfunc get () { local ii
    if        ((ii=fi(ol,$s1))!=ERR) { 
        return o[ii] 
      } else if ((ii=fi(xl,$s1))!=ERR) { 
        if (argtype(2)==3) { $&2=x[ii] return this } else { return new DBL(x[ii]) }
      } else {
        // printf("Union:get() \"%s\" not found\n",$s1) 
        return nil // make returning nil the unique error
      }
  }

// increment or with neg decrement something
func inc () { local n
    if (numarg()==2) n=$2 else n=1
    if ((ii=fi(xl,$s1))==ERR) {printf("Union:inc ERR: %s %s\n",this,$s1) return ERR}
    return x[ii]+=n
  }

// set() set any type
func set () { local ii,i,ty,fo,fx
    if (xl==nil) xl=newl() if (ol==nil) ol=newl()
    for (i=1;i<numarg();i+=1) {
        tstr=$si i+=1 
        if ((ty=argtype(i))==0) xo=xl else if (ty==1 || ty==2) xo=ol // use String() for strings
        ii=fi(xo,tstr)
        if (ii==ERR) {
            if (fif==-1) {printf("UNION:set() ERRB: %s full for type %d\n",this,ty)  return ERR}
            repl(xo,(ii=fif),tstr)
          }
        if (ty==0) x[ii]=$i else if (ty==1) o[ii]=$oi else if (ty==2) { // don't use s,t,u,v
            o[ii]=new String($si)
          }
      }
    return ii
  }
endtemplate Union

//* Iterators
//** list iterator ltr
// usage 'for ltr(tmplist) { print XO }' :: 1 arg, assumes XO as dummy
// usage 'for ltr(YO, tmplist) { print YO }' 2 arg, specify dummy
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, &x) { print XO,x }' :: x is counter (else use global i1)
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, 5) { print XO,x }' :: max; only print out 0-5
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, 5, 7) { print XO,x }' :: print 5-7
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, &x, 5) { print XO,x }' :: counter with max
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, &x, 5, 7) { print XO,x }' :: counter,min,max
iterator ltr () { local i,min,max,ifl
    min=0 max=1e9 ifl=0 // iterator flag
    if (numarg()==3) {
        if (argtype(3)==3) {ifl=1 $&3=0}
        if (argtype(3)==0) max=$3
      } else if (numarg()==4) { 
        if (argtype(3)==0) i1=min=$3 else {ifl=1 $&3=0}
        max=$4 
      } else if (numarg()==5) { 
        $&3=min=$4 max=$5 ifl=1 
      }
    if (! ifl) i1=0
    if (numarg()==1) {
        for i = 0, $o1.count-1 {
            XO = $o1.object(i)
            iterator_statement
            i1+=1
          }
        tmpobj=$o1
        XO=nil
      } else {
        if (max==1e9) max=$o2.count()-1 else if (max<0) { min=$o2.count+max max=$o2.count-1 
          } else if (max>$o2.count-1) max=$o2.count-1
        for i = min, max {
            $o1 = $o2.object(i)
            iterator_statement
            if (ifl) { $&3+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
          }
        tmpobj=$o2
        $o1 = nil
      }
  }

//** list iterator ltrb -- backwards list iterator
// usage 'for ltrb(tmplist) { print XO }' :: 1 arg, assumes XO as dummy
// usage 'for ltrb(YO, tmplist) { print YO }' 2 arg, specify dummy
// usage 'for ltrb(XO, tmplist, &x) { print XO,x }' :: 3 args, define counter (else i1 default)
//                                                 :: note that x, i1 must be defined
iterator ltrb () { local i
    if (numarg()==1) {
        i1=$o1.count-1
        for (i=$o1.count()-1;i>=0;i-=1) {
            XO = $o1.object(i)
            iterator_statement
            i1-=1
          }
        tmpobj=$o1 XO=nil
      } else {
        if (numarg()==3) $&3=$o2.count-1 else i1=$o2.count-1
        for (i=$o2.count()-1;i>=0;i-=1) {
            $o1 = $o2.object(i)
            iterator_statement
            if (numarg()==3) { $&3-=1 } else { i1-=1 }
          }
        tmpobj=$o2
        $o1 = nil
      }
  }

//** list iterator ltr2
// usage 'for ltr2(XO, YO, list1, list2) { print XO,YO }'
iterator ltr2() { local i,cnt
    if (numarg()==5) $&5=0 else i1=0
    cnt=$o4.count
    if ($o3.count != $o4.count) { print "ltr2 WARNING: lists have different lengths" 
        if ($o3.count<$o4.count) cnt=$o3.count }
    for i = 0, cnt-1 {
        $o1 = $o3.object(i)
        $o2 = $o4.object(i)
        iterator_statement
        if (numarg()==5) { $&5+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
      }
    $o1=nil $o2=nil
  }

//** list pairwise iterator ltrp
// usage 'for ltrp(XO, YO, list) { print XO,YO }' takes them pairwise
iterator ltrp() { local i
    if (numarg()==4) {$&4=0} else {i1 = 0}
    for (i=0;i<$o3.count()-1;i+=2) {
        $o1 = $o3.object(i) $o2 = $o3.object(i+1)
        iterator_statement
        if (numarg()==4) { $&4+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
      }
    $o1=nil $o2=nil
  }

//** list iterator sltr
// usage 'for sltr(XO, string) { print XO }'
iterator sltr() { local i
    tmplist = new List($s2)
    if (numarg()==3) {$&3=0} else {i1=0}
    for i = 0, tmplist.count() - 1 {
        $o1 = tmplist.object(i)
        iterator_statement
        if (numarg()==3) { $&3+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
      }
    $o1 = nil
  }

//* Procedures
//** append(LIST,o1,o2,...) -- like revec() makes a list of objects
proc append () { local i,max
    if (!isassigned($o1)) $o1=new List()
    max=numarg()
    if (argtype(max)==0) {max-=1 $o1.remove_all}
    for i=2,max $o1.append($oi)
  }

//** rcshead([flag])
// with flag does head from archive
func rcshead () { local x,flag localobj st
    x=-1 flag=0
    st=new String2()
    if (numarg()==2) {
        st=dirname($s1)
        sprint(st.t,"%sRCS/%s,v",st.s,st.t)
        flag=1
      } else st.t=$s1
    sprint(st.s,"head -1 %s",st.t)
    system(st.s,st.s)
    if (flag) sscanf(st.s,"head\t1.%d",&x) else sscanf(st.s,"%*[^,],v 1.%d",&x)
    return x
  }

//** getenv()
obfunc getenv () { localobj st
    st=new String()
    sprint(st.s,"echo $%s",$s1)
    system(st.s,st.s)
    sfunc.left(st.s,sfunc.len(st.s)-1)
    if (numarg()==2) $s2=st.s
    return st
  }

//** rcsopen(file,vers[,flag])  -- version open, flag to do load_file
// rcsopen(file,vers,proc_name)  -- just load the single proc or func from that vers
//  rcsopen("nqsnet.hoc,43,network.hoc,17,params.hoc,842,run.hoc,241") will open several files
func rcsopen () { local a,vers,ii,x,ret localobj st,fn,v1,o,xo
    st=new String2()   ret=1
    if (argtype(1)==2) st.s=$s1 else st.s=$o1.s
    // open network.hoc,params.hoc,run.hoc files for "#.#.#" 
    if (strm(st.s,"^[^,]+,[^,]+,[^,]+,[^,]+")) {
        a=allocvecs(v1)  o=new List()
        split(st.s,o)
        for (ii=1;ii<o.count;ii+=2) v1.append(str2num(o.o(ii).s))
        if (o.count!=v1.size*2) { printf("rcsopen() discrepency: ") vlk(v1) llist(o) dealloc(a) 
            return 0 }
        for ltr(xo,o,&x) if (x%2==0) { // every other
            printf("Opening %s%d\n",xo.s,v1.x[x/2])
            if (!rcsopen(xo.s,v1.x[x/2])) { dealloc(a) ret=0 }
          }
        dealloc(a)
        return ret
      }
    if (numarg()>1) vers=$2 else vers=0
    if (! vers) vers=rcshead(st.s,1) // vers=0 means get latest version
    // do checkout
    fn=filname(st.s)
    sprint(st.t,"RCS/%s,v",st.s)
    if (sfunc.len(fn.t)>0) {
        sprint(st.t,"%sRCS/%s,v",fn.t,fn.s)
        print st.s,"::",st.t,"::",fn.s,"::",fn.t
      } else if (fexists(st.t)) {
        if (rcshead(st.s)!=vers) {
            sprint(st.t,"cp -f %s %s.OLD",st.s,st.s)   system(st.t)
            sprint(st.t,"co -f -r1.%d %s",vers,st.s)   system(st.t)
          }
      } else { // look for file in remote location
        getenv("SITE",st.t)
        sprint(st.t,"%s/nrniv/local/hoc/%s",st.t,st.s)
        if (! fexists(st.t)) {printf("Can't find %s\n",st.t) return 0}
        sprint(st.s,"%s%d",st.s,vers)
        printf("Found %s at %s -> %s\n",$s1,st.t,st.s)
        sprint(st.t,"co -f -p1.%d %s > %s",vers,st.t,st.s) system(st.t)
      }
    if (numarg()>2) {
        if (argtype(3)==0) {  // 3rd arg 1 means do load_file statt xopen
            if ($3) { 
                load_file(st.s)
                return 1
              } else return 1 // 3rd arg 0 does co but no open
          } else { // 3rd arg string means locate a single proc, iter etc.
            sprint(st.s,"hocproc %s %s %s",st.s,$s3,".tmp")
            system(st.s,st.t)
            if (strm(st.t,"ERROR")) return 0 else {
                printf("Loading '%s()' from %s%d (via .tmp)\n",$s3,$s1,vers)
                xopen(".tmp")
                return 1
              } 
          }
      }
    xopen(st.s)
    return 1
  }

//** pxopen(FILE) prints out the version before opening a file
proc pxopen () { local flag localobj o
    flag=1
    o=new List("ParallelContext")
    if (o.count>0) if (o.o(0).id!=0) flag=0
    if (flag) printf("%s version %d\n",$s1,rcshead($s1))
    xopen($s1)
  }

//** lrm(LIST,STR) will remove item with string from LIST
proc lrm () { local cnt
    cnt=0
    if (argtype(2)==2) {
        for ltrb(XO,$o1) if (strm(XO.s,$s2)) { $o1.remove(i1) cnt+=1 }
        printf("%s found %d time\n",$s2,cnt)
      } else {
        $o1.remove($o1.index($o2))
      }
  }

//** lcnt(LIST,STR) will count item with string in LIST
func lcnt () { local cnt localobj xo
    cnt=0
    for ltr(xo,$o1) if (strm(xo.s,$s2)) cnt+=1
    return cnt
  }

//** lrepl(LIST,#,OBJ) will replace item at location # with OBJ
proc lrepl () { $o1.remove($2) $o1.insrt($2,$o3) }

//** lswap(list,#1,#2) swap items on a list
proc lswap () { local a,b
    if ($2<$3) {a=$2 b=$3} else {a=$3 b=$2}
    $o1.insrt(a,$o1.object(b))
    $o1.remove(b+1)
    $o1.insrt(b+1,$o1.object(a+1))
    $o1.remove(a+1)
  }

//** proc shl() show a list
proc shl () { 
    if (numarg()==1) tmpobj=$o1 else tmpobj=tmplist 
    if (tmpobj.count==0) return
    if (isstring(tmpobj.object(0),tstr)) {
        for ltr(XO,tmpobj) print XO.s
      } else for ltr(XO,tmpobj) print XO
  }

//** lfu() = ltr follow-up, pick out a single item from the last ltr request
// lfu(list,num[,obj])
proc lfu () { 
    if (numarg()==1) { 
        if (argtype(1)==0) XO=tmpobj.object($1)
        if (argtype(1)==1) tmpobj=$o1
      }
    if (numarg()==2) {
        if (argtype(1)==1 && argtype(2)==0) {tmpobj=$o1 XO=$o1.object($2)}
        if (argtype(1)==0 && argtype(2)==1) {$o2=tmpobj.object($1)}
      }
    if (numarg()==3) {
        if (argtype(1)==1 && argtype(2)==0 && argtype(3)==1) { tmpobj=$o1 $o3=$o1.object($2) }
      }
    if (numarg()==4) {
        $o2=tmpobj.object($1)  $o4=tmpobj.object($3) 
      }
  }

//** listedit() allows you to remove things by clicking
proc listedit () {
    if (numarg()==0) { print "listedit(list,str) gives browser(list,str) for removing items" return}
    if (numarg()==1) {
      if (! isstring($o1.object(0),temp_string_)) {print "Give name for string of object?" return }
        sprint(temp_string_,"proc ledt1 () {sprint(temp_string_,%s,hoc_ac_,%s.object(hoc_ac_).%s)}","\"%d:%s\"",$o1,"s")
      } else {
        sprint(temp_string_,"proc ledt1 () {sprint(temp_string_,%s,hoc_ac_,%s.object(hoc_ac_).%s)}","\"%d:%s\"",$o1,$s2)
      }
    execute1(temp_string_)
    $o1.browser("Double click to remove",temp_string_,"ledt1()")
    sprint(temp_string_,"%s.remove(hoc_ac_)",$o1)
    $o1.accept_action(temp_string_)
  }

//** crac() create and access
proc crac () {
    execute("create acell_home_")
    execute("access acell_home_")
  }

//** listXO() connects stuff to XO from a list
proc listXO () {
    if (numarg()==1) {
        $o1.browser("Double click")
        sprint(temp_string_,"print hoc_ac_,\":XO -> \",%s.object(hoc_ac_) XO = %s.object(hoc_ac_)",$o1,$o1)
        $o1.accept_action(temp_string_)
      } else if (numarg()==2) {
        $o1.browser($s2)
        sprint(temp_string_,"XO = %s.object(hoc_ac_) print %s.object(hoc_ac_).%s",$o1,$o1,$s2)
        $o1.accept_action(temp_string_)
      } else if (numarg()==3) {
        $o1.browser($s2)
        sprint(temp_string_,"XO = %s.object(hoc_ac_) print %s.object(hoc_ac_).%s,%s.object(hoc_ac_).%s",$o1,$o1,$s2,$o1,$s3)
        $o1.accept_action(temp_string_)
      }
  }

//** lcatstr(list,s1,s2,...) make new List("s1") new List("s2") ... in one list
proc lcatstr() { local i
    if (numarg()<3) { print "lcatstr(l1,s1,s2,...) puts new Lists into l1" return }
    $o1 = new List($s2)
    for i=3,numarg() {
        tmplist2 = new List($si)
        for ltr(XO,tmplist2) { $o1.append(XO) }  
      }
  }

//** sublist() places a sublist in LIST0 from LIST1 index BEGIN to END inclusive
proc sublist () { local ii
    $o1.remove_all
    for ii=$3,$4 {
        $o1.append($o2.object(ii))
      }
  }

//* catlist() concats LIST2...LISTN on end of LIST1
proc catlist () { local i
    for i = 2, numarg() {
        for ltr(YO,$oi) {
            $o1.append(YO)
          }
      }
  }  

//* mechlist() creates a LIST of all this CELL type's TEMPLATE type
// list, cell, template
// make a list of mechanisms belonging to a certain template
proc mechlist () { local num,ii
  //  mchnms = ""  // not a good storage since runs out of room
    if (numarg()==0) { print "mechlist(list, cell, template)" return}
    $o1 = new List($s2)
    num = $o1.count
    for ii=0,num-1 {
        sprint(temp_string_,"%s.append(%s.%s)",$o1,$o1.object(ii),$s3)
        execute(temp_string_)
        sprint(mchnms,"%s/%d/%s.%s",mchnms,ii,$o1.object(ii),$s3)
      }
    for (ii=num-1;ii>=0;ii=ii-1) { $o1.remove(ii) }
  }

//* lp() loop through a list running command in object's context
// assumes list in tmplist
// with 1 args run $o1.object().obj_elem
// with 2 args run comm($o1.object().obj_elem)
proc lp () {
    for ii=0,tmplist.count-1 {
        printf("%s ",tmplist.object(ii))
        if (numarg()==2) {
            sprint(temp_string_,"%s(%s.%s)",$s2,tmplist.object(ii),$s1)
          } else {
            sprint(temp_string_,"%s.%s",tmplist.object(ii),$s1)
          }
        execute(temp_string_)
      }
  }

//* prlp() loop through a list printing object name and result of command
proc prlp () {
    tmpobj=tmplist
    if (numarg()>0) if (argtype(1)==1) tmpobj=$o1
    for ltr(XO,tmpobj) {
        printf("%d %s ",i1,XO)
        if (numarg()>1) {
            sprint(temp_string_,"print %s.%s",XO,$s2)
            execute(temp_string_)
          } else { print "" }
      }
  }

//* String functions
//** repl_str(str,stra,strb): replace stra with strb in string
// will only replace first string match
proc repl_str() { localobj scr
    scr=new String()
    if (sfunc.head($s1,$s2,scr.s) == -1) { print $s2," not in ",$s1  return }
    sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,scr.s)
    sprint(scr.s,"%s%s",$s3,scr.s)
    sfunc.head($s1,$s2,$s1)
    sprint($s1,"%s%s",$s1,scr.s)
  }

//** find_str(str,left,right,dest): pull out dest flanked by left and right
proc find_str() {
    if (sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,$s4) == -1) { print $s2," not in ",$s1  return }
    sfunc.head($s4,$s3,$s4)
  }

//** find_num(str,left,right): pull out number flanked by left and right
func find_num() { local x localobj st
    st=new String()
    if (sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,st.s) == -1) { print $s2," not in ",$s1  return }
    sfunc.head(st.s,$s3,st.s)
    sscanf(st.s,"%g",&x)
    return x
  }

//** repl_mstr(str,stra,strb): replace stra with strb in string
// multiple replace
proc repl_mstr () { localobj scr
    scr=new String()
    while (sfunc.head($s1,$s2,scr.s) != -1) {
        sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,scr.s)
        sprint(scr.s,"%s%s",$s3,scr.s)
        sfunc.head($s1,$s2,$s1)
        sprint($s1,"%s%s",$s1,scr.s)
      }
  }

//** extract(str,stra,strb[,dest]): pull out piece of string surrounded by stra,strb
obfunc str_extract() { local b,e,err localobj scr
    scr=new String2() err=0
    b=sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,scr.s) // scr.s contains after s2
    if (b==-1){printf("%s not found in %s\n",$s2,$s1) err=1}
    e=sfunc.head(scr.s,$s3,scr.t) // beg of s3
    if (e==-1){printf("%s not found in %s\n",$s3,scr.s) err=1}
    if (err) scr.s="" else sfunc.left(scr.s,e)
    if (numarg()==4) $s4=scr.s
    return scr
  }

//** clean_str(str,scratch,s1,s2,s3,...)
// remove serial $si from string
proc clean_str () { local i
    for i=3,numarg() {
        while (sfunc.head($s1,$si,$s2) != -1) { 
            sfunc.tail($s1,$si,$s2)
            sfunc.head($s1,$si,$s1)
            sprint($s1,"%s%s",$s1,$s2)      
          }
      }
  }

//** aaaa() (or $o2) becomes a list of strings from file $s1
proc aaaa () { local flag
    if (numarg()==2) { tmpfile.ropen($s1) aa=$o2 flag=0
      } else if (numarg()==1) { tmpfile.ropen($s1) flag=1
      } else { tmpfile.ropen("aa") flag=1 }
    if (flag==1) if (isobj(aa,"List")) { aa.remove_all() } else { aa=new List() }
    while (tmpfile.gets(temp_string_)>0) {
        chop(temp_string_)
        tmpobj=new String(temp_string_)
        aa.append(tmpobj)
      }
    tmpobj=nil
  }

//* Object identification
//** objid() find information about object -- replaces var2obj, canobj, objnum
obfunc objid () { local flag localobj xo
    xo=new Union()
    if (argtype(1)==1) sprint(xo.s,"tmpobj=%s",$o1) else sprint(xo.s,"tmpobj=%s",$s1)
    execute(xo.s) // change variable name to object name
    xo.o=tmpobj
    sprint(xo.s,"%s",xo.o)
    sscanf(xo.s,"%*[^[][%d]",&xo.x)
    return xo
  }

//** var2obj() and canobj() -- find true object names
// var2obj("tstr"[,"objvar"]) replaces variable name with actual name of the object
// default into XO; optional second arg allows to place somewhere else
// eg tstr="TC[0].ampa" var2obj(tstr) -> AMPA[0]
proc var2obj () { local flag
    if (numarg()==1) flag=1 else flag=0
    if (flag) sprint($s1,"XO=%s",$s1) else sprint($s1,"%s=%s",$s2,$s1)
    execute($s1) // change variable name to object name
    if (flag) sprint($s1,"%s",XO) else sprint($s1,"%s",$s2)
    printf("var2obj() PLEASE REPLACE WITH objid()\n") 
  }

//** objnum(OBJ) -- find object number
func objnum () { local x localobj st
    st=new String()
    if (argtype(1)==1) sprint(st.s,"%s",$o1) else st.s=$s1
    if (sscanf(st.s,"%*[^[][%d]",&x) != 1) x=-1
    return x
  }

proc allobjs () {
    hoc_stdout($s1)
    allobjects()
    hoc_stdout()
  }

//** strnum(str,"PRE") -- pull number out of a string
func strnum () { local x localobj st
    st=new String2($s1)
    sfunc.tail(st.s,$s2,st.t)
    if (sscanf(st.t,"%d",&x) != 1) x=-99e99
    return x
  }

//** canobj(obj[,"OBJVAR"]) -- default will assign to XO
// canonical object -- return canonical identity for an object
// eg canobj(tc,"YO") -- figure out what tc is and assign it to YO
proc canobj () { local flag
    if (numarg()==1) flag=1 else flag=0
    if (flag) sprint(tstr,"XO=%s",$o1) else sprint(tstr,"%s=%s",$s2,$o1)
    execute(tstr) // change variable name to object name
    sprint(tstr,"%s",$o1)
    printf("canobj() PLEASE REPLACE WITH objid()\n") 
  }

//* push() and pop() for objects -- returns
proc push () { local i
    for i=2,numarg() $o1.append($oi)
  }

//** pop()
obfunc pop () { local i,cnt localobj o
    cnt=$o1.count-1
    if (cnt==-1) { print "ERR: unable to pop" return } 
    o=$o1.object(cnt)
    $o1.remove(cnt)
    return o
  }

//* time()
strdef tmstr
tmstr="run()"
func time () { local tti,uintmax,cps
    uintmax=4294967295 // UINT_MAX/CLOCKS_PER_SEC
    cps=1e6 // CLOCKS_PER_SEC
    tti=prtime()
    system("date")
    if (numarg()==1) execute1($s1) else execute1(tmstr)
    tti=prtime()-tti
    if (tti<0) tti+=uintmax
    if (tti<cps) {           print tti/1e3,       "kilocycles" 
      } else if (tti<60*cps) { print tti/cps,   "s" 
      } else                   print tti/cps/60,"m"
    system("date")
    return tti/1e3
  }

func ftime () { local tti
    prtime()
    if (numarg()==1) execute($s1) else execute(tmstr)
    tti=prtime()
    return tti
  }

proc setdate () {
    system("date +%y%b%d",datestr)
    chop(datestr)
    downcase(datestr)
  }

proc sortlist () { local a,err,ii,x,rev,na localobj v1,v2,xo,nl,il
    il=$o1
    err=rev=0
    na=numarg()
    for ii=2,3 if (na>=ii) if (argtype(ii)==0) rev=1
    a=allocvecs(v1,v2,il.count)
    nl=new List()
    if (!name_declared("oform")) err=1
    if (!err) if (oform(v1)==NOP) err=1
    if (err) {printf("sortlist uses oform()\n") error()}
    for ltr(xo,il) v1.append(oform(xo))
    v1.sortindex(v2)
    if (rev) v2.reverse
    for ii=0,v2.size-1 nl.append(il.o(v2.x[ii]))
    if ((na==2 && !rev) || na==3) $o2=nl else {
        il.remove_all
        for ltr(xo,nl) il.append(xo)
      }
    dealloc(a)
  }

func assoc () { local i,ty,ii localobj xo
    // object_push(xo) ty=name_declared("s",1) object_pop() // strdef:4, dbl:5
    for ltr(xo,$o2,&ii) {
        if (argtype(1)==2) {
            if (strcmp(xo.s,$s1)==0) break
          } else if (argtype(1)==0) {
            if (xo.x==$1) break
          }
      }
    if ($o2.count==ii) return -1 else return ii
  }

// assoco() like assoc but returns the object instead of the index
obfunc assoco () { local i,ty,ii localobj xo
    // object_push(xo) ty=name_declared("s",1) object_pop() // strdef:4, dbl:5
    for ltr(xo,$o2,&ii) {
        if (argtype(1)==2) {
            if (strcmp(xo.s,$s1)==0) break
          } else if (argtype(1)==0) {
            if (xo.x==$1) break
          }
      }
    if ($o2.count==ii) return nil else return xo
  }

// excu() does the associative search and executes the resultant string 
// eg excu("key",list) excu("key",list,"arg1"[,"arg2","arg3"...]) 
func excu () { local i,ty,ii localobj xo,o,st
    o=$o2
    // object_push(xo) ty=name_declared("s",1) object_pop() // strdef:4, dbl:5
    for ltr(xo,o,&ii) {
        if (argtype(1)==2) {
            if (strcmp(xo.s,$s1)==0) break
          } else if (argtype(1)==0) {
            if (xo.x==$1) break
          }
      }
    if (o.count!=ii) {
        if (sfunc.len(xo.t)==0) return 0 // empty string
        st=strcat(st,"hoc_ac_=",xo.t,"(")
        if (numarg()>2) { 
            for i=3,numarg() {
                if (argtype(i)==2) { sprint(st.s,"%s%s,",st.s,$si)
                  } else if (argtype(i)==0) { sprint(st.s,"%s%g,",st.s,$i)
                  } else if (argtype(i)==1) { sprint(st.s,"%s%s,",st.s,$oi) }
              }
            chop(st.s)
          }
        strcat(st,")")
        execute(st.s)    // print st.s
        return hoc_ac_
      } else return 0
  }

// LAR: list_array is list used as an array
begintemplate LAR
public l,set,x,size,nil,resize,get,lt
objref l,nil
double size[1]

proc init () { local ii
    size=$1
    l=new List()
    for ii=0,size-1 l.append(l) // place holder
  }

func set () { local ix
    ix=$1
    if (ix>=size) {printf("LAR set OOR %d>=%d\n",ix,size) return -1}
    l.remove(ix) l.insrt(ix,$o2) 
    return ix
  }

obfunc x ()   { if (eqojt(l,l.o($1))) return nil else return l.o($1) }
obfunc get () { if (eqojt(l,l.o($1))) return nil else return l.o($1) }

proc resize () { local newsz,ii
    newsz=$1
    if (newsz<size) {
        for (ii=size-1;ii>=newsz;ii-=1) l.remove(ii)
      } else if (newsz>size) {
        for ii=size,newsz-1 l.append(l)
      }
    size=newsz
  }

iterator lt () { local ii
    for ii=0,size-1 if (!eqojt(l,l.o(ii))) { 
        $o1=l.o(ii)
        iterator_statement
      }
  }
endtemplate LAR
// END /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/declist.hoc
//================================================================
print "Loading decvec"

fnum=verbose=0
{symnum = 7 colnum = 10}
func cg () { return $1%(colnum-1)+1 } // skip white color
objref clrsym[colnum+1]
for ii=0,colnum { clrsym[ii]=new Union() clrsym[ii].x=ii%colnum }
// black->red->blue->green->orange->brown->violet->yellow->grey
{clrsym[0].s="white" clrsym[1].s="black" clrsym[2].s="red" clrsym[3].s="blue"
  clrsym[4].s="green" clrsym[5].s="orange" clrsym[6].s="brown" clrsym[7].s="violet" 
  clrsym[8].s="yellow" clrsym[9].s="grey"} 
clrsym[0].o=new List()
{symmax=20 symmin=2}
obfunc sg () { local ii localobj o
    ii=$1
    o=clrsym[ii%(colnum-1)+1]
    o.x=ii%(colnum-1)+1
    o.t=clrsym[0].o.o(ii%symnum).s
    o.x[1]=(3-ii)%4+1 // descending line types
    o.x[2]=(symmax-symmin-2*ii)%(symmax-symmin+1)+symmin
    o.x[3]=(4-ii)%(symmax-symmin+1)+symmin
    o.x[4]=(int((ii+1)/5)%2+1)*4-(ii+1)%4+1 // another line type sequence
    return o
  }

{ MSONUM=100 MSOSIZ=100 msomax=0 msoptr=0 objref mso[MSONUM] }
double x[4],y[4]
xx=0 // declare a scalar 
ind = new Vector(100)
tvec = new Vector(100)
vec = new Vector(100)
vec0 = new Vector(10)
vec1 = new Vector(10)
vrtmp = new Vector(10)
veclist = new List()
veccollect = new List()
rdm = new Random()
rdm.MCellRan4()

if (!(xwindows && name_declared("xwindows"))) {
    xwindows=0
    objref graphItem
    strdef temp_string_, temp_string2_
  }

//* stuff that doesn't belong here
//** dired([list,]file) - put together list of files matching 'file', calls 'ls -1 file'
//   dired([list,]file,1) file name to read for list of files
//   dired([list,]file,2) clear dir first; if list isn't present assume 'dir'
func dired () { local f,i,f1 localobj st,o
    f1=f=0
    st=new String2()
    if (numarg()==0) { print "dired([list,]filename[,flag])\t\
        adds the filename to list (use wildcards) (flag:1 read file;flag:2 clear list)"
        return 0 }
    if (argtype(1)==2) {o=dir st.s=$s1 i=2} else {o=$o1 st.s=$s2 i=3}
    while (i<=numarg()) { 
        if (argtype(i)==2) st.t=$si else f=$i
        i+=1
      }
    if (f==2) o.remove_all
    if (f==1) {
        tmpfile.ropen(st.s) 
      } else { // f!=1
        rmxtmp()
        if (strm(st.s,"[*?]")) f1=0 else f1=1 // is this a wildcard or a directory
        if (f1) {  
            if (sfunc.len(st.t)>0) {
                sprint(st.t,"find %s -name %s >> %s",st.s,st.t,xtmp)
              } else  sprint(st.t,"find %s >> %s",st.s,xtmp)
          } else     sprint(st.t,"ls -1R %s >> %s",st.s,xtmp)
        system(st.t)
        tmpfile.ropen(xtmp)
      }
    while (tmpfile.scanstr(st.t) != -1) {
        if (f1) { // a directory
            if ((x=ftype(st.t))!=2) {print "Ignoring ",st.t,x  continue}
          }
        o.append(new String(st.t))
        tmpfile.gets(st.t)  // get rid of the rest of the line
      }
    printf("%d files in dir\n",o.count)
    return o.count
  }

// lsdir([dir])
proc lsdir () { 
    if (numarg()==1) {
        for ltr($o1) {sprint(tstr,"ls -l %s",XO.s) system(tstr)}
      } else for ltr(dir) {sprint(tstr,"ls -l %s",XO.s) system(tstr)}
  }

//** lbrw(list,action) is used to put up a browser
// note action given without '()'
proc lbrw () {
    $o1.browser($s2,"s")
    sprint($s2,"%s()",$s2)
    $o1.accept_action($s2)
  }

//** l2v(S1,S2) makes a list(S1) and puts all the XO.S2 into vec
// eg l2v("IClamp","amp")
proc l2v () {
    tmpobj=new List($s1)
    if (numarg()==3) YO=$o3 else YO=vec
    YO.resize(tmpobj.count) YO.resize(0)
    for ltr(tmpobj) {
        sprint(tstr,"YO.append(%s.%s)",XO,$s2)
        execute(tstr)
      }
  }

//* vector iterator vtr
// for vtr(vec) { print x }
// for vtr(&x, vec) { print x }
// for vtr(&x, vec, &y) { print x,y }
// for vtr(&x, vec, max_ind) { print x }
// for vtr(&x, vec, min_ind, max_ind) { print x }
// for vtr(&x, vec, &y, min_ind, max_ind) { print x,y }
iterator vtr () { local i,j,pf,cf,b,e localobj o
    cf=pf=0
    if (argtype(1)==1) { // 1st arg a vector or the pointer
        o=$o1 i=2
      } else if (argtype(1)==3) {
        pf=1 o=$o2 i=3 // pointer alway in position 1
      } 
    b=0 e=o.size-1 // default: do whole vec
    // now can take counter or limits
    if (argtype(i)==3) {cf=i i+=1} // cf gives counter location
    if (argtype(i)==0) {
        if (argtype(i+1)==0) {b=$i i+=1 e=$i} else e=$i
      }
    if (!cf) i1=0 else {i=cf $&i=0} // default counter
    for j=b,e {
        if (pf) $&1=o.x[j] else x=o.x[j]  
        iterator_statement 
        if (cf) $&i+=1 else i1+=1
      }
  }

//* vector iterator vtr2, treat two vectors as pairs
// usage 'for vtr2(&x, &y, vec1, vec2) { print x,y }'
iterator vtr2 () { local i,pairwise,noi1
    noi1=pairwise=0
    if (numarg()==3) { pairwise=1 i1=0 }
    if (numarg()==4) if (argtype(4)==3) { pairwise=1 $&4=0 noi1=1}
    if (pairwise) if ($o3.size%2!=0) { print "vtr2 ERROR: vec not even sized." return }
    if (! pairwise) {
        if ($o3.size != $o4.size) { print "vtr2 ERROR: sizes differ." return }
        if (numarg()==5) {$&5=0 noi1=1} else {i1 = 0}
      }
    for i = 0,$o3.size()-1 {
        $&1 = $o3.x[i]
        if (pairwise) $&2=$o3.x[i+=1] else $&2=$o4.x[i]
        iterator_statement
        if (noi1) { if (pairwise) $&4+=1 else $&5+=1 } else i1+=1
      }
  }

//** viconv(TARG,OLD_INDS,NEW_INDS)
proc viconv () { local a,b
    if (numarg()==0) { printf("viconv(TARG,OLD_INDS,NEW_INDS)\n") return }
    a=b=allocvecs(2) b+=1
    if ($o2.size!=$o3.size) {printf("OLD_INDS %d != NEW_INDS %d\n",$o2.size,$o3.size) return}
    mso[b].resize($o1.size)
    for vtr2(&x,&y,$o2,$o3) { // x -> y
        mso[a].indvwhere($o1,"==",x)
        mso[b].indset(mso[a],y)
      }
    $o1.copy(mso[b])
    dealloc(a)
  }

//* iterator lvtr, step through a list and a vector together
// usage 'for lvtr(XO, &x, list, vec) { print XO,x }'
iterator lvtr () { local i
    if ($o3.count <  $o4.size) { printf("lvtr ERROR: vecsize > listsize: list %d,vec %d.\n",$o3.count,$o4.size) return }
    if ($o3.count != $o4.size) { printf("lvtr WARNING: sizes differ: list %d,vec %d.\n",$o3.count,$o4.size) }
    if (numarg()==5) {$&5=0} else {i1 = 0}
    for i = 0, $o4.size()-1 {
        $o1 = $o3.object(i)
        $&2 = $o4.x[i]
        iterator_statement
        if (numarg()==5) { $&5+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
      }
  }

//* other iterators: case, scase, ocase
iterator case () { local i,j,max,flag
    if (argtype(numarg())==3) {flag=1 max=numarg()-1} else {flag=0 max=numarg()}
    if (flag) {i=max+1 $&i=0} else i1 = 0
    for i = 2, max {
        $&1 = $i
        iterator_statement
        if (flag) {j=i i=max+1 $&i+=1 i=j} else i1+=1
      }
  }

iterator scase () { local i,j,min,max,flag
    if (argtype(numarg())==3) {flag=1 max=numarg()-1} else {flag=0 max=numarg()}
    if (flag) {i=max+1 $&i=0} else i1=0
    if (argtype(1)==1) {
        if (! isobj($o1,"String")) $o1=new String() // will accept String or String2
        min=2 
      } else min=1
    for i = min,max {
        if (min==1) temp_string_=$si else $o1.s=$si
        iterator_statement
        if (flag) {j=i i=max+1 $&i+=1 i=j} else i1+=1
      }
  }

// eg for scase2("a","b","c","d","e","f") print tmpobj.s,tmpobj.t
iterator scase2 () { local i,min,flag,na,newstr localobj o
    flag=i1=0 newstr=min=1 
    na=numarg()
    if (argtype(na)==0) {i=na newstr=$i na-=1}
    if (argtype(1)==1) {flag=1 min=2}
    for i=min,na {
        if (i==min || newstr) o=new String2()
        o.s=$si i+=1  o.t=$si
        if (flag) $o1=o else tmpobj=o
        iterator_statement
        i1+=1
      }
  }

iterator ocase () { local i
    i1 = 0
    if (isassigned($o1)) {
        for i = 1, numarg() {
            XO = $oi
            iterator_statement
            i1+=1
          }
        XO=nil
     } else {
        for i = 2, numarg() {
            $o1 = $oi
            iterator_statement
            i1+=1
          }
      }
    XO=nil
  }

//* strm(STR,REGEXP) == regexp string match 
func strm () { return sfunc.head($s1,$s2,"")!=-1 }
func strc () { return strcmp($s1,$s2)==0 }

//** count_substr(str,sub): count occurences of substring in str
func count_substr () { local cnt
    cnt = 0
    while (sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,$s1) != -1) { cnt += 1}
    return cnt
  }

//* nind(targ,data,ind) fill the target vector with data NOT index by ind (opposite of v.index)
proc nind () { 
    if (! eqobj($o1,$o2)) $o1.copy($o2)
    $o1.indset($o3,-1e20)
    $o1.where($o1,">",-1e20)
  }

//* vlk(vec)
// vlk(vec,max)
// vlk(vec,min,max)
// vlk(vec,min,max,"INDEX") -- give index of each entry
// prints out a segment of a vector
vlk_width=80
proc vlkomitoff () { execute1("func vlkomit () {return NOP}") }
proc vlkomit0(){execute1("func vlkomit(){if(vcnt($o1,0)==$o1.size) return 1 else return 0}")}
vlkomitoff()
proc vlk () { local ii,i,j,ami,min,max,wdh,nl,na,width,tablen,omfl,ixfl localobj st,v1,vi
    st=new String2()  v1=new Vector(numarg()) vi=new Vector()
    nl=1 wdh=vlk_width j=0 omfl=ixfl=0 ami=2
    na=numarg() min=0 max=$o1.size-1
    if (vlkomit(v1)!=NOP) omfl=1 // omfl to omit printing some
    if (argtype(na)==2) {i=na 
        if (strm($si,"I")) {ixfl=1 vrsz($o1,vi) vi.indgen ami=1}
        na-=1
      }
    if (argtype(na)==0) {i=na 
        if ($i<0) min=$i else max=$i 
        na-=1
      }
    if (argtype(na)==0) {i=na min=$i na-=1}
    if (max<0) max+=$o1.size
    if (min<0) min+=$o1.size
    if (max>$o1.size-1) { max=$o1.size-1 printf("vlk: max beyond $o1 size\n") }
    sprint(st.t,"%%s:%s",dblform)
    width=0
    if (strm(tabform,"\t")) tablen=6 else if (strm(tabform,"\n")) tablen=-1e5 else {
        tablen=sfunc.len(tabform) }
    for ii=min,max { 
        if (omfl) { v1.resize(0)
            for i=1,na v1.append($oi.x[ii])
            if (vlkomit(v1)) continue
          }
        if (ixfl) sprint(st.s,dblform,vi.x[ii]) else sprint(st.s,dblform,$o1.x[ii])
        for i=ami,na sprint(st.s,st.t,st.s,$oi.x[ii]) 
        width+=(sfunc.len(st.s)+tablen)
        if (width>vlk_width && nl) {printf("\n") width=0}
        printf("%s%s",st.s,tabform)
      }
    if (nl) print ""
  }

//** vlkp(SRC,PVEC) uses indices in PVEC to print out values in SRC
proc vlkp () { local i,j,wdh
    j=0 nl=1 wdh=vlk_width
    if (numarg()==2) {
        for vtr(&x,$o1) {
            printf("%g%s",$o2.x[x],tabform)
            if ((j=j+1)%vlk_width==0 && nl && strcmp(tabform," ")==0) { print "" }
          }
      } else {
        for vtr(&x,$o1) { for i=2,numarg() printf("%g%s",$oi.x[x],tabform) 
            print "" }
      }
    if (nl) print ""
  }

//* vprf() prints 1,2 or 3 vectors in parallel to output file
proc vprf () { local x2
    if (! tmpfile.isopen()) {
        print "Writing to temp file 'temp'"
        tmpfile.wopen("temp")
      }
    if (numarg()==1) { 
        for vtr(&x,$o1) { tmpfile.printf("%g\n",x) }
      } else if (numarg()==2) { 
        for vtr2(&x,&y,$o1,$o2) { tmpfile.printf("%g %g\n",x,y) }
      } else if (numarg()==3) { 
        for vtr2(&x,&y,$o1,$o2,&ii) { x2=$o3.x[ii] tmpfile.printf("%g %g %g\n",x,y,x2) }
      }
    tmpfile.close
  }

//* vpr() prints 1,2 or 3 vectors in parallel to STDOUT
proc vpr () { local x2
    if (numarg()==1) { 
        for vtr(&x,$o1) { printf("%g",x) }
      } else if (numarg()==2) { 
        for vtr2(&x,&y,$o1,$o2) { printf("%g:%g ",x,y) }
      } else if (numarg()==3) { 
        for vtr2(&x,&y,$o1,$o2,&ii) { x2=$o3.x[ii] printf("%g:%g:%g ",x,y,x2) }
      }
    print ""
  }

//* readvec(vec) read from line
proc readvec () { 
    $o1.resize(0)
    while (read(xx)) $o1.append(xx)
    vlk($o1)
  }
  
//* popvec(), savenums, readnums, vecsprint, savevec, savestr
//  vrsz(), vcp(), zvec(), resize, copy, empty
proc pushvec () { local i // same as .append, retained for compatability
    for i=2, numarg() $o1.append($i)
  }

//** insvec(VEC,IND,VAL1[,VAL2,...]) insert values into the vector
proc insvec () { local ix,i,a // insert values into a vector
    a=allocvecs(1)  ix=$2
    for i=3, numarg() mso[a].append($i)
    $o1.insrt(ix,mso[a])
    dealloc(a)
  }

//** revec() clear vector then append
proc revec () { local i,x localobj o,st // clear vector then append
    if (! isobj($o1,"Vector")) $o1=new Vector(100)
    if (argtype(2)==2) {
        o=$o1 o.resize(0)
        st=new String2($s2)
        if (strm(st.s,",")) { // use split
            split(st.s,o)
          } else if (strm(st.s," ")) {
            split(st.s,o," ")
          } else while (sfunc.len(st.s)>0) { // assume binary vector, could generalize for hex and base64
            sscanf(st.s,"%1d",&x)
            o.append(x)
            sfunc.tail(st.s, ".", st.t)
            st.s=st.t
          }
      } else for (i=1;i<=numarg();i+=1) { 
        ty=argtype(i)
        if (ty==1) {        o=$oi o.resize(0)
          } else if (ty==0) { o.append($i)
          } else if (ty==3) { o.append($&i) }
      }
  }

//** unvec(VEC,&a,&b,...) put values from vector back into doubles (via pointers)
proc unvec () { local i
    if ($o1.size!=numarg()-1) { printf("unvec WARNING resizing %s to %d\n",$o1,numarg()-1) 
        $o1.resize(numarg()-1) }
    for i=2,numarg() $&i=$o1.x[i-2] 
  }

//** wevec(VEC,wt0,wt1,...) returned weighted sum
func wevec () { local i,sum
    if ($o1.size!=numarg()-1) { printf("wevec SIZE ERR %d %d\n",$o1.size,numarg()-1) return }
    sum=0
    for i=2,numarg() sum+=$o1.x[i-2]*$i
    return sum
  }

//** vrsz(VEC or NUM,VEC1,VEC2...,VECn or NUM)  -- vector resize -- to size of first arg
// optional final number is fill
func vrsz () { local i,sz,max,fill,flag,rsz0
    max=numarg()
    flag=rsz0=0
    if (argtype(1)==1) { 
        if (isobj($o1,"Vector")) sz=$o1.size else if (isobj($o1,"List")) sz=$o1.count
      } else sz=$1
    if (argtype(max)==0) {i=max max-=1 fill=$i flag=1}
    if (argtype(max)==2) {max-=1 rsz0=1} // string means resize(0)
    if (sz<0) sz+=$o2.size // reduce size
    if (sz<0) {printf("vrsz ERR: can't resize %s to %d\n",$o2,sz) return sz}
    for i=2, max { 
        $oi.resize(sz)  
        if (rsz0) $oi.resize(0) else if (flag) $oi.fill(fill) 
      }
    return sz
  }

//** vcp() -- copy vector segment with resizing
proc vcp () { local i,sz
    $o1.resize($4-$3+1) $o1.copy($o2,$3,$4)
  }

//** veccut(VEC,min,max) just keep a piece of the vector
// veccut(VEC,min,max,tstep) generate indices from times using tstep
proc veccut () { local a localobj v1
    a=allocvecs(v1)
    if (numarg()==4) { min=round($2/$4) max=round($3/$4)
      } else { min=$2 max=$3 }
    v1.copy($o1,min,max) 
    $o1.copy(v1) 
    dealloc(a)
  }

//** zvec()
proc zvec () { local i // make vectors zero size
    for i=1, numarg() $oi.resize(0)
  }

//* save and read series
//** savenums(x[,y,...]) save numbers to tmpfile via a vector
proc savenums () { local i,vv
    vv=allocvecs(1)
    for i=1, numarg() mso[vv].append($i)
    mso[vv].vwrite(tmpfile)
    dealloc(vv)
  }

//** savedbls(&x,sz) save a double array of size sz
proc savedbls () { local vv,i
    vv=allocvecs(1)
    mso[vv].from_double($2,&$&1)
    mso[vv].vwrite(tmpfile)
    dealloc(vv)
  }

//** readnums(&x[,&y...]) recover nums from tmpfile via a vector
func readnums () { local vv,i,cnt
    vv=allocvecs(1) cnt=0
    if (mso[vv].vread(tmpfile)) {
        if (numarg()!=mso[vv].size) {
            printf("readnums WARNING: args=%d;vec.size=%d\n",numarg(),mso[vv].size)
            if (numarg()>mso[vv].size) { 
                for i=1,mso[vv].size $&i = mso[vv].x[i-1]        
                cnt=mso[vv].size
              }
          }
        if (cnt==0) {
            for i=1,numarg() $&i = mso[vv].x[i-1]
            cnt=numarg()
          }
      } else cnt=-1
    dealloc(vv)
    return cnt
  }

//** readdbls(&x,sz) read a double array of size sz
func readdbls () { local vv,i,flag
    vv=allocvecs(1) flag=1
    if (mso[vv].vread(tmpfile)) {
        mso[vv].v2d(&$&1)   // seg error risk
      } else flag=0
    dealloc(vv)
    return flag
  }

//** wrvstr(str) save string to a file by converting to ascii
proc wrvstr () { local vv,i
    vv=allocvecs(1)
    str2v($s1,mso[vv])
    mso[vv].vwrite(tmpfile,1)
    dealloc(vv)
  }

//** rdvstr(str) read string from a file via vread and conversion
func rdvstr () { local vv,i,flag
    flag=1
    vv=allocvecs(1)
    if (mso[vv].vread(tmpfile)) {
        if (numarg()==1) v2str(mso[vv],$s1) else v2str(mso[vv],tstr)
      } else flag=0
    dealloc(vv)
    return flag
  }

//** str2v()
proc str2v () { localobj lo
    lo=new String()
    $o2.resize(0)
    lo.s=$s1
    while (sfunc.len(lo.s)>0) {
        sscanf(lo.s,"%c%*s",&x)
        sfunc.right(lo.s,1)
        $o2.append(x)
      }
  }
    
//** v2str() translates from vector to string
proc v2str () { local ii,x
    $s2=""
    round($o1)
    for ii=0,$o1.size-1 { x=$o1.x[ii] sprint($s2,"%s%c",$s2,x) }
  }

//* popvec() remove last entry
func popvec () { local sz, ret
    sz = $o1.size-1
    if (sz<0) return 1e9
    ret = $o1.x[sz]
    $o1.resize[sz]
    return ret
  }

//* chkvec (look at last entry)
func chkvec () { if ($o1.size>0) return $o1.x[$o1.size-1] else return -1e10 }

// vecsprint(strdef,vec)
proc vecsprint () { local ii
    if ($o2.size>100) { return }
    for ii=0,$o2.size-1 { sprint($s1,"%s %g ",$s1,$o2.x[ii]) }
  }

// savevec([list,]vec1[,vec2,...]) add vector onto veclist or other list if given as 1st arg
// don't throw out vectors
func savevec () { local i,flag,beg localobj v1
    if (numarg()==0) { savevec(hoc_obj_[0],hoc_obj_[1]) return }
    if (isobj($o1,"List")) beg=2 else beg=1
    for i=beg, numarg() { 
        if (veccollect.count>0) { // grab a vector from garbage collection
            v1=veccollect.object(veccollect.count-1)
            veccollect.remove(veccollect.count-1)
          } else v1 = new Vector($oi.size)
        v1.copy($oi)
        if (beg==2) $o1.append(v1) else veclist.append(v1)
      }
    if (beg==2) return $o1.count-1 else return veclist.count-1
  }

// prveclist(filename[,list])
proc prveclist () { localobj xo
    if (!batch_flag && tmpfile.ropen($s1)) {
        printf("%s exists; save anyway? (y/n) ",$s1)
        getstr(temp_string_) chop(temp_string_)
        if (strcmp(temp_string_,"y")!=0) return
      }
    if (! tmpfile.wopen($s1)) { print "Can't open ",$s1  return }
    if (numarg()==2) {
        for ltr(xo,$o2) xo.vwrite(tmpfile)
      } else {
        for ltr(xo,veclist) xo.vwrite(tmpfile)
      }
    tmpfile.close()
  }

// prvl2(filename[,list]) --- save using a more standard fwrite
proc prvl2 () { localobj xo,o
    if (!batch_flag && tmpfile.ropen($s1)) {
        printf("%s exists; save anyway? (y/n) ",$s1)
        getstr(temp_string_) chop(temp_string_)
        if (strcmp(temp_string_,"y")!=0) return
      }
    if (! tmpfile.wopen($s1)) { print "Can't open ",$s1  return }
    if (numarg()==2) o=$o2 else o=veclist
    for ltr(xo,o) {tmpfile.printf("%d\n",xo.size) xo.fwrite(tmpfile)}
    tmpfile.close()
  }

// rdveclist("FILENAME"[,list])
// rdveclist("FILENAME"[,NOERASE])
proc rdveclist () { local flag,a
    flag=0
    a=allocvecs(1)
    if (numarg()==1) { flag=1 clrveclist() } else if (argtype(2)==1) $o2.remove_all else flag=1
    if (! tmpfile.ropen($s1)) { print "Can't open ",$s1  return }
    while (mso[a].vread(tmpfile)) {
        if (flag) savevec(mso[a]) else savevec($o2,mso[a])
      }
    tmpfile.close()
    tmpobj=veclist
    dealloc(a)
  }
  
// rdvecs("FILENAME",vec1,vec2,...)
proc rdvecs () { local i
    if (! tmpfile.ropen($s1)) { print "Can't open ",$s1  return }
    for i=2,numarg() if ($oi.vread(tmpfile)==0) printf("WARNING nothing to read into %s\n",$oi)
    tmpfile.close()
  }
  
// svvecs("FILENAME",vec1,vec2,...)
proc svvecs () { local i
    clrveclist()
    for i=2,numarg() savevec($oi)
    prveclist($s1)
  }
  
// vpad(vec,howmany,val[,right])
proc vpad () { local a
    a=allocvecs(1)
    mso[a].resize($2) mso[a].fill($3)
    if (numarg()==4) $o1.append(mso[a]) else {
        mso[a].append($o1) $o1.copy(mso[a])     }
    dealloc(a)
  }

// vtrunc(vec,howmany[,right])
proc vtrunc () { local a
    if (numarg()==3) $o1.resize($o1.size-$2) else {
        $o1.reverse $o1.resize($o1.size-$2) $o1.reverse
      }
  }

proc rdxy () { local a
    a = allocvecs(1)
    revec(ind,vec)
    tmpfile.ropen("aa")
    mso[a].scanf(tmpfile)
    if (mso[a].size%2!=0) {print "rdxy ERR1 ",mso[a].size return}
    for vtr2(&x,&y,mso[a]) {ind.append(x) vec.append(y)}
    print ind.size," points read from aa into ind and vec"
    dealloc(a)
  }

// closest(vec,num) -- return ind for vec member closest to num
func closest () { local a,ret
    a=allocvecs(1)
    mso[a].copy($o1) mso[a].sub($2) mso[a].abs
    ret=mso[a].min_ind
    dealloc(a)
    return ret
  }

// memb(TEST#,#1,#2,...) -- true if the TEST# is in the list
func memb () { local na,i
    for i=2,numarg() if ($1==$i) return 1
    return 0
  }

proc clrveclist () { localobj o,xo
    if (numarg()==1) o=$o1 else o=veclist
    for ltr(xo,o) { xo.resize(0) veccollect.append(xo) }
    o.remove_all()
  }

// savestr(str1...) add string obj onto tmplist
proc savestr () { local i
    if (argtype(1)==1) for i=2, numarg() $o1.append(new String($si)) else {
        for i=1, numarg() tmplist.append(new String($si))
      }
  }

// redund with v.count in vecst.mod
func vcount () { local val,sum
    val=$2 sum=0
    for vtr(&x,$o1) if (x==val) sum+=1
    return sum
  }

// tvecl(inlist[,outlist]) -- transpose veclist
obfunc tvecl () { local x,cnt,sz,err,ii,p localobj xo,il,ol
    il=$o1 
    if (numarg()>1) ol=$o2
    if (!isassigned(ol)) {ol=veclist clrveclist()} else ol.remove_all
    err=0   cnt=il.count sz=il.o(0).size
    for ltr(xo,il,&x) if (xo.size!=sz) err=x
    if (err) { print "Wrong size vector is #",x return ol }
    p = allocvecs(1,cnt)  mso[p].resize(cnt)
    for ii=0,sz-1 {
        for jj=0,cnt-1 mso[p].x[jj] = il.o(jj).x[ii]
        savevec(ol,mso[p])
      }
    dealloc(p)
    return ol
  }  

//* vinsect(v1,v2,v3) -- v1 gets intersection (common members) of v2,v3
//  replaced by v.insct() in vecst.mod
proc vinsect () {
    $o1.resize(0)
    for vtr(&x,$o2) for vtr(&y,$o3) if (x==y) $o1.append(x)
  }

//* vecsplit(vec,vec1,vec2[,vec3,...])
// splits vec into other vecs given
proc vecsplit () { local num,ii,i
    num = numarg()-1 // how many
    for i=2,numarg() $oi.resize(0)
    for (ii=0;ii<$o1.size;ii+=num) {
        for i=2,numarg() if (ii+i-2<$o1.size) $oi.append($o1.x[ii+i-2])
      }
  }

//* vecsort(vec,vec1,vec2[,vec3,...])
// sorts n vecs including first vec by first one
proc vecsort () { local i,inv,scr,narg
    narg=numarg()
    if (narg<2 || narg>10) {print "Wrong #args in decvec.hoc:vecsort" return}
    scr=inv=allocvecs(2) scr+=1
    $o1.sortindex(mso[inv])
    mso[scr].resize(mso[inv].size)
    sprint(temp_string_,"%s.fewind(%s,%s,%s",mso[scr],mso[inv],$o1,$o2)
    for i=3,narg sprint(temp_string_,"%s,%s",temp_string_,$oi)
    sprint(temp_string_,"%s)",temp_string_)
    execute(temp_string_)
    dealloc(inv)
  }

//** order(&x,&y,...) put values in order
proc order () { local a,i,na
    na=numarg()
    a=allocvecs(1)
    for i=1,na mso[a].append($&i)
    mso[a].sort
    for i=1,na $&i=mso[a].x[i-1]
    dealloc(a)  
  }

//** vdelind()  -- delete a single index
proc vdelind () { local i,iin
    iin = $2
    if (iin<0) iin=$o1.size+iin
    if (iin>$o1.size-1 || iin<0) {
        printf("vdelind Error: index %d doesn't exist.\n",iin) return }
    if (iin<$o1.size-1) $o1.copy($o1,iin,iin+1,$o1.size-1)
    $o1.resize($o1.size-1)
  }

//* mkveclist(num[,sz]) recreate veclist to have NUM vecs each of size SZ (or MSOSIZ)
proc mkveclist () { local ii,num,sz,diff localobj xo
    num=$1 
    diff = num-veclist.count
    if (numarg()==2) { sz=$2 } else { sz = MSOSIZ }
    if (diff>0) {
        for ii=0,diff-1 {
          tmpvec = new Vector(sz)
          veclist.append(tmpvec)
          }
      } else if (diff<0) {
        for (ii=veclist.count-1;ii>=num;ii=ii-1) { veclist.remove(ii) }
      }
    for ltr(xo,veclist) { xo.resize(sz) }
  }

//* allocvecs
// create temp set of vectors on mso
// returns starting point on mso 
// eg p = allocvecs(3)
// p = allocvecs(v1,v2,v3) // where v1..v3 are localobj or objref
// p = allocvecs(v1,v2,v3,...,size) // set all to size
// p = allocvecs(num,list) // append num vecs to list
// p = allocvecs(num,size) // num vecs of size size
// p = allocvecs(num,size,list) // append num vecs of size to list
// p = allocvecs(num,list,size) // allow args to be given in reverse order
// access these vectors by mso[p+0] ... [p+2]
func allocvecs () { local i,ii,llen,sz,newv,aflg,lflg,na localobj o
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        print "p=allocvecs(#) or p=allocvecs(v1,v2,...), access with mso[p], mso[p+1]..." return 0 }
    sz=MSOSIZ  na=numarg()
    lflg=0
    if (argtype(1)==0) {
        aflg=0 newv=$1
        if (na>=2) if (argtype(2)==0) sz=$2 else {lflg=1 o=$o2} // append to list in arg2
        if (na>=3) if (argtype(3)==0) sz=$3 else {lflg=1 o=$o3} 
        if (lflg) o.remove_all
      } else {
        aflg=1
        if (argtype(na)==0) {
            i=na sz=$i newv=i-1
          } else newv=na 
      }
    llen = msoptr
    for ii=msomax,msoptr+newv-1 { // may need new vectors
        if (ii>=MSONUM) { print "alloc ERROR: MSONUM exceeded." return 0 }
        mso[ii] = new Vector(sz)
      }
    for ii=0,newv-1 {
        mso[msoptr].resize(sz) 
        mso[msoptr].resize(0) 
        msoptr = msoptr+1
      }
    if (msomax<msoptr) msomax = msoptr
    if (aflg) for i=1,newv $oi=mso[i-1+llen]
    if (lflg) for i=0,newv-1 o.append(mso[i+llen])
    return llen
  }

//** dealloc(start)
// remove temp set of vectors from mso
proc dealloc () { local ii,min
    if (numarg()==0) { min = 0 } else { min = $1 }
    msoptr = min
  }

//* indvwhere family
//** vwh(VEC,VAL) returns index where VEC.x[i]==VAL
func vwh () { 
    if (argtype(2)==0) return $o1.indwhere("==",$2) 
    if (numarg()==3) return $o1.indwhere($s2,$3)
    return $o1.indwhere($s2,$3,$4)
  }

//** vval(VEC,STR,NUM) uses indwhere to return first value that qualifies
func vval () {
    if (argtype(2)==0) return $o1.x[$o1.indwhere("==",$2)]
    if (numarg()==3) return $o1.x[$o1.indwhere($s2,$3)] 
    return $o1.x[$o1.indwhere($s2,$3,$4)] 
  }

//** vcnt(VEC,STR,x[,y]) uses indvwhere and returns # of values that qualify
func vcnt () { local a,ret
    a=allocvecs(1) 
    if (numarg()==2) mso[a].indvwhere($o1,"==",$2)
    if (numarg()==3) mso[a].indvwhere($o1,$s2,$3)
    if (numarg()==4) mso[a].indvwhere($o1,$s2,$3,$4)
    ret = mso[a].size
    // if ($o1.size>0) printf("%d/%d (%g)\n",ret,$o1.size,ret/$o1.size*100)
    dealloc(a)
    return ret
  }
//** civw(DEST,SRC1,STR1,x1[,y1]...) does compound indvwhere
// overwrites tstr; DEST should be size 0 unless to be compounded
// civw(DEST,0,...) will resize DEST to 0
func civw () { local i,a,b,c,f2,x,y,sz,min
    a=b=c=allocvecs(3) b+=1 c+=2
    min=2
    // if ($o1.size>0) print "Starting with previously set index vector"
    if (argtype(2)==0) {
        if ($2==0) { $o1.resize(0) min=3
            if (argtype(3)==1) sz=$o3.size else {
                printf("ERR0: arg 3 should be obj when $2==0\n",i) return -1 }
          } else {
            printf("ERR0a: arg 2 should be 0 if a number -- zero sizes ind vector\n") 
            return -1
          }
      } else if (argtype(2)==1) sz=$o2.size else {
        printf("ERR0b: arg 2 should be obj\n",i) return -1 }
    for (i=min;i<=numarg();) {
        mso[c].copy($o1) 
        if (argtype(i)!=1) { printf("ERR1: arg %d should be obj\n",i) return -1}
        if ($oi.size!=sz)  { printf("ERR1a: all vecs should be size %d\n",sz) return -1}
        mso[a].copy($oi)  i+=1   // look in a
        if (argtype(i)!=2) { printf("ERR2: arg %d should be str\n",i) return -1}
        tstr=$si          i+=1
        if (strm(tstr,"[[(]")) f2=1 else f2=0 // opstring2 needs 2 args
        if (argtype(i)!=0) { printf("ERR3: arg %d should be dbl\n",i) return -1}
        x=$i              i+=1 
        if (f2) {
            if (argtype(i)!=0) { printf("ERR4: arg %d should be dbl\n",i) return -1}
            y=$i            i+=1
          }
        if (f2) mso[b].indvwhere(mso[a],tstr,x,y) else { // the engine
                  mso[b].indvwhere(mso[a],tstr,x)   }
        $o1.resize(sz) // make sure it's big enough for insct -- shouldn't need
        if (mso[c].size>0) $o1.insct(mso[b],mso[c]) else $o1.copy(mso[b])
        if ($o1.size==0) break
      }
    dealloc(a)
    return $o1.size
  }

//* vecconcat(vec1,vec2,...)
// vecconcat(vec1,list) puts concat all vecs from list
// destructive: concatenates all vecs onto vec1
// performs a list2vec() functionality
proc vecconcat () { local i,max localobj xo
    max=numarg()
    if (numarg()<2) { 
        print "vecconcat(v1,v2,...) puts all into v1" return 
      }
    if (argtype(max)==0) {max-=1 $o1.resize(0)}
    if (isobj($o2,"List")) {
        $o1.resize(0)
        for ltr(xo,$o2) $o1.append(xo)
      } else for i=2,max $o1.append($oi)
  }
  
//** vecelim(v1,v2)  eliminates items in v1 given by index vec v2
proc vecelim () {
    for vtr(&x,$o2) { $o1.x[x]= -1e20 }
    $o1.where($o1,"!=",-1e20)
  }

//** redundout(vec) eliminates sequential redundent entries
// destructive
func redundout () { local x,ii,p1
    p1=allocvecs(1)
    $o1.sort
    mso[p1].resize($o1.size)
    mso[p1].redundout($o1)
    $o1.copy(mso[p1])
    dealloc(p1)
    return $o1.size
  }

//** uniq(src,dest[,cnt]) uses redundout to return random values of a vector
// like redundout except nondestructive
obfunc uniq () { local a localobj v1,vret
    a=allocvecs(v1)
    v1.copy($o1) v1.sort 
    if (numarg()==3) {          $o2.redundout(v1,0,$o3) 
      } else if (numarg()==2) {   $o2.redundout(v1) 
      } else {
        vret=new Vector(v1.size) vret.redundout(v1)
      }
    dealloc(a)
    if (numarg()==1) return vret else return $o2
  }

//** complement(ind,max) for indices -- return values from 0..max that are not in ind
proc complement () { local a,b,max
    a=b=allocvecs(2) b+=1
    max=$2
    mso[a].indgen(0,max,1)
    mso[b].resize(mso[a].size)
    mso[b].cull(mso[a],$o1)
    $o1.copy(mso[b])
    dealloc(a)
  }

//** albetname() generate sequential 3 char alphabetical file names (make filenames)
obfunc albetname () { local na,sret localobj st
    na=numarg() sret=0
    st=new String2()
    if (na==0) { fnum+=1 st.t=".id"
      } else if (na>=1) {
        if (argtype(1)==2) {st.t=$s1 fnum+=1} else fnum=$1
      }
    if (na==2) st.t=$s2  // partially back compatible, doesn't handle albetname(tstr,".id")
    if (na==3) {st.t=$s3 sret=1}
    if (fnum>17575) printf("albetname WARN: out of names: %d > %d\n",fnum,26^3-1)
    sprint(st.s,"%c%c%c",  fnum/26/26%26+97,fnum/26%26+97,fnum%26+97)
    if (sfunc.len(st.t)>0) sprint(st.s,"%s%s",st.s,st.t)
    if (sret) $s2=st.s 
    return st
  }

// save_idraw([filename,save_all,PS]) -- save idraw to file
// default is to generate albetname, save selected to idraw
proc save_idraw () { local sv,ps localobj st,li
    st=new String()
    find_pwm()
    ps=sv=1
    if (argtype(1)==2) {
        st.s=$s1 
        if (argtype(2)==0) sv=$2
        if (argtype(3)==0) ps=$3
      } else if (argtype(1)==0) {
        sv=$1
        if (argtype(2)==0) ps=$2  
      }
    if (sfunc.len(st.s)==0) st.s=albetname().s
    if (verbose) printf("Saving to %s\n",st.s)
    pwm.printfile(st.s, ps, sv)
  }

proc find_pwm () { localobj li
    if (isassigned(pwm)) return
    li=new List("PWManager")
    if (li.count==0) pwm=new PWManager() else pwm=li.o(0)
  }

// vecconv() convert $o1 by replacing instances in $o2 by corresponding instances in $o3
proc vecconv () { local a,b
    a=b=allocvecs(2) b+=1
    vrsz($o1,mso[b])
    for vtr2(&x,&y,$o2,$o3) { // x -> y
        mso[a].indvwhere($o1,"==",x)
        mso[b].indset(mso[a],y)
      }
    $o1.copy(mso[b])
  }

//** veceq()  like vec.eq but don't have to be same size and shows discrepency
func veceq () { local sz1,sz2,eq,beg,ii,jj,kk
    sz1=$o1.size sz2=$o2.size
    if (numarg()==3) beg=$3 else beg=0
    if (sz1!=sz2) printf("%s %d; %s %d\n",$o1,sz1,$o2,sz2)
    ii=0 jj=beg
    while (ii<sz1 && jj<sz2) {
        if ($o1.x[ii]!=$o2.x[jj]) { 
            eq=0
            printf("Differ at %d %d\n",ii,jj) 
            for kk=-10,10 if ((ii+kk)>=0 && (ii+kk)<sz1 && (jj+kk)>=0 && (jj+kk)<sz2) {
                printf("(%d)%g:(%d)%g ",(ii+kk),$o1.x[ii+kk],(jj+kk),$o2.x[jj+kk])  }
            print ""
            break 
          } else eq=1
        ii+=1 jj=ii+beg
      }
    return eq
  }

//* isstring() determine if object $o1 is of type string, if so return the string in [$s2]
func isstring () {
    sprint(tstr,"%s",$o1)
    if (sfunc.substr(tstr,"String")==0) {
        if (numarg()==2) sprint($s2,"%s",$o1.s)
        return 1
      } else {
        if (numarg()==2) sprint($s2,"%s",$o1)
        return 0
      }
  }

//** isassigned() checks whether an object is Null
if (name_declared("VECST_INSTALLED")) {
    sprint(tstr,"func isassigned () { return !isojt($o1,nil) }")
  } else {
    sprint(tstr,"func isassigned () { return !isobt($o1,nil) }")
  }
execute1(tstr)

//** declare goes through a list of scalars and assigns them if they don't already exist
// eg declare("adj",nil,"vd",nil,"vc",nil,"allcells",0,"div","d[1][1]")
func declare () { local i,nd,min,flag,ty,tye,ret localobj st,ut
    // if (argtype(1)==0) {flag=$1 min=2}
    st=new String2() ut=new String2() ret=flag=0 min=1
    ut.s="^[do]\\["  ut.t="^[A-Z][A-Za-z]+[(][^)]*[)]$" // for declaring arrays and objects
    for i=min,numarg() {
        st.s=$si     i=i+1
        ty=argtype(i)
        nd=name_declared(st.s)
        if (nd==1) { nd=0
            printf("declare WARN defining '%s' despite prior existence in symbol table\n",st.s) }
        if ((nd==5 && ty==0) || (nd==4 && ty==2) || (nd==2 && ty==1)) { // OK -- DO NOTHING
            if (i==min+1) ret=1
            printf("'%s' predeclared\n",st.s)
          } else if (nd != 0) { // different type codes from name_declared() bzw argtype()
            if ((nd==5 && ty==2) || (nd==2 && ty==2)) {
                if (strm($si,ut.s)) { 
                    if (nd==5) st.t="DOUBLE" else st.t="OBJ"
                    printf("'%s' predeclared as %s array: WARN: no check on type or dims\n",st.s,st.t)
                    continue  // declaration for a double or obj array 
                  } else  if (strm($si,ut.t)) { 
                    printf("'%s' predeclared\n",st.s)
                    continue  // declaration for an object
                  }
              }
            if (nd==5) tye=0 else if (nd==4) tye=2 else if (nd==2) tye=1 
            printf("Declared ERR %s predeclared as a %d statt %d\n",st.s,tye,ty)
          } else { // declare it
            if (ty==0) { 
                sprint(st.t,"%s=%g",st.s,$i)
              } else if (ty==1) { 
                if ($oi==nil) {  sprint(st.t,"objref %s\n%s=nil",st.s,st.s)
                  } else           sprint(st.t,"objref %s\n%s=%s", st.s,st.s,$oi)
              } else if (ty==2) { // key strings are eg d[5][5] or o[5][5] for double or obj array
                if (strm($si,ut.s)) {
                    if (strm($si,"^d")) ty=0 else ty=1
                    sfunc.tail($si,"[do]",st.t) 
                    if (ty==0) sprint(st.t,"double %s%s",st.s,st.t) else \
                               sprint(st.t,"objref %s%s",st.s,st.t) 
                  } else if (strm($si,ut.t)) {
                    sprint(st.t,"objref %s\n%s = new %s",st.s,st.s,$si) 
                  } else sprint(st.t,"strdef %s\n%s=\"%s\"",st.s,st.s,$si)
              }
            execute1(st.t)
          }
      }
    return ret
  }

//** declared goes through a list of function names and makes sure they exist
// useful to check a bunch of names before entering a template that calls them as external
proc declared () { local i,nd,min,flag
    if (argtype(1)==0) {flag=$1 min=2} else {flag=0 min=1}
    for i=min,numarg() {
        nd=name_declared($si)
        if (nd==0 || (flag==1 && nd==1)) { // declare it or clear it
            // sprint(tstr,"func %s () {printf(\"\\tEMPTY FUNCTION %s()\\n\") return 0}",$si,$si)
            sprint(tstr,"func %s () {return 0}",$si)
            execute1(tstr)
          } else if (nd!=1) { // 2=obj,3=sec,4=str,5=dbl
            printf("NAME CONFLICT: %s can't be a func since was declared as a %d\n",$si,nd)
          }
      }
  }

//** isit() like isassigned() but can take a string instead
obfunc isit () { local ret localobj sv,o,st
    o=new Union()  st=new String()
    if (argtype(1)==2) {
        sv=XO
        sprint(st.s,"XO=%s",$s1)
        execute(st.s) // XO points to the thing
        ret=isassigned(XO)
        o.x=ret
        o.s=$s1
        o.o=XO
        XO=sv
        return o
      } else return isassigned($o1)
  }

//** isob(s1,s2) like isobj but takes string statt obj
func isob () { localobj st
    st=new String()
    sprint(st.s,"XO=%s",$s1)
    execute(st.s) // XO points to the thing
    sprint(st.s,"%s",XO)
    if (sfunc.substr(st.s,$s2)==0) {
        return 1
      } else {
        return 0
      }
  }

//** eqobj(o1,o2) checks whether 2 objects are the same
func eqobj () {	return object_id($o1) == object_id($o2) }
//** ocnt(STR) counts number of objects named string
func ocnt () { local ret
    tmpobj=new List($s1) ret=tmpobj.count
    tmpobj=nil
    return ret
  }

//** isobj(o1,s2) checks whether object $o1 is of type $s2
func isobj () { localobj st
    st=new String()
    sprint(st.s,"%s",$o1)
    if (sfunc.substr(st.s,$s2)==0) {
        return 1
      } else {
        return 0
      }
  }

//** isobt(o1,o2) checks whether object $o1 is of type $o2
func isobt () { localobj s
    s=new String2()
    sprint(s.s,"%s",$o1)  sprint(s.t,"%s",$o2)
    sfunc.head(s.s,"\\[",s.s) sfunc.head(s.t,"\\[",s.t)
    if (strc(s.s,s.t)) return 1 else return 0
  }

// destructive of $s1
func str2num () { local x localobj o,st
    x=1e9
    if (sscanf($s1,"%d",&x)!=1) {
        o=new Union() st=new String()
        sprint(st.s,"%s.x=%s",o,$s1)  // o has temp existance in global namespace
        if (!execute1(st.s,0)) printf("Can't find '%s'\n",$s1)
        x=o.x
      }
    return x
  }

func isnum () { return strm($s1,"^[-+0-9.][-+0-9.eE]*$") }

// like perl chop -- removes the last character
// chop(STR[,TERM]); TERM chop only TERM
// note that no + means must repeat char eg "))*" statt ")+"
func chop () { local ln1,match localobj st
    ln1=sfunc.len($s1)  st=new String()
    if (numarg()==2) { 
        sprint($s2,"%s$",$s2) // just look for terminal character
        if ((match=sfunc.head($s1,$s2,st.s))==-1) {
            return 0 
          } else {
            sfunc.left($s1,match) 
            return match
          }
      } else if (sfunc.len($s1)>=1) {
        sfunc.left($s1,ln1-1) 
        return 1
      } else {
        print "ERR: chop called on empty string" }
      return 0
  }

// lchop(STR[,BEGIN]) -- chop from the left
func lchop () { local ln1,match localobj st
    ln1=sfunc.len($s1)  st=new String()
    if (numarg()==2) { 
        sprint($s2,"^%s",$s2) // just look for initial chars
        if ((match=sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,st.s))==-1) {
            return 0 
          } else {
            sfunc.right($s1,match) 
            return match
          }
      } else if (sfunc.len($s1)>=1) {
        sfunc.right($s1,1) 
        return 1
      } else {
        print "ERR: chop called on empty string" }
      return 0
  }

// strcat(tstr,"stra","strb",...) tstr=stra+strb+...
// 1st arg can be a strdef or String obj
// other args can be strdef, String obj, literal string, or number handled as %g
// returns String obj
obfunc strcat () { local i,na localobj out
    na=numarg() 
    if (argtype(1)==0) { out=new String() 
      } else if (argtype(1)==1) { 
        if (isassigned($o1)) out=$o1 else { out=new String() $o1=out }
      } else { out=new String() out.s=$s1 } // print "AA:",$s1," ",sfunc.len($s1)
    if (argtype(na)==0) { out.s="" na-=1 } // clear string
    for i=2,na {
        if (argtype(i)==1) {        sprint(out.s,"%s%s",out.s,$oi.s) 
          } else if (argtype(i)==2) { sprint(out.s,"%s%s",out.s,$si) 
          } else                      sprint(out.s,"%s%g",out.s,$i) 
      }
    if (argtype(1)==2) $s1=out.s
    return out
  }

// split(string,vec) // split comma sep string into numbers
// split(string,list) // split comma sep string into list of strings
// split(string,list,regexp) // split regexp sep string into list of strings
// split(string,vec,regexp,1) // split but don't interpret: eg "5*3"->15 or "x"->val
// split(string,list,num) // split every num chars
// eg split("534,  43 , 2, 1.4, 34",vec[,"/"])
// split("13, 3*PI/2*tau/2, 32+7, 6, 9.2, 42/3",vec) 
//    optional 3rd str is what to split on; default is comma
split_interp=1
func split () { local i,vf,x,done,num localobj s,st,o
    if (numarg()==0) {
        printf("eg split(\"534 43 2 1.4 34\",vec,\" \") split(\"a,b,c,d,e\",tmplist)")
        return -1 }
    s=new String2() st=new String2()
    s.t=$s1 
    if (argtype(2)!=1) {
        o=new Vector() vf=2 i=2
      } else { 
        o=$o2 i=3
        if (isobj(o,"Vector")) {
            vf=1 
          } else {
            vf=0
            if (!isassigned(o)) { o=new List() $o2=o }
          }
      }
    if (vf) revec(o) else o.remove_all
    if (argtype(i)==2) {st.s=$si i+=1} else st.s="[, ]+"
    if (argtype(i)==0) { // length split into a list eg c2 c2 c2 etc
        if (vf) {printf("Split err: attempting to do length split into vector: %s",o) return 0}
        num=$i
        sprint(st.s,"%%*%ds%%s",num) // eg "%2*s%s" to get all but first 2 chars
        sprint(st.t,"%%%ds",num)     // eg "%2s"    to get first 2 chars
        if (num>sfunc.len(s.t)){
            printf("split() ERRA %s of length %d in pieces of %d?\n",s.t,sfunc.len(s.t),num) return 0}
      } else num=0
    while (sfunc.len(s.t)>0) {
        done=0
        if (vf) {
            if (split_interp) if (strm(s.t,"^[^,]+[+*/-]")) {
                sfunc.head(s.t,",",s.s)
                if (sfunc.len(s.s)==0) s.s=s.t
                sprint(s.s,"%s.append(%s)",o,s.s) execute(s.s)
                done=1
              } 
            if (!done) if (sscanf(s.t,"%lf",&x)) { 
                o.append(x)
                done=1
              } 
            if (!done && split_interp) { // try to interpret as a variable
                hoc_ac_=ERR // global hoc_ac_ for execute1()
                sfunc.head(s.t,st.s,s.s)
                if (sfunc.len(s.s)==0) s.s=s.t // the end
                sprint(st.t,"hoc_ac_=%s",s.s)
                execute1(st.t,0) // no error
                if (hoc_ac_==ERR) {
                    printf("split WARNING skipping non-parsable value: %s\n",s.s)
                  } else {
                    o.append(hoc_ac_) 
                  }
                done=1
              }
            if (vf==2) if (o.size==0) return ERR else return o.x[0]
          } else { // split into a list
            if (num) {
                sscanf(s.t,st.t,s.s)
                o.append(new String2(s.s,s.s))
              } else {
                sfunc.head(s.t,st.s,s.s)
                if (sfunc.len(s.s)==0) s.s=s.t // the end
                o.append(new String2(s.s,s.s))
              }
            done=1
          }
        if (num) { // splitting equal length strings
            if (sfunc.len(s.t)<=num) s.t="" else sscanf(s.t,st.s,s.t)
          } else {
            sfunc.tail(s.t,st.s,s.t)
          }
      }
    if (vf) return o.size else return o.count
  }

// parsenums(STR[,VEC]) find first or all the numbers in a string
func parsenums () { print "Use split(\"str\") instead" }

// intervals(TRAIN,OUTPUT)
func intervals () { local a
    if ($o1.size<=1) { printf("%s size <2 in intervals()\n",$o1) return 0}
    $o2.deriv($o1,1,1)
    return $o2.size
  }

// invl(train,stats[,thresh])
func invl () { local a,x,sz localobj v1,v2
    a=allocvecs(v1,v2)
    if ($o1.size<=1) { printf("%s size <2 in invl()\n",$o1) 
        $o2.resize(5) $o2.fill(-1)
        dealloc(a)
        return 0
      }
    if (!$o1.ismono(2)) printf("decvec::invl() WARN: %s not sorted\n",$o1)
    v1.deriv($o1,1,1)
    if (numarg()==3) {
        if ((x=v1.w("<",$3,-1))>0) { // tag and remove all below threshold
            v1.sort v1.reverse
            v1.resize(v1.size-x)
          }
      }
    stat(v1,$o2)
    sz=v1.size
    dealloc(a)
    return sz
  }

// freql(train,stats)
// doesn't make much sense to take the mean of inverses 
func freql () { local a localobj v1
    a=allocvecs(v1)
    if ($o1.size<=1) { printf("%s size <2 in intervals()\n",$o1) return 0}
    v1.deriv($o1,1,1)
    v1.inv(1e3)
    stat(v1,$o2)
    return v1.size
  }

// downcase(tstr[,UPCASE]) 
proc downcase () { local len,ii,let,diff,min,max
    diff=32 min=65 max=90
    if (numarg()==2) { diff=-diff min=97 max=122 } // if flag -> upcase
    len = sfunc.len($s1)
    for ii=1,len {
        sscanf($s1,"%c%*s",&x)
        sfunc.right($s1,1)
        if (x>=min&&x<=max) {
            sprint($s1,"%s%c",$s1,x+diff)
          } else sprint($s1,"%s%c",$s1,x) // just rotate the letter
      }
  }

// newlst() puts a newline in the middle of a string
proc newlst () { local l
    if (numarg()>1) l=$2 else l=int(sfunc.len($s1)/2)
    temp_string_=$s1
    temp_string2_=$s1
    sfunc.left(temp_string_,l)
    sfunc.right(temp_string2_,l)
    sprint($s1,"%s\n%s",temp_string_,temp_string2_)
  }

//* rdcol(file,vec,col#,cols): read multicolumn file
func rdcol () { local col,cols,length
    if (numarg()==0) { print "\trdcol(\"file\",vec,col#,cols) // col#=1..." return 0}
    col=$3 cols=$4 length=0
    if (! tmpfile.ropen($s1)) { printf("\tERROR: can't open file \"%s\"\n",$s1) return 0}
    while (tmpfile.gets(temp_string_) != -1) length+=1 // count lines
    print length
    tmpfile.seek()
    $o2.scanf(tmpfile,length,col,cols)
    if ($o2.size!=length) printf("rdcol ERR: only read %d statt %d\n",$o2.size,length)
    return length
  }

//* rdmuniq(vec,n,rdm) -- augment vec by n unique vals from rdm
//  rdmuniq(vec,n,max) -- augment vec by n unique vals 0-max
//  rdmuniq(vec,n,min,max) -- augment vec by n unique vals min-max
// draw n numbers without replacement, only makes sense with discrete distribution
// could do something like 
// mso[a].setrand($o3) mso[d].copy(mso[a]) 
//     mso[b].indsort(mso[a]) mso[a].sort() mso[c].redundout(mso[a],1)
// to get indices of unique values but then have to back index to original
// rdmuniqm4=1 to use setrnd() statt setrand()
rdmuniqm4=0
proc rdmuniq () { local i,max,min,n,a3,a,see localobj ro,v1,v2,vin,l
    if (numarg()==0) {
        printf("rdmuniq(vec,n,rdm) - augment vec by n unique vals from rdm\
      rdmuniq(vec,n) - augment vec by n unique vals 0-99\
      rdmuniq(vec,n,max) - augment vec by n unique vals 0-max\
      rdmuniq(vec,n,min,max) - augment vec by n unique vals min-max\
      rdmuniq(vec,n,min,max,seed) - augment vec by n unique vals min-max using seed\n") 
      return }
    if (rdmuniqm4 && argtype(5)!=0) {
        printf("flag set: rdmuniqm4==1: should use all 5 args: rdmuniq(vec,n,min,max,seed)\n") return }
    vin=$o1 min=max=0 see=0 n=int($2) // round down
    a3=argtype(3)
    if (a3==1) {
        ro=$o3  // random previously setup, min,max unknown
      } else if (a3==-1) {
          min=0 max=99
      } else {
         max=$3
        if (argtype(4)==0){min=$3 max=$4}
        if (argtype(5)==0) see=$5
      }
    if (max>0) { // else rdm was an arg with unknown min,max
        if (max-min+1==n) {
            vin.indgen(min,max,1)
            return
          } else if (n>max-min+1) {
            printf("rdmuniq ERR incompatible: min=%d max=%d n=%d (%g vs %d)\n",min,max,n,$2,max-min+1) 
            return 
          }
      }
    if (!rdmuniqm4) {
        if (ro==nil) ro=new Random()
        if (see) ro.ACG($5) // seed it
        ro.discunif(min,max)
      }
    vin.resize(0)
    a=allocvecs(v1,v2) l=new List() l.append(v2) l.append(vin)
    for (ii=1;vin.size<n && ii<5;ii+=1) {
        v1.resize(n*4*ii)
        if (rdmuniqm4) { 
            v1.setrnd(5,max-min+1,see) 
            v1.add(min)
          } else v1.setrand(ro)
        v1.uniq(l,1) // preserve order
      }
    if (vin.size<n) {
        printf("rdmuniq ERR unable to find %d uniq values [%d,%d] -- only \n",n,min,max,vin.size)
      }
    vin.resize(n)
    dealloc(a)
  }

// rdmord (vec,n) randomly ordered numbers 0->n-1 in vec
// eg rdmord(ind,ind.size); check: for ii=0,ind.size-1 if (ind.count(ii)!=1) print ii
proc rdmord () { local n,a localobj v1
    a=allocvecs(v1)  n=$2
    rdm.uniform(0,100)
    v1.resize(n)
    v1.setrand(rdm)
    v1.sortindex($o1)
    dealloc(a)
  }

// shuffle(VSRC[,VDEST]) randomly rearrange elements of vec
obfunc shuffle () { local a  localobj v1,v2,oi,oo
    oi=$o1
    if (numarg()==2) oo=$o2 else oo=$o1
    a=allocvecs(v1,v2)
    rdmord(v1,oi.size)
    v2.index(oi,v1)
    oo.copy(v2)
    dealloc(a)
    return oo
  }

// sample(vec,beg,end,vals) pick out n integer values from given range
// sample(vec,end,vals) -- assumes 0
proc sample () { local min,max,vals
    min=0
    if (numarg()==4) {min=$2 max=$3 vals=$4} else {max=$2 vals=$3}
    $o1.indgen(min,max,1)
    shuffle($o1)
    $o1.resize(vals)
  }

// round() round off to nearest integer
func round () { local ii
    if (argtype(1)==1) {
        if ($o1.size==0) return 1e9
        for ii=0,$o1.size-1 {
            if ($o1.x[ii]>0) $o1.x[ii]=int($o1.x[ii]+0.5) else $o1.x[ii]=int($o1.x[ii]-0.5) 
          }
        return($o1.x[0])
      } else {
        if ($1>0) return int($1+0.5) else return int($1-0.5) 
      }
  } 

// filevers() pulls out version of file from first line
func filevers () { localobj f1,s1,lx1
    f1=new File() s1=new String() lx1=new Union()
    if (! f1.ropen($s1)) { printf("filevers ERR, can't open %s\n",$s1) 
        return 0 }
    f1.gets(s1.s)
    if (sscanf(s1.s,"%*s $Id: %*s %*d.%d",&lx1.x)!=1) {
        printf("filevers ERR, sscanf failed %s: %s",$s1,s1.s) }
    f1.close
    return lx1.x
  }

//* hocfind(FILENAME) searches through HOC_LIBRARY_PATH and locates file
obfunc hocfind () { local done localobj f1,s1,s2
    f1=new File() s1=new String() s2=new String()
    done=0
    system("echo -n $HOC_LIBRARY_PATH",s1.s)
    sprint(s1.s,"%s ",s1.s) // to look at last item
    while (sfunc.len(s1.s)>2) {
        sfunc.head(s1.s,"[ :]",s2.s)
        sprint(s2.s,"%s/%s",s2.s,$s1)
        if (f1.ropen(s2.s)) {done=1 break}
        sfunc.tail(s1.s,"[ :]",s1.s)
      }
    if (!done) if (f1.ropen($s1)) {sprint(s2.s,"./%s",$s1) done=1}
    if (!done) s2.s="NOT FOUND"
    return s2
  }

//* usefiles(F1[,F2,...]) list of files returns string with list of files and versions
obfunc usefiles () { local i localobj s1,s2
    s2=new String()
    s2.s="Using "
    for i=1,numarg() {
        s1=hocfind($si)
        sprint(s2.s,"%s %s%d",s2.s,$si,filevers(s1.s))
      }
    return s2
  }

//* ttest(v1,v2)  student t-test
// nrniv/sync/notebook.dol:16230
// checked against http://www.physics.csbsju.edu/stats/t-test_bulk_form.html
func ttest () {  local prob,df
    df=$o1.size+$o2.size-2
    t_val=($o1.mean-$o2.mean)/sqrt($o1.var/$o1.size + $o2.var/$o2.size)
    prob=betai_stats(0.5*df,0.5,df/(df+t_val*t_val))
    return prob
  }

// pttest() paired t-test
func pttest () {  local prob,sd,df,cov,j,ave1,ave2,var1,var2
    n=$o1.size ave1=$o1.mean ave2=$o2.mean var1=$o1.var var2=$o2.var cov=0
    if (n!=$o2.size) {printf("pttest ERR: != sizes\n",n,$o2.size) return -1}
    for (j=0;j<n;j+=1) cov+=($o1.x[j]-ave1)*($o2.x[j]-ave2)
    cov /= (df=n-1)
    sd=sqrt((var1+var2-2.0*cov)/n)
    t_val=(ave1-ave2)/sd
    prob=betai_stats(0.5*df,0.5,df/(df+t_val*t_val))
    // printf("%g ",t_val)
    return prob
  }

func howfull () { local a,min,max,bins,ret localobj v1
    min=0 bins=1e3
    if (numarg()==4){min=$2 max=$3 bins=$4} else if (numarg()==3){max=$2 bins=$3} else max=$2
    a=allocvecs(v1,bins)
    $o1.bin(v1,(max-min)/bins,min,max)
    ret=1-v1.count(0)/bins
    dealloc(a)
    return ret
  }

//* Matrix things
// msize() print size of a matrix
proc msize () { printf("%d x %d\n",$o1.nrow,$o1.ncol) }

//** l2m() turn a vector list into a matrix
obfunc l2m () { local ii,m,n localobj mat,l,xo
    l=$o1
    n=l.o(0).size m=l.count // rows x cols (data in cols)
    mat=new Matrix(n,m)
    for ltr(xo,l,&ii) mat.setcol(ii,xo)
    return mat
  }

//** m2l() turn a matrix into a vector list
obfunc m2l () { local ii,m,n localobj mat,l,xo
    l=new List() mat=$o1 m=mat.ncol n=mat.nrow
    for ii=0,m-1 l.append(mat.getcol(ii))
    return l
  }

// rmxtmp() sets xtmp string
proc rmxtmp () { localobj st
    if (wopen("xtmp")) { 
        xtmp = "xtmp" 
      } else if (wopen("/tmp/xtmp")) {
        xtmp="/tmp/xtmp" 
      } else {  
        xtmp=strcat(1,getenv("HOME"),"/.xtmp").s 
        if (!wopen(xtmp)) printf("Can't open an xtmp file anywhere: . /tmp ~/ \n")
      }
    wopen() // close the file
  }
rmxtmp()

for scase(XO,"o","t","s","O","T","S","+") clrsym.o.append(new String(XO.s))
// END /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/decvec.hoc
//================================================================
strdef mesg
objref xgabxl,xgabxo

//* xgetargs()
// xgetargs(panel_name,command,arg1[,arg2,...],defaults) // existing or new params -- flag 2
//   may have no named params in this case since just set with call to command
//   eg xgetargs("New","redo","do this","do that","1,2")
// xgetargs(panel_name,command,"a1,a2,..") // existing params -- flag 1
// xgetargs(panel_name,command,strlist)
// xgetargs(1,...) // dismiss after setting
// xgetargs(list,...) // list of helper functions returned by xgetclrfunc()
// eg xgetargs("Random session","newrand","# of patts","patt size  ","overlap   ","5,33,7")
// optional 1st arg flag=1 means to remove panel after command is called
// Union contains: o[0]=VBox, o[1]=argv, [o[2]=param name list] o[3]=orig update
//                 o[4]=helper functions
//                 x[0]=#args, x[1]=flag, x[2]=dismiss x[3-5] reserved for future use
//                 s=panel/button name,t=quit call,u=varlable,v=scratch
obfunc xgetargs () { local i,j,args,flag,dismiss,na localobj o,argv,vb,l,st,xo
    if (!isassigned(xgabxl)) xgabxl=new List()
    st=new String2()
    na=numarg()  
    dismiss=0 i=1 
    xgabxl.append(o=new Union())
    if (argtype(i)==0) { dismiss=$1 i+=1 }
    if (argtype(i)==1) {xo=$oi i+=1} else xo=xgetclrfunc()
    o.os(4,"funcs",xo) // list of helper functions
    o.xs(2,"dismiss",dismiss) // dismiss=1 means dismiss at end
    o.os(1,"argv",argv=new Vector(na))
    argv.resize(0)
    o.os(0,"vb",vb=new VBox())
    sprint(o.t,"xgaqt(%s)",o)
    vb.dismiss_action(o.t)
    o.s=$si i+=1 o.t=$si i+=1
    vb.intercept(1)
    xpanel(o.s)
    xvarlabel(o.u)
    sprint(o.v,"xgetexec(%s)",o)
    xbutton(o.s,o.v)
    excu("xgetbuttn",o.o[4],o)
    if (i==na) { // this should be a list of existing params
        o.xs(1,"flag",flag=1) // flag -- variables have names
        o.os(2,"plist",l=new List()) // list of param names
        if (argtype(i)==2) {
            split_interp=1
            split($si,l) // list of strings
            split($si,argv) // list of values
          } else if (argtype(i)==1) {
            for ltr(xo,$oi) {
                l.append(xo)
                argv.append(str2num(xo.s))
              }
          } else { printf("xgetargs ERRA\n") xpanel() return o=nil}
        args=argv.size
        if (args==0) { // create them
            for ltr(xo,l) {
                sprint(st.s,"%s=1",xo.s) execute(st.s)
                args=l.count argv.resize(args) argv.fill(1)
              }
          } else if (args!=l.count) {printf("xgetargs ERRB %d %d\n",args,l.count) xpanel() return o=nil}
        o.os(3,"orig",argv.c)   // save original values
        o.xs(0,"nargs",args)
        excu("xgetlabl",o.o[4],o)
        for j=0,args-1 {
            sprint(o.v,"%s.x[%d]",argv,j)
            sprint(st.s,"xgetchg(%s,%d)",o,j)
            xvalue(l.o(j).t, o.v, 1, st.s, 1)
          }
      } else {
        j=i i=na
        if (strm($si,"^[a-z]")) { // a named variable; should all be name vars
            o.xs(1,"flag",flag=3) // flag -- variables have names and routine is called with args
            split_interp=1
            split($si,argv)
            o.os(2,"plist",l=new List()) // list of param names
            split($si,l) // list of strings
          } else {
            split_interp=0
            split($si,argv)
            o.xs(1,"flag",flag=2) // flag -- variables may have no names; are just args to a function
          }
        i=j // restore i
        o.xs(0,"nargs",args=argv.size)
        if (args!=na-i) { printf("xgetargs ERRC: mismatch %d %d\n",args,na-i) xpanel() return o=nil }
        o.os(3,"orig",argv.c)   // save original values
        for j=0,args-1 {
            sprint(o.v,"%s.x[%d]",argv,j)
            sprint(st.s,"xgetchg(%s,%d)",o,j)
            xvalue($si,o.v,1,st.s,1)
            if (flag==3) l.o(j).t=$si
            i+=1
          }
      }
    o.u=o.s // start with this label
    // xbutton("Help (2 clicks)","xgah()")
    xpanel()
    vb.intercept(0)
    vb.full_request(1)
    vb.map(o.s)
    xgabxo=o // global for current xgab object
    return o
  }

//* xgah() should provide help -- doesn't
proc xgah () { 
    if (xgahfl==1) {
        continue_dialog("Press help button first, then elsewhere for button-specific help")
        xgahfl=0
      } else xgahfl=1
  }

//* xgetclrfunc() -- set up the callbacks as empty functions
obfunc xgetclrfunc () { local flag localobj st,xo,o
    flag=0
    if (numarg()==1) if (isobj($o1,"List")) flag=1
    if (flag) { // just clear the functions
        for ltr(xo,$o1) xo.t="" // clear
        return $o1
      } else { // create
        st=new String() o=new List()
        for scase(st,"xgetchg2","xgetexec2","xgaqt2","xgetlabl","xgetbuttn") {
            o.append(new String2(st.s)) }
        if (numarg()==1) $o1=o
        return o
      }
  }

//* xgetchg() done after a value is changed
proc xgetchg () { local i localobj o
    o=$o1 i=$2
    if (excu("xgetchg2",o.o[4],o,i)) return
    sprint(o.u,"Press '%s' button for effect",o.s)
  }

//* xgetexec() done when the 'make changes' button is pressed
proc xgetexec () { local i,args,dismiss,flag localobj o,l,av,vb,xo
    o=$o1
    if (excu("xgetexec2",o.o[4],o)) return
    args=o.x flag=o.x[1] dismiss=o.x[2] av=o.o[1] vb=o.o
    if (flag==1 || flag==3) {
        l=o.o[2]
        if (args!=l.count || args!=av.size) {
            printf("xgetexec() ERRA %d,%d,%d\n",args,l.count,av.size) return
          }
        for ltr(xo,l,&i) {
            sprint(o.v,"%s=%g",xo.s,av.x[i])
            execute(o.v)
          }
        if (flag==1) { // call the routine -- else will call below
            if (strm(o.t,"[(]")) o.v=o.t else sprint(o.v,"%s(%s)",o.t,o) // no args passed to function
          }
      }
    if (flag==2 || flag==3) {
        sprint(o.v,"%s(",o.t)
        for i=0,args-2 sprint(o.v,"%s%g,",o.v,av.x[i])
        sprint(o.v,"%s%g)",o.v,av.x[i]) 
      }
    execute(o.v)
    o.u="Changes submitted"
    if (dismiss) { xgaqt(o) // get rid of the box
      } else { o.o[3].copy(o.o[1]) } // new set of origs
  }
  
//* xgaqt() called when the panel is dismissed
proc xgaqt () { local x localobj av,vb,o
    o=$o1 
    if (excu("xgaqt2",o.o[4],o)) return
    av=o.o[1] vb=o.o
    vb.unmap()
    if ((x=xgabxl.index(o))!=-1) xgabxl.remove(x)
    if (xgabxo==o) xgabxo=nil
  }
// END /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/xgetargs.hoc
//================================================================
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/grvec.hoc
//* =Id=  grvec.hoc,v 1.644 2008/12/11 23:20:03 billl Exp 

// argtype: 0:double; 1:obj; 2:str; 3:double pointer
objref g[10],printlist,grv_,panobj,panobjl
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/nqs.hoc
// =Id=  nqs.hoc,v 1.620 2008/12/30 18:28:29 billl Exp 

// primarily edited in nrniv/place
if (!name_declared("VECST_INSTALLED")) {
    printf("NQS ERROR: Need vecst.mod nmodl package compiled in special.\n")
    quit()
  }
if (!VECST_INSTALLED) install_vecst()
if (! name_declared("datestr")) load_file("setup.hoc")

objref g[10]
gvmarkflag=0
declared("file_len")
strdef execstr,strform
strform="%s "

//* stubs for ancillary programs
double sops[20]  // AUGMENT TO ADD NEW OPSYM
declared("whvarg","whkey","varstr","nqsdel","chsel2","grsel2","oform")
proc oformoff () { execute1("func oform(){return NOP}") } // default no operation
proc oform64(){execute1("func oform(){{$o1.vpr(64,1)}return OK}")} // vec.vpr(64)
oformoff()
nqsselcp=1

//* NQS template
// potential to overwrite XO,tmpfile,i1
begintemplate NQS
public cob,out,up // operate on this or out 
public s,comment,file,v,m,x,ind,scr,fcd,fcds,fcdo,fcdl,sstr // strings and vecs
public objl,verbose,tmplist,vlist,vl,vlc,nval,sval,oval,selcp,rxpstr,slorflag,stub,chunk,rdpiece
public sv,rd,append,pr,pri,prs,zvec,resize,size,fi,sets,set,setcol,setcols,gets,get,fetch,tog
public cp,copy,mo,aind,it,qt,ot,ut,vt,appi,eq,fcdseq,fcdoeq,sort,select,stat,map,apply,applf
public calc,pad,delect,fill,uniq,gr,clear,strdec,coddec,odec,fdec,join,fillin,fillv,otl,selall
public unuselist,useslist,delrow,elimrepeats,grow,shuffle,fewind,listvecs,loose,rdcols
public percl,psel,svsetting,getrow,getcol,resize2,find,family,delcol,keepcols,selone
public sethdrs,gethdrs,version,svvers,i2,ay,svcols,svR,scpflag,unref,refs,qtset,keylook,cpout
public deriv,interval,renamecol,renamecols,info,getsel,tomat,frmat,marksym,vsort,hash,unnan
public cindx,mkind,cindcol,mset,mget,covarc,tomatc
objref v[1],s[1],is[4],x,nil,ind,scr[3],fcd,fcds,fcdo,fcdl,this,objl
objref cob,out,up,Xo,Yo,oval,tmplist,otl,vlist,vl,vlc,info,cindx

strdef comment,file,sstr,sstr2,sstr3,sstr4,tstr,sval,nqsvers,marksym
double m[1],refs[1]
external readnums,savenums,readdbls,savedbls,rdvstr,wrvstr,sfunc,repl_mstr,isobj,rdmord
external vlk,Union,String,tmpfile,strm,XO,execstr,i1,allocvecs,dealloc,mso,strform,dblform,tabform
external eqobj,isnum,chop,isassigned,whvarg,whkey,sops,batch_flag,g,varstr,gvmarkflag
external file_len,nqsdel,chsel2,grsel2,oform,nqsselcp,tmpobj

//** init()
proc init () { local i,ii,flag,scnt,na,fl,rdflag
    refs=-1
    nval=fl=scnt=flag=rdflag=0 // flag set if creating the internal NQS
    ni=0
    verbose=1
    selcp=nqsselcp
    svsetting=4 loose=1e-6
    for ii=2,3 is[ii]=new String()
    is[3].s="INDEX"  is[2].s="SCRATCH"
    na=numarg()
    for i=1,na scnt+=(argtype(i)==2) // string count
    if (na==0) scnt=-1
    if (na==1) if (argtype(1)==2) rdflag=1 else if (argtype(1)==1) rdflag=2
    if (na>=1) if (argtype(1)==0) {
        fl=1 // 1 arg taken care of
        if ($1==1e-9) {
            flag=1 up=$o2 fl=2
            m=up.m 
            if (m>0) {
                objref v[m],s[m]
                for ii=0,m-1 {v[ii]=new Vector() s[ii]=up.s[ii]}
              }
            fcd=up.fcd
            fcds=up.fcds fcdl=up.fcdl fcdo=up.fcdo // finish creation of .out here
          } else {
            m=$1
            objref v[m],s[m]
            for ii=0,m-1 { v[ii]=new Vector() s[ii]=new String2() }
          }
      }
    if (fl!=1 && na==scnt) { // all strings
        fl=2 // all args taken care of
        m=na
        objref v[m],s[m]
        for ii=0,m-1 {i=ii+1 v[ii]=new Vector() s[ii]=new String2($si) }
      }
    if (fl!=2 && na>=2) if (argtype(2)==0) { 
        fl==2  // all args taken care of
        for ii=0,m-1 v[ii].resize($2) 
      }
    if (fl!=2) { // if first arg is not a string these other can be
        if (na>=2) file=$s2
        if (na>=3) comment=$s3
        if (na>=4) x.x[0]=$4
      }
    if (!flag) { 
        // fcd gives field codes according to values used for argtype()
        fcds=new List() fcd=new Vector(m) tmplist=new List() vlist=new List()
        fcd.resize(m) fcd.fill(0) // field codes to have a field that's string based
      }
    x=new Vector(m) ind=x.c for ii=0,2 scr[ii]=x.c
    scr.resize(0) ind.resize(0)
    objl=new List() cob=this
    v0sz=slorflag=0
    qtset=0
    chunk=100
    info=new Union()
  nqsvers="=Id=  nqs.hoc,v 1.620 2008/12/30 18:28:29 billl Exp " svvers=-1
    if (!flag) { 
        out=new NQS(1e-9,this)
        if (rdflag==1) rd($s1)
        if (rdflag==2) copy($o1)
      } 
    chk()
  }

// deallocate the attached nqs if destroyed
// after build NQS should have external pointer and out.up pointer +/- cob
// NB: 'this' is created and destroyed as needed
proc unref () {
    return
    // if (isassigned(out)) printf("AA:%d ",$1) else printf("BB:%d ",$1)
    if ($1<=refs) { // don't bother if have more than 2 refs or if currently building
        if (m>=0 && isassigned(out)) { // only do it on a live master nqs
            if ($1<2 || eqobj(cob,out.up)) { // means that only up are left
                m=-7  // indicate have started the process so don't reenter here
                printf("Entering destructor for %s: %d %d %s %s %s\n",out.up,$1,refs,cob,out,out.up)
                out.unref(-1) // take care of out first
              }
          }
      }
    if ($1==-1) { // for .out
        cob=nil
        up=nil
      } else if (m==-7) { // should only be done once
        m= -8
        // printf("Removal of %s on call %d\n",out.up,$1)
        if (isassigned(fcdo)) fcdo.remove_all
        if (isassigned(fcdo)) fcds.remove_all
        cob=nil
        up=nil
      }
  }


//** make sure there are no inconsistencies -- also set vl
func chk () { local ii,jj,ret
    ret=1
    if (out!=nil) {
        for ii=0,m-2 for jj=ii+1,m-1 {
            if (sfunc.len(s[ii].s)>0 && strcmp(s[ii].s,s[jj].s)==0) {
                printf("NQS:chk ERRA: %s col: %s(%d) %s(%d) with same name\n",this,s[ii].s,ii,s[jj].s,jj)
                ret=0
              }
          }
        listvecs(vl)
        out.listvecs(out.vl)
      }
    return ret
  }

//** tog() toggle flag that determines whether actions are on out or this
func tog () { local ret
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) ret=20 else ret=10 // report old value
    if (numarg()==0) {
        if (eqobj(cob,out)) { cob=this if (verbose) print "Operate on full db" 
          } else {              cob=out  if (verbose) print "Operate on output of select" 
          }
      } else if (numarg()==1) {
        if (argtype(1)==0) {
            if ($1>=10) { // set 
                if ($1==10) cob=this else if ($1==20) cob=out else printf("tog ERRA:%d\n",$1)
              } else {  // just give information
                if (eqobj(cob,out)) { print "Using output db" 
                  } else {              print "Using full db"   }
              }
          } else if (argtype(1)==2) { // out,output,selected to choose these
            if (strm($s1,"[Oo][Uu][Tt]") || strm($s1,"[Ss][Ee][Ll]")) {
                cob=out 
              } else {
                cob=this
              }
          }
      }
    return ret
  }

//** sethdrs() set the column names to given args
// sethdrs(#,"NAME") sethdrs("NAME1","NAME2",...)  sethdrs(nq) -- copy from nq
proc sethdrs () { local i,nm
    nm=numarg()
    // out.s should always be a pointer to s but early on was keeping different copies:
    if (! eqobj(s,out.s)) printf("sets INTERRA\n")
    if (nm==2 && argtype(1)==0) { 
        s[$1].s=$s2 
      } else if (nm==1) {
        if ($o1.m!=m) resize($o1.m)
        for i=0,m-1 s[i].s=$o1.s[i].s
      } else {
        if (nm>m) { 
            if (batch_flag) {
                printf("NQS sets WARNING resized table from %d to %d\n",m,nm)
              } else if (! boolean_dialog("Resize TABLE?","YES","NO")) return
            printf("resizing TABLE: %d -> %d\n",m,nm) resize(nm) 
          }
        for i=1,nm { s[i-1].s=$si }
      }
  }

// gethdrs() print the strings
proc gets () { printf("gets() changed to gethdrs()\n") } 
proc gethdrs () { local ii,jj,kk,mm localobj o
    if (numarg()==1) {
        if ($1==-1) { // set the strings
            if (!batch_flag && sfunc.len(s[0].s)!=0) {
                printf("Overwrite headers for %s? (y/n) ",this)
                getstr(tstr) chop(tstr)
                if (strcmp(tstr,"y")!=0) return
              }
            o=new String("%s%c")
            for ii=0,m-1 {
                jj=ii%26 kk=int(ii/26)+1
                for mm=1,kk sprint(s[ii].s,o.s,s[ii].s,65+jj)
              }
          } else if ($1==1) { // show the types of fields
            for ii=0,m-1 printf("%s(%d) ",s[ii].s,fcd.x[ii])
          } else if ($1==2) { // just the names
            for ii=0,m-1 printf("%s ",s[ii].s)
          }
      } else {
        for ii=0,m-1 printf("%s(%d) ",s[ii].s,ii) // field numbers
      }
  }

//* selone(COL,VAL[,FLAG]) -- uses vec.selone when just working with one col and one value
func selone () { local val,niflag
    if (numarg()==3) niflag=$3 else niflag=0 // use if searching repeatedly through same vec
    tog("DB") // start at full db
    if (argtype(1)==2) fl=fi($s1) else fl=$1
    if (fl==-1) return
    val=$2
    // if (!v[fl].ismono) {printf("NQS selone: must sort on %s before using\n",s[fl].s) return -1}
    if (niflag) ni=ind.slone(v[fl],val,ni) else ni=ind.slone(v[fl],val)
    if (selcp) {
        if (ind.size==0) { 
            if (verbose) printf("None selected\n") 
          } else {
            out.ind.copy(ind) 
            aind()
            cob=out
          }
      } else cob=this
    return ind.size
  }
  
//* ay() is an n-dim associative array with p return values
// emulate a high-dim sparse array with optional string args, eg
// nq.ay("SU","IN",7,2,12).x // like nq_array["SU"]["IN"][7][2][12]
// an associative array could do same with non-numeric indices
// here if we have m cols can use any n of them as indices and rest are return values up to
// what a Union() can hold (2 strings, 2 objs, 2 doubles)
// if want to ignore one index can use OK as a globbing value
// for SET use an explicit set aa[5][4][7][2][12]=17 -> nq.ay(5,4,7,2,12,SET,17)
// select based on first n cols and always using EQU or SEQ
// gives more feel of an array -- assumes columns are IND0,IND1,...,VAL
// keys are SET to begin setting values, and OK to leave a value as is
// noninteger must be a set value
// eg XO=ncq.ay(SU,SU,AM,INC,SET,OK,List[35])
// alternate use with specific labels for things to be set eg
// eg XO=ncq.ay(SU,SU,AM,SET,"del",2.2,"wt")
obfunc ay () { local a,b,i,j,jo,k,na,flag,done,ix,nx,sx,ox,fl localobj key,arg,o
    if (numarg()==0) {
        printf("ay(I0,I1 ...[SET,V1,V2 ...])\n") return o }
    tog("DB") // start at full db
    a=allocvecs(key,arg)
    o=new Union() o.err=1 // assume .err set to return errors
    na=numarg()
    vlist.remove_all
    ind.resize(v.size)
    if (argtype(1)==1) for ii=0,$o1.size-1 {
        key.append(EQU) arg.append($o1.x[ii],0) vlist.append(v[ii])
        flag=0 j=b=$o1.size 
        if (numarg()>1) if ($2==SET) {i=3 flag=1}
      } else {
        for ({i=1 flag=0 done=0} ; i<=na && !flag; {i+=1 done=0}) {
            if (argtype(i)==2) {
                if (fi($si,"NOERR")!=-1) break else if (fcd.x[i-1]!=2) {
                    printf("ay ERRA: %d %d\n",fcd.x[i-1],argtype(i)) dealloc(a) return o
                  }
                for (j=0;j<fcds.count && !done;j+=1) if (strcmp(fcds.o(j).s,$si)==0) {
                    key.append(EQU) arg.append(j,0) vlist.append(v[i-1]) done=1
                  }
                if (!done) {printf("%s ay ERRE: %s not found in col %s\n",this,$si,s[i-1].s) 
                    dealloc(a) return o }
              } else if (argtype(i)==0) {
                if ($i==GET) { flag=2 // this is a value to start retrieval
                  } else if ($i==SET) { flag=1 // this is a value to set
                  } else if ($i!=OK) {  // ignore an OK
                    key.append(EQU) arg.append($i,0) vlist.append(v[i-1])
                  }
              }
          }
        b=i-1 // will begin again here -- these are v[] indices hence 0- statt 1-offset
        j=i-2 // have also had a SET arg to go behind
      }
    ind.slct(key,arg,vlist)
    if (ind.size>1) printf("%s ay WARNING: mult rows %d (using %d)\n",this,ind.size,ind.x[0])
    if (ind.size==0) { // printf("%s ay ERRBB: none selected\n",this)
        dealloc(a) return o }
    ix=ind.x[0] // just getting the first row of this
    if (i==na && argtype(i)==2) if ((fl=fi($si,"NOERR"))!=-1) { // return just 1 with col label
        j=getval(fl,v[fl].x[ix])
        if (j==0) o.x=nval else if (j==1) o.o=oval else if (j==2) o.s=sval
        dealloc(a)
        o.err=0
        return o
      }
    for (;i<=na && flag==1;{i+=1 j+=1 jo=0}) { // set using the rest of the args
        if (argtype(i)==0) if ($i==OK) continue // don't set this one
        if (argtype(i)==2) {
            if (strcmp($si,"")==0) continue // don't set this one
            if ((k=fi($si,"NOERR"))!=-1) {jo=j j=k i+=1}
          }
        if (argtype(i)!=fcd.x[j]) {
            printf("%s ay ERRC: %d %d %d\n",this,i,fcd.x[j],argtype(i)) dealloc(a) return o }
        if (argtype(i)==0) { v[j].x[ix]=$i 
          } else if (argtype(i)==1) { set(j,ix,$oi) print $oi,ix
          } else if (argtype(i)==2) { set(j,ix,$si)
          } else {printf("%s ay ERRD: set %d not implemented\n",this,argtype(i)) dealloc(a) return o}
        if (jo) j-=1 // back up: perhaps can but would be a bad idea to mix setting stuff
      }
    nx=sx=ox=-1
    if (flag==2) {i=b if ((b=fi($si,"NOERR"))==-1) {
            printf("nqs:ay() GET ERR %s not found\n",$si) return o }}
    for (i=b;i<m;i+=1) { // return values -- get 10 of each
        j=getval(i,v[i].x[ix])
        if (j==0) { 
            nx+=1 
            if (nx>=10) continue
            o.set(s[i].s,nval)
          } else if (j==1 || j==2) { 
            ox+=1 // string is handled as String obj
            if (ox>=10) continue
            if (j==2) o.set(s[i].s,sval) else o.set(s[i].s,oval)
          }
      }
    dealloc(a)
    o.err=0
    return o
  }

//* select() -- based loosely on SQL select
func select () { local ii,i,tmp,tmp1,ret,isv,key,arg,vc,selcpsav,savind,union,not,rxpflg localobj o
    if (numarg()==0) { out.cp(this,2) cob=out return v.size }
    tog("DB") // start at full db
    if (size(1)==-1) { printf("%s:select ERR0: cols not all same size\n",this) return -1 }
    // key holds OPs; arg holds ARGs; vc holds COL NAMEs
    key=arg=vc=allocvecs(3) arg+=1 vc+=2 // key is an operator, arg is args, vc is col#
    selcpsav=selcp i=1 not=rxpflg=union=savind=0
    tmplist.remove_all vlist.remove_all
    if (argtype(i)==0) if ($1==-1) {selcp=0  i+=1} // else is a number identifying a vector
    if (argtype(i)==2) { // check first string for &&, ||, !
        if (strcmp($si,"&&")==0) {        savind=1 union=0 i+=1 
          } else if (strcmp($si,"||")==0) { savind=1 union=1 i+=1 
          } else if (strcmp($si,"!")==0)  { savind=0  not=1 i+=1
          } else if (strcmp($si,"&&!")==0)  {savind=1 not=1 i+=1
          } else if (strcmp($si,"||!")==0)  {savind=1 union=1 not=1 i+=1 }
      } else if (argtype(i)==1) { i+=1
        if (argtype(i)==1 && argtype(i+1)==1) { // 3 vectors in a row are preset info for slct()
            if (numarg()!=3) { printf("%s:select ERR0: 3 vecs should be mso[key],mso[arg],cols\n",this) 
                dealloc(key) return -1 }
            if ($o1.size!=$o3.size || $o1.size*2!=$o2.size) {
                printf("%s:select ERR0c: size problem %d %d %d\n",this,$o1.size,$o2.size,$o3.size) 
                dealloc(key) return -1 }
            i=4 // have sucked up all the args
            mso[key].copy($o1) mso[arg].copy($o2)
            for ii=0,$o3.size-1 vlist.append(v[$o3.x[ii]])
          } else if (isobj($o1,"Vector")) { ind.copy($o1) savind=1 union=0 // assume &&
          } else { 
            printf("%s:select ERR0a: first vec obj should be ind vector\n",this) dealloc(key) return -1 }
      }
    if (savind) scr.copy(ind) else scr.resize(0)
  
    while (i<=numarg()) {
        if (argtype(i)==2) { 
            if (strcmp($si,"IND_")==0) {
                if ((vn=fi($si,"NOERR"))!=-3) { 
                    printf("NQS:select() WARNING: IND_ is a reserved word: ?%s\n",s[vn].s) }
                vn=-1e9  scr[1].indgen(0,v.size-1,1) tmplist.prepend(scr[1])
              } else if ((vn=fi($si))<0) { dealloc(key) return -1 }
            sstr=$si  // save for join: use with "NAME",EQW,OTHER_NQS
          } else if (argtype(i)==0) { vn=$i // can avoid repeated string search
            if (vn<0 || vn>=m) {
                printf("%s:select ERR0b: can't ident arg %d: %d\n",this,i,vn) dealloc(key) return -1}
            sstr=s[vn].s
          } else {printf("%s:select ERR1: arg %d should be col name or num\n",this,i) dealloc(key) return -1}
        if (vn>=0) if (fcd.x[vn]==1) { 
            if (oform(fcdo.o(v[vn].x[0]))!=NOP) { // look at obj list
                scr[1].resize(0)      
                for ii=0,v[vn].size-1 scr[1].append(oform(fcdo.o(v[vn].x[ii])))
                vn=-1e9   tmplist.prepend(scr[1])
              } else {
                printf("NQS:select WARNING selecting on indices in an obj column: %d (?oform)\n",vn)
              }
          }
        mso[vc].append(vn)                        i+=1 
        if (argtype(i)==0) {
            if ((isv=isvarg($i))!=-1) { 
                lk=$i 
              } else { // arg2 is a regular number use "~"
                  mso[key].append(IBI) // approximately equal -- generate a range
                  tmp=$i*(1-loose) tmp1=$i*(1+loose)
                  if (tmp<tmp1) mso[arg].append(tmp,tmp1) else mso[arg].append(tmp1,tmp)
                  i+=1
                  continue
              }
          } else if (argtype(i)==2) { isv=isvarg(lk=whvarg($si))
            if (isv==-1) { 
                if (strcmp($si,"==")==0 || strcmp($si,"~")==0) {
                    mso[key].append(IBI) // approximately equal -- generate a range
                    i+=1
                    tmp=$i*(1-loose) tmp1=$i*(1+loose)
                    if (tmp<tmp1) mso[arg].append(tmp,tmp1) else mso[arg].append(tmp1,tmp)
                    i+=1
                    continue
                  } else {
                    printf("%s:select ERR1a: operator %s not recognized\n",this,$si) dealloc(key) return -1 
                  }
              }
          } else {
            printf("%s:select ERR2: arg should be symbolic (eg GTE, EQU ...) or string (eg '[)','<=') op \n",this,i)
            dealloc(key) return -1 
          }
        mso[key].append(lk)                       i+=1
        // pick up ARGS
        for ii=0,isv-1   {  
            if (argtype(i)==0) { 
                if (lk==EQV) {
                    if ($i<0 || $i>=m) printf("ERRQ\n") else {
                        mso[arg].append(0)
                        mso[vc].append($i)
                      }
                  } else mso[arg].append($i)
                i+=1 
              } else if (argtype(i)==2) {
                if (lk==EQV) { // look for a column id
                    vn=fi($si) // OPSYM exception
                    if (vn==-1) { printf("%s:select ERR2a EQV but what col?\n",this) dealloc(key) return -1 }
                    mso[arg].append(0)
                    mso[vc].append(vn)                    i+=1
                  } else if (lk==SEQ) {
                    mso[key].x[mso[key].size-1]=EQU
                    if (argtype(i)==1) oval=$oi else if (argtype(i)==2) sval=$si
                    mso[arg].append(ret=finval(vn,argtype(i),lk))  i+=1
                  } else if (lk==RXP) {
                    mso[key].x[mso[key].size-1]=EQW
                    mso[arg].append(0)
                    if (argtype(i)!=2) {printf("%s:select ERR2a1\n",this) dealloc(key) return -1}
                    if (rxpflg==1) {printf("%s:select ERR2a2: RXP twice\n",this) dealloc(key) return -1}
                    ret=tmplist.prepend(scr[2])
                    if (rxpstr(vn,$si,scr[2])==0) {
                        printf("%s:select WARNING: No RXP matches for %s\n",this,$si) }
                    mso[vc].append(-1e9)                  i+=1
                  } else {printf("%s:select ERR2b string arg needs EQV,SEQ or RXP?\n",this)
                    dealloc(key) return -1}
              } else if (argtype(i)==1) { 
                if (lk>=EQW && lk<=EQX) { // pick up a vector
                    if (isobj($oi,"Vector")) {
                        mso[arg].append(0)
                        mso[vc].append(-i)                    i+=1
                      } else if (isobj($oi,"NQS")) {
                        mso[arg].append(0)
                        if ((tmp=$oi.fi(sstr,"NOERR"))!=-1) { // JOIN with output from other nqs
                            tmplist.prepend($oi.out.v[tmp])
                          } else {
                            o=$oi                               i+=1
                            if ((tmp=o.fi($si))==-1){printf("%s:select ERR2c: can't find %s in %s?\n",this,$si,o)
                                dealloc(key) return -1 }
                            tmplist.prepend(o.out.v[tmp])
                          }
                        mso[vc].append(-1e9)                  i+=1
                      } else { printf("%s:select ERR2c1: EQW/EQX needs Vec or NQS not %s?\n",this,$oi)
                        dealloc(key) return -1
                      }
                  } else { printf("%s:select ERR2d only EQW/EQX takes obj arg: %d:%d?\n",this,i,argtype(i))
                    dealloc(key) return -1}
              } else {
                whkey(lk,sstr) printf("%s:select ERR3 arg %d should be arg for %s",this,i,sstr) 
                dealloc(key) return -1
              }
          }
        // args in wrong order - swap
        if (isv==2) if (mso[arg].x[mso[arg].size-2]>mso[arg].x[mso[arg].size-1]) {
            tmp=mso[arg].x[mso[arg].size-2]
            mso[arg].x[mso[arg].size-2]=mso[arg].x[mso[arg].size-1]
            mso[arg].x[mso[arg].size-1]=tmp
          }
        // pad so every OP sees 2 ARGS
        for ii=0,2-isv-1 { mso[arg].append(0) } 
      }
    ind.resize(v.size)
  
    for ii=0,mso[vc].size-1 { vn=mso[vc].x[ii] 
        if (vn==-1e9) { // code for EQW case with NQS arg
            vlist.append(tmplist.object(tmplist.count-1)) 
            tmplist.remove(tmplist.count-1) // pop
          } else if (vn<0) { i=-vn // code for EQV case where vector is in the arg list
            vlist.append($oi) 
          } else vlist.append(v[vn]) 
      }
    if (tmplist.count!=0) { printf("NQS:select ERR5 %s.tmplist not empty\n",this) return -1 }
  
    if (slorflag) { ind.slor(mso[key],mso[arg],vlist)
      } else        { ind.slct(mso[key],mso[arg],vlist) }
    if (verbose==2) keylook(key) // look at the keys
    if (not==1) complement() // ind->!ind
    if (savind) { 
        if (union==1) {
            scr.append(ind) scr.sort ind.resize(scr.size+ind.size)
            ind.redundout(scr)
          } else {
            mso[key].resize(scr.size+ind.size)
            mso[key].insct(scr,ind) ind.copy(mso[key]) }
      }
    ret=ind.size
    if (selcp) {
        out.ind.copy(ind) 
        if (ind.size==0) { 
            if (verbose) printf("None selected\n") 
          } else {
            aind()
            cob=out
          }
      } else cob=this
    dealloc(key)
    selcp=selcpsav
    slorflag=0
    return ret
  }

//** keylook()
proc keylook () { local key,arg,vc,ii
    if (numarg()==0) key=0 else key=$1
    arg=key+1 vc=key+2
    printf("slct(keys,args,cols)\n")
    for ii=0,mso[key].size-1 {
        whkey(mso[key].x[ii],tstr)
        for jj=0,m-1 if (eqobj(v[jj],vlist.o(ii))) break
        if (jj==m) jj=-1
        printf("KEY: %s; ARGS: %g %g; COL: %d (%s)\n",\
               tstr,mso[arg].x[2*ii],mso[arg].x[2*ii+1],jj,vlist.o(ii))
      } // vlk(mso[key]) vlk(mso[arg])
  }

//** selall()
proc selall () { local ii
    if (numarg()==2) {
        for ii=0,m-1 out.v[ii].where(v[ii],$s1,$2)
      } else {
        for ii=0,m-1 out.v[ii].where(v[ii],$s1,$2,$3)
      }
    tog("SEL")
  }

//** complement() ind -> !ind
proc complement () { local a,b
    a=b=allocvecs(2) b+=1
    mso[a].indgen(0,size(1)-1,1)
    mso[b].resize(mso[a].size)
    mso[b].cull(mso[a],ind)
    ind.copy(mso[b])
    dealloc(a)
  }

//** delect([NQS])
// move the selected rows from the out db [or other] back to the main db
// the assumption is that you have operated on some of the fields and now want to
//      put the rows back
// ind must not have been altered since it will be used to replace the items
func delect () { local beg,ii,flag
    scr.resize(v.size)
    if (numarg()==1) flag=1 else flag=0
    if (flag) { 
        if (m!=$o1.m){ 
            printf("NQS:delect ERRa m mismatch: %s:%d vs %s:%d\n",this,m,$o1,$o1.m) return -1 }
        ind.copy($o1.ind)
      } else if (out.ind.size==0) { return 0
      } else if (!out.ind.eq(ind) || ind.size!=out.v.size) {
        printf("NQS:delect ERR ind size mismatch\n") 
        return -1 
      }
    for (beg=0;beg<m;beg+=50) { // sindx() can only handle vecst.mod:VRRY vecs at a time
        tmplist.remove_all vlist.remove_all
        for ii=beg,beg+49 if (ii<m) tmplist.append(v[ii])
        for ii=beg,beg+49 if (ii<m) if (flag) { 
            vlist.append($o1.v[ii]) 
          } else {
            vlist.append(out.v[ii]) 
          }
        ind.sindx(tmplist,vlist)
      }      
    cob=this
    return ind.size
  }  
  
//** isvarg() returns number of args an op takes or -1 if not symbolic OP
func isvarg () { local m,op // ADD NEW OPSYM CHECK
    op=$1
    for m=0,5 if (op<=EBE*(m+1) && op>=ALL*(m+1)) { op/=(m+1) break } // m is is field key 1-5
    if (op<ALL) return -1 else if (op<GTH) return 0 else if (op<IBE) { return 1 
      } else if (op<=EBE) return 2 else return -1 
  }

//** fi(STR[,XO]) find the index for a particular string, can set a objref
//  fi(STR,INDEX) return INDEXed value from that vector
//  fi(STR,"NOERR")  suppress error message
//  fi(STR,"EXACT")  string match
//  fi(STR,"ALL") return vector of all indices that match regexp
func fi () { local num,flag,ii,ret,err,ext
    if (refs==-1) if (isassigned(out)) { // calculate refs
        // refs=sfunc.references(this,1)-1 // make sure 'this' is turned on
        // printf("%d refs\n",refs)
      }
    ext=noerr=err=num=flag=all=0
    if (numarg()>=2) if (argtype(2)==2) {
        if (strcmp($s2,"NOERR")==0) noerr=1 // use "NOERR" string
        if (strcmp($s2,"EXACT")==0) ext=1 // string match statt regexp
        if (strcmp($s2,"ALL")==0) {all=1 $o3.resize(0)} // all regexp matches
      }
    for ii=0,m-1 if (strcmp(s[ii].s,$s1)==0) {flag=1 ret=ii break} // exact match
    if (ext) if (flag) return ret else return -1
    if (strcmp($s1,"scr")==0 || strcmp($s1,"SCR_")==0) {flag=1 ret=-2}
    if (strcmp($s1,"IND_")==0) {flag=1 ret=-3}
    if (!flag) for ii=0,m-1 { // make sure $s1 could be a regexp to avoid regexp error
        if (sfunc.len($s1)<sfunc.len(s[ii].s) && !strm($s1,"[()]")) if (strm(s[ii].s,$s1)) { 
            if (num>=1) {
                if (all) $o3.append(ii) else {
                    err=1 
                    printf("%s fi ERR: regexp matches more than once: %d %s\n",this,ii,s[ii].s)
                  }
              } else {
                if (all) $o3.append(ii)
                num+=1 ret=ii flag=1
              }
          }
      }
    if (err) printf("NQS WARNING; ambiguous regexp; fi() returning pointer for: %d %s\n",ret,s[ret].s)
    if (flag) {
        if (numarg()==2 && noerr==0) { 
            if        (argtype(2)==1) { 
                if (ret==-2) $o2=scr else if (ret==-3) {printf("%s:fi ERRa copy what?\n",this) return ret
                  } else $o2=v[ret] 
              } else if (argtype(2)==0) { 
                if ($2<0 || $2>=v[ret].size) { 
                    printf("%s:fi ERR index out of bounds: %d %d\n",this,$2,v[ret].size) 
                    return -1
                  }
                if (ret==-2) ret=scr.x[$2] else if (ret==-3) {printf("NQS:fi ERRb what?\n") return ret
                  } else ret=v[ret].x[$2]
              } else                    { printf("%s:fi WARNING 2nd arg ignored\n",this) }
          }
        return ret
      } else {
        if (!noerr) printf("%s.fi() ERR '%s' not found\n",this,$s1)
        return -1
      }
  }

//** find(STR) find the vector associated with a COL label
obfunc find () { local fl
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ")
    fl=fi($s1)
    if (fl==-2) { return scr 
      } else if (fl==-3) { return ind
      } else return cob.v[fl]
  }

//** mkind(COL) sort by COL and then use mkind to put index of a single col in cindx vector
obfunc mkind () { local fl
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ")
    if (cindx==nil) cindx=new Vector(1e3)
    if (argtype(1)==0) fl=$1 else fl=fi($s1)
    cindcol=fl
    sort(fl)
    v[fl].mkind(cindx)
    if (argtype(2)==1) $o2.copy(cindx)
    return cindx
  }

//** set("name",IND,VAL)
proc set () { local fl,ix,sel
    sel=0
    if (eqojt(cob,out)) { sel=1
        if (verbose) printf("NQS set() WARNING: setting value in Selected db\n") }
    if (argtype(1)==2) fl=fi($s1) else fl=$1
    ix=$2 
    if (fl==-1) return
    if (ix<0) ix=cob.v[fl].size+ix
    // 2 LINE 'SET' MACRO
    if        (ix> cob.v[fl].size) {  // nonexistent row
        printf("%s set ERRA: col %s size %d<%d\n",this,s[fl].s,v[fl].size,ix) return
      } else if (ix==cob.v[fl].size) {  // single col expansion
        if (sel) {printf("%s set() ERR: can't expand Selected db\n",this) return}
        cob.v[fl].resize(ix+1)
      }
    if (argtype(3)==0) { cob.v[fl].x[ix]=$3
      } else {
        if (argtype(3)==1) oval=$o3 else if (argtype(3)==2) sval=$s3
        cob.v[fl].x[ix]=newval(argtype(3),fl)
      }
  }

//** sets(IND,COLA,VAL[,COLB,VAL,...])
proc sets () { local fl,ix,i,sel,sz
    sel=0 ix=$1
    if (eqojt(cob,out)) { sel=1
        if (verbose) printf("NQS set() WARNING: setting value in Selected db\n") }
    if (ix>=cob.v.size){
        printf("NQS sets ERRA: OOB %s: %d (size %d)\n",this,v[0].size,cob.v.size) return }
    if (ix<0) ix=cob.v.size+ix
    for i=2,numarg() {
        if (argtype(i)==2) fl=fi($si) else fl=$i
        if (fl==-1) return
        i+=1 
        if (argtype(i)==0) { cob.v[fl].x[ix]=$i // shortcut
          } else { 
            if (argtype(i)==1) oval=$oi else if (argtype(i)==2) sval=$si
            cob.v[fl].x[ix]=newval(argtype(i),fl)
          }
      }
  }

//** setcol("name",VEC)
//   setcol(num,VEC)
//   setcol(num,"name",VEC)
//   setcol(num,"name",VEC,flag) // with flag==1 use pointer to vec instead of copying
scpflag=0
proc setcol () { local fl,flag localobj vo
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) { 
        printf("%s setcol() ERR: attempting to set column in Selected db\n",this)
        return  }
    if (argtype(1)==2) fl=fi($s1) else fl=$1
    if (fl==-1) return
    if (v[fl].size!=0) {
        sprint(sstr,"WARNING %s col not empty (size %d)",s[fl].s,v[fl].size)
        if (boolean_dialog(sstr,"Clear col","Cancel")) { v[fl].resize(0) } else {
            printf("%s (%s) setcol() canceled\n",this,s[fl].s) return  
          }}
    if (argtype(2)==2) { s[fl].s=$s2 
      } else if (argtype(2)==1) { 
        if (scpflag) v[fl].copy($o2) else v[fl]=$o2
        return 
      } else { sprint(tstr,"%d",$2) s[fl].s=tstr }
    if (numarg()>=3) vo=$o3
    if (numarg()>=4) flag=$4 else flag=0
    if (!flag || scpflag) v[fl].copy(vo) else v[fl]=vo
    chk()
  }

//** setcols(VEC1,VEC2,...) -- does either pointer or copy depending on scpflag
// setcols(LIST) -- does either pointer or copy depending on scpflag
// see also resize("NAME",vec, ...) for similar functionality
proc setcols () { local i,na,flag,sz
    sz=na=numarg() flag=0
    if (na==0) { scpflag=1-scpflag
        if (scpflag) printf("setcols() will copy vecs\n") else {
            printf("setcols() will use vec pointers\n") }
        return
      }
    if (na==1 && isobj($o1,"List")) {flag=1 sz=$o1.count}
    if (m==0) resize(sz)
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) { 
        printf("%s setcols() ERR: attempting to set column in Selected db\n",this)
        return  }
    if (!flag && na!=m) {
        printf("%s setcols() ERR: need %d not %d args\n",this,m,na)
        return  }
    if (flag) {
             if (scpflag) for i=0,m-1 v[i].copy($o1.o(i)) else for i=0,m-1 v[i]=$o1.o(i)
      } else if (scpflag) for i=1,m v[i-1].copy($oi)      else for i=1,m v[i-1]=$oi
    chk()
  }

//** newval(typ,col#) -- check if a value is already on the list and if not put it there
// usuall preceded by eg:
// if (argtype(i)==0) nval=$i else if (argtype(i)==1) oval=$oi else if (argtype(i)==2) sval=$si
// NB: makes a copy of a Vector or an NQS so DON'T do eg nq.append(new Vector())
func newval () { local ret,typ,ty,fl,ii localobj o
    typ=$1 fl=$2 ty=fcd.x[fl] // arg type may not be same as field type
    if (ty==typ || ty==-1 || (ty==11 && typ==2)) { // OK
      } else { printf("nqs::newval() ERRa %d statt %d\n",typ,ty) return ERR }
    if (typ==0 || ty==-1) { 
        return nval
      } else if (ty==1) { // object handling
        if (! isassigned(oval)) return -1
        if (isojt(oval,v)) { o=new Vector(oval.size) o.copy(oval) 
          } else if (isojt(oval,this)) { o=new NQS() o.cp(oval) 
          } else { printf("WARN: pointer to %s on %s fcdo\n",oval,this)
            for (ii=0;ii<fcdo.count;ii+=1) if (eqojt(fcdo.object(ii),oval)) return ii // already on list?
            o=oval      
          }
        return fcdo.append(o)-1
      } else if (ty==11) { // method handling
        for ({ii=0 ret=-1};ii<fcds.count;ii+=1) { 
            if (strcmp(fcds.object(ii).s,sval)==0) {ret=ii break}
          }
        if (ret==-1) ret=fcds.append(new String(sval))-1
        o=new Union(ret) // .x is pointer to the string
        return fcdo.append(o)-1
      } else if (ty==2) { // string handling
        for (ii=0;ii<fcds.count;ii+=1) { 
            Xo=fcds.object(ii)
            if (strcmp(Xo.s,sval)==0) return ii
          }
        return fcds.append(new String(sval))-1
      }
  }

//*** finval(col#,type,OP) find the location on list for an object or string
func finval () { local fl,typ,op,ii,ret
    fl=$1 typ=$2 op=$3 ret=-1
    if (fcd.x[fl]!=typ) { // doesn't handle fcd.x[]==-1
        printf("nqs::finval ERRa type mismatch; %d %d\n",fcd.x[fl],typ) return ERR }
    for ii=0,fcds.count-1 { Xo=fcds.object(ii)
        if (typ==2) { 
            if (strcmp(Xo.s,sval)==0) return ii
          } else {}
      }
    // if (ret==-1) printf("nqs::finval WARNING %s not found in string or object list\n",sval)
    return ret
  }

//*** rxpstr(col#,vec) find the location on list for an object
func rxpstr () { local fl
    fl=$1 $o3.resize(0)
    if (fcd.x[fl]!=2) {
        printf("nqs::rxpstr ERRa type mismatch; %d %d\n",fcd.x[fl],2) return -1 }
    for ii=0,fcds.count-1 if (strm(fcds.object(ii).s,$s2)) $o3.append(ii)
    return $o3.size
  }

//*** getval(col#,index) return type and value in nval,oval,sval as appropriate
// usually followed by eg
// if (typ==0) ... nval else if (typ==1) ... oval else if (typ==2) ... sval
func getval () { local typ,n,flag,fl,ix,ii
    fl=$1 ix=$2 flag=0
    typ=fcd.x[fl] // argtype
    if (typ==0) { 
        nval=ix
      } else if (typ==10) { 
        if (numarg()==3) nval=uncodf($3,ix) else {scr.resize(5) scr.uncode(ix)}
      } else if (typ==1) { // object handling
        if (ix>fcdo.count-1) {
            printf("nqs::getval() ERR fcdo index OOB %d, %d\n",ix,fcdo.count) return ERR 
          } else if (ix<0) {
            // printf("nqs::getval() WARNING empty obj ptr\n\t")
            sval="nil"
            typ=2
          } else oval = fcdo.object(ix)
      } else if (typ==2) { // string handling
        if (ix==-1) {
            sval="NULL"
          } else if (ix<0 || ix>fcds.count-1) {
            printf("nqs::getval() ERR index OOB %d, %d\n",ix,fcds.count) return ERR 
          } else sval=fcds.object(ix).s
      } else if (typ==-1) { // string from external list
        if (fcdl.count<=fl) {printf("%s getval ERRa\n",this) return -1}
        if (! isobj(fcdl.object(fl),"List")) {printf("%s getval ERRb\n",this) return -1}
        if (fcdl.object(fl).count<=ix) {printf("%s getval ERRc\n",this) return -1}
        if (ix==-1) sval="XX" else {
            if (!isobj(fcdl.object(fl).object(ix),"String")){printf("%s getval ERRd\n",this) return -1}
            sval=fcdl.object(fl).object(ix).s
          }
      }
    return typ
  }

//*** useslist() connects a list of strings to fcdl to use when printing
// fcdl: list of lists to make it easy to attach lists from outside
proc useslist () { local fl,ii
    if (argtype(1)==2) fl=fi($s1) else fl=$1
    if (fl==-1) return
    if (! isobj(fcdl,"List")) {fcdl=new List() out.fcdl=fcdl}
    if (fcdl.count!=m) for ii=fcdl.count,m-1 fcdl.append(fcdl) // use fcdl as placeholder
    fcdl.remove(fl) fcdl.insrt(fl,$o2)  // replace:fcdl.object(fl)=$o2
    fcd.x[fl]=-1
  }

//*** unuselist() connects a list of strings to fcdl to use when printing
// fcdl: list of lists to make it easy to attach lists from outside
proc unuselist () { local fl,ii
    if (argtype(1)==2) fl=fi($s1) else fl=$1
    if (fl==-1) return
    fcd.x[fl]=0
  }

//*** listvecs([LIST]) put the vecs in the list for use with eg uncode()
obfunc listvecs () { local ii,i,b localobj ol
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ")
    if (argtype(1)==1) {ol=$o1 b=2} else b=1
    if (!isassigned(ol)) { 
        ol=new List()
        if (argtype(1)==1) $o1=ol
      }
    ol.remove_all
    if (numarg()>=b) {
        for i=b,numarg() {
            if (argtype(i)==2) ii=fi($si) else ii=$i
            if (ii==-1) return
            ol.append(cob.v[ii])
          }
      } else {
        for ii=0,m-1 ol.append(cob.v[ii])
      }
    return ol
  }

//*** hash([COLA],[COLB] etc.) put the vecs in the list for use with eg uncode()
proc hash () { local ii,i,fl localobj o
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) {
        printf("hash() ERR: can't create hash col in 'Selected'\n") return }
    o=new List()
    if (numarg()==0) { // do all columns
        resize("hashall")
        for ii=0,m-2 o.append(v[ii])
      } else {
        tstr="hash"
        for i=1,numarg() {
            if (argtype(i)==0) fl=$i else fl=fi($si)
            if (fl==-1) return
            sprint(tstr,"%s_%s",tstr,s[fl].s)
            o.append(v[fl])
          }
        resize(tstr)
      }
    pad()
    v[m-1].hash(o)
  }

//*** mat=tomat([MAT]) put the cols in cols of matrix
// mat=tomat(MAT,1) or mat=tomat(1) puts the cols in rows of matrix
obfunc tomat () { local ii,transpose,fo,sz localobj mat
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ")
    fo=transpose=0 sz=size(1)
    if (numarg()>=1) {
        if (argtype(1)==0) transpose=$1 else {mat=$o1 fo=1}
      } 
    if (numarg()>=2) transpose=$2
    if (!isassigned(mat)) { 
        if (transpose) mat=new Matrix(m,sz) else mat=new Matrix(sz,m)
        if (fo) $o1=mat
      } else {
        if (transpose) mat.resize(m,sz) else mat.resize(sz,m)
      }
    if (transpose) {for ii=0,m-1 mat.setrow(ii,cob.v[ii])
      } else          for ii=0,m-1 mat.setcol(ii,cob.v[ii])
    return mat
  }

//*** frmat(MAT) gets cols from cols of matrix
// frmat(MAT,1)  gets the cols from rows of matrix
proc frmat () { local ii,transpose,rows,cols localobj mat
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) {printf("frmat() ERR cannot reset 'Selected' to matrix\n") return}
    fo=transpose=0
    mat=$o1
    if (numarg()>=2) transpose=$2
    rows=mat.nrow cols=mat.ncol
    if (transpose) {
        if (cols!=size(1)) pad(cols)
        if (rows!=m) resize(rows)
        for ii=0,m-1 mat.getrow(ii,cob.v[ii])
      } else {
        if (rows!=size(1)) pad(rows)
        if (cols!=m) resize(cols)
        for ii=0,m-1 mat.getcol(ii,cob.v[ii])
      }
  }

//*** prtval() use %g or %s to print values
proc prtval () { local i,typ,flag,otmp localobj f1
    if (argtype(1)==0) {typ=$1 flag=0 i=2} else {f1=$o1 flag=1 typ=$2 i=3}
    // oform() returns a double for printing an object
    if (typ==1 && isassigned(oval)) {
        otmp=oform(oval)
        if (otmp==NOP) {       typ=1
          } else if (otmp==OK) { return // print nothing since being printed as side effect
          } else {               typ=0 nval=otmp // print a single numeric value
          }
      }
    if (typ==0) sstr=dblform else sstr=strform
    if (numarg()==i) { 
        sprint(sstr,"%s%s",sstr,$si)
      } else if (numarg()==i+1) {
        sprint(sstr,"%s%s",$si,sstr) i+=1 sprint(sstr,"%s%s",sstr,$si)
      }
    if (flag) {
             if (typ==0) { f1.printf(sstr,nval)
        } else if (typ==1) { f1.printf(sstr,oval) 
        } else if (typ==2) { f1.printf(sstr,sval) 
        } else if (typ==10) { for ii=0,4 f1.printf("%d ",scr.x[ii])
        } else if (typ==-1) { f1.printf(sstr,sval) } // special code for externally provided list
      } else {
             if (typ==0) { printf(sstr,nval)
        } else if (typ==1) { printf(sstr,oval) 
        } else if (typ==2) { printf(sstr,sval) 
        } else if (typ==10) { for ii=0,4 printf("%d ",scr.x[ii])
        } else if (typ==-1) { printf(sstr,sval) } // special code for externally provided list
      }
  }

//** get("name",[IND]]) if omit IND take ind from first ind.x[0]
obfunc get () { local ty,fl,ix,outf localobj lo
    outf=0
    if (argtype(1)==0) { fl=$1 sstr2=s[fl].s
      } else if (argtype(1)==2) { fl=fi($s1) sstr2=$s1 }
    if (fl==-1) { return lo }
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) { outf=1 
        if (verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") }
    if (numarg()==1) {
        if (outf) ix=0 else ix=ind.x[0]
      } else ix=$2
    if (ix<0 || ix>=cob.v[fl].size) {
        printf("%s::get ERR ix %d out of range for %s (%s)\n",this,ix,sstr2,cob) return lo }
    ty=fcd.x[fl]
    if (ty==0) {lo=new Union(cob.v[fl].x[ix]) if (numarg()==3) $&3=lo.x
      } else if (ty==1) {lo=new Union(fcdo,cob.v[fl].x[ix]) if (numarg()==3) $o3=lo.o
      } else if (ty==11) {lo=methget(fl,cob.v[fl].x[ix])  if (numarg()==3) $o3=lo.o
      } else if (ty==2) {lo=new Union(fcds,cob.v[fl].x[ix])  if (numarg()==3) $s3=lo.s
      } else if (ty==-1){lo=new Union(fcdl.object(fl),cob.v[fl].x[ix]) if (numarg()==3) $o3=lo.o}
    return lo
  }

//** mget(row,col) 
obfunc mget () { local ty,fl,ix,outf localobj lo
    outf=0
    ix=$1 fl=$2 
    if (ix<0 || ix>=cob.v[fl].size) {printf("%s::get ERR no %d,%d\n",this,fl,ix) return lo}
    ty=fcd.x[fl]
    if (ty==0) {lo=new Union(cob.v[fl].x[ix]) if (numarg()==3) $&3=lo.x
      } else if (ty==1) {lo=new Union(fcdo,cob.v[fl].x[ix]) if (numarg()==3) $o3=lo.o
      } else if (ty==2) {lo=new Union(fcds,cob.v[fl].x[ix])  if (numarg()==3) $s3=lo.s
      } else if (ty==11) {lo=methget(fl,cob.v[fl].x[ix])  if (numarg()==3) $o3=lo.o
      } else if (ty==-1){lo=new Union(fcdl.object(fl),cob.v[fl].x[ix]) if (numarg()==3) $o3=lo.o}
    return lo
  }

//** mset(row,col) 
proc mset () { local ty,fl,ix,outf localobj lo
    outf=0
    ix=$1 fl=$2 
    if (ix<0 || ix>=cob.v[fl].size) {printf("%s::get ERR no %d,%d\n",this,fl,ix) return}
    ty=fcd.x[fl]
    if (ty==0) cob.v[fl].x[ix]=$3 else \
    if (ty==1) fcds.o(cob.v[fl].x[ix])=$o3 else \
    if (ty==2) fcds.o(cob.v[fl].x[ix]).s=$s3 else \
    if (ty==-1)fcdl.object(fl).o(cob.v[fl].x[ix])=$o3
  }

//** fetch(COLA,VAL,COLB) does fast select where COLA is VAL and returns value in COLB
// fetch(COLA,VAL) return the row number
// fetch(COLA,VAL,COLB,XO) places COLB object in XO
// ambiguity -- if 1,3 args can fetch from full db or selected else must do select first
func fetch () { local fl1,fl2,max,i localobj st,v0
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) if (verbose) printf(" *Selected* ")
    if (numarg()==1) {
        if (argtype(1)==2) fl1=fi($s1) else fl1=$1
        return cob.v[fl1].x[0]
      } else if (numarg()==2) { // return the index
        if (argtype(1)==2) fl1=fi($s1) else fl1=$1
        if ((i=cob.v[fl1].indwhere("==",$2))<0){
            printf("fetch ERR %d not found in %s\n",$2,s[fl1].s) return -1 }
        return i
      } else if (numarg()==3 || argtype(4)==1) {
        if (argtype(1)==2) fl1=fi($s1) else fl1=$1
        if (argtype(3)==2) fl2=fi($s3) else if (argtype(3)==0) fl2=$3 else {v0=$o3 fl2=-1}
        if ((i=cob.v[fl1].indwhere("==",$2))<0) {
            printf("fetch ERR %d not found in %s\n",$2,s[fl1].s) return -1 }
        if (fl2>=0) {
            if (numarg()==4) $o4=fcdo.o(cob.v[fl2].x[i])
            return cob.v[fl2].x[i] 
          } else { // return row as a vector
            v0.resize(0) for (ii=0;ii<m;ii+=1) v0.append(cob.v[ii].x[i])
            return cob.v[0].x[i]
          }
      } else {
        st=new String("select(-1,")
        for i=1,numarg()-1 {
            if (argtype(i)==0) sprint(st.s,"%s%g,",st.s,$i) else sprint(st.s,"%s\"%s\",",st.s,$si)
          }
        chop(st.s) sprint(st.s,"%s)",st.s)
        execute(st.s,this)
        i=numarg()
        if (argtype(i)==0) fl2=$i else fl2=fi($si)
        if (ind.size!=1 && verbose) printf("NQS fetch WARNING -- %d lines found\n",ind.size)
        if (ind.size>0) return v[fl2].x[ind.x[0]] else return ERR
      }
  }

//** stat("COL","operation")
//   stat("COL",VEC) // save into a vector: max,min,mean,sdev
//   stat(NQS) // save all of them into another NQS
proc stat () { local i,vn
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    if (numarg()==0) {
        for i=0,m-1 { printf("%s:\t",s[i].s) stat(i) } // recursive call
        return
      }
    if (argtype(1)==1) {
        $o1.resize(5)
        $o1.sethdrs("NAME","MAX","MIN","MEAN","SDEV") 
        $o1.strdec("NAME")
        $o1.clear
        for i=0,m-1 { 
            stat(i,scr[1]) // recursive call
            $o1.append(scr[1],1)
            $o1.set(0,i,s[i].s)
          }
        return
      }
    if (argtype(1)==0) vn=$1 else vn=fi($s1)
    i=2
    if (cob.size(1)<2) { printf("NQS:stat small NQS: %d\n",cob.size(1)) ok=0 } else ok=1
    if (vn==-2) {
        sprint(sstr2,"%s",cob.scr) 
      } else if (vn<0||vn>=m) {
        return
      } else if (fcd.x[vn]==10) { 
        scr[1].resize(cob.v.size)
        field=$i i+=1
        cob.v[vn].uncode(scr[1],field)
        sprint(sstr2,"%s",scr[1]) 
      } else if (fcd.x[vn]==1) { // looking at a list of vectors
    //if (oform()==NOP){printf("%s:stat ERR: set oform() to do stats on vectors or nqs\n",this)return}
        scr[1].resize(0)
        for ii=0,cob.v[vn].size-1 scr[1].append(oform(fcdo.o(cob.v[vn].x[ii])))
        sprint(sstr2,"%s",scr[1]) 
      } else {
        sprint(sstr2,"%s",cob.v[vn])
      }
    if (numarg()<i) {
        sprint(sstr,   "printf(\"max=%%g; \",%s.max) ",sstr2)
        sprint(sstr,"%s printf(\"min=%%g; \",%s.min) ",sstr,sstr2)
        if (ok) sprint(sstr,"%s printf(\"mean=%%g; \",%s.mean) ",sstr,sstr2)
        if (ok) sprint(sstr,"%s printf(\"stdev=%%g; \",%s.stdev) ",sstr,sstr2)    
        execute(sstr)
        print ""
      } else if (argtype(i)==1) { // a vector
        $oi.resize(0)
        if (ok) {$oi.append(cob.v[vn].max,cob.v[vn].min,cob.v[vn].mean,cob.v[vn].stdev)
          } else  {$oi.append(cob.v[vn].max,cob.v[vn].min,cob.v[vn].min,0) }
      } else if (!ok) { return
      } else for (;i<=numarg();i+=1) {
        if (strm($si,"[(][)]$")) {
            sfunc.left($si,sfunc.len($si)-2)
            sprint(sstr,"printf(\"%s()=%%g; \",%s(%s))",$si,$si,sstr2)
          } else sprint(sstr,"printf(\"%s=%%g; \",%s.%s)",$si,sstr2,$si)
        execute(sstr)
        print ""
      }
  }

//** iterator it() iterates over columns
// set's global tstr and XO to string bzw vec
iterator it () { local ii
    i2=0
    for ii=0,m-1 {
        XO=cob.v[ii] execstr=s[ii].s
        iterator_statement
        i2+=1
      }
  }

//** iterator ot() creates names for each col (same as col header) and goes through them all
iterator ot () { local i,na,val
    if (! isobj(otl,"List")) { // create list to execute
        otl=new List()
        for i=0,m-1 { 
            Xo=new String(s[i].s)
            if (fcd.x[i]==2) {
                varstr(Xo.s,1) 
                sprint(Xo.s,"%s=%s.fcds.object(%s.cob.v[%d].x[i2]).s",Xo.s,this,this,i)
              } else {
                varstr(Xo.s) 
                sprint(Xo.s,"%s=%s.cob.v[%d].x[i2]",Xo.s,this,i)
              }
            otl.append(Xo)
          }
        Xo=nil
      }
    for (i2=0;i2<cob.v[0].size;i2+=1) {
        for i=0,m-1 execute(otl.object(i).s)
        iterator_statement
      }
  }

//** iterator qt(&x1,NAME1,&x2,NAME2,...) 
// qt(&x1,NAME1,&x2,NAME2,...,&x)  
// qt(&x1,NAME1,&x2,NAME2,...,5,7,&x) // just from 5 to 7
// qt(&x1,NAME1,&x2,NAME2,...,8) // ending at 8
// note &x arg location is opposite to that for ltr
// eg for sp.qt(&x,"PRID",&y,"POID",&z,"NC1",&ii,"WID1",&jj,"WT1") print x,y,z,ii,jj
// NB set qtset if resetting values
iterator qt () { local a,i,j,ii,na,val,noset,min,max,cntr localobj cols,cd
    na=numarg()
    cols=new Vector() cd=new Vector()
    min=0 max=size(1)-1
    if (argtype(na)==3) {i=cntr=na $&i=0 na-=1} else cntr=-1
    if (argtype(na-1)==0) { // 2 values for min and max
          i=na-1 min=$i i=na max=$i na-=2
      }
    if (na/2!=int(na/2)) { // odd number
        if (argtype(na)==0) { i=na max=$i na-=1 
          } else {printf("%s::qt() needs even # of args\n",this) return }
      }
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
  //*** pick up column numbers
    for (i=2;i<=na;i+=2) { 
        if (argtype(i)!=2) val=$i else val=fi($si)
        cols.append(val) // cols has col #s
        if (val<0 || val>=m) { if (argtype(i)==2) printf("(%s)",$si)
            printf("%s::qt() ERR %d not found\n",this,val) return }
      }
    cd.copy(fcd)          // cd gives codes for col's
  //*** pick up the arguments
    for (i=1;i<=na;i+=2) { 
        // can't do iteration over externally defined strings (eg -1) see useslist()
        if (cols.x[int(i/2)]<0) continue
        if (cd.x[cols.x[int(i/2)]]!=0) { 
            if (argtype(i)==3) {
                printf("NQS::qt() WARNING using list index statt str for col %s\n",s[cols.x[int(i/2)]].s) 
                cd.set(cols.x[int(i/2)],0)
              }
          }
        if (cd.x[cols.x[int(i/2)]]==2 && argtype(i)!=2) {
            printf("%s::qt() ERR %s is strdec but arg %d not string\n",this,s[cols.x[int(i/2)]].s,i) return }
        if (cd.x[cols.x[int(i/2)]]==1 && argtype(i)!=1) {
            printf("%s::qt() ERR %s is odec but arg %d not obj\n",this,s[cols.x[int(i/2)]].s,i) return }
      }
  //*** iterate through setting local variables to values in NQS
    for (ii=min;ii<=max;ii+=1) {
        for (i=1;i<=na;i+=2) { j=cols.x[int(i/2)]
            if (cd.x[j]==0) {
                $&i=cob.v[j].x[ii]
              } else if (cd.x[j]==2) {
                $si=fcds.object(cob.v[j].x[ii]).s
              } else if (cd.x[j]==1) {
                $oi=fcdo.object(cob.v[j].x[ii])
              } else {
                printf("%s qt ERRA: %d %d\n",this,i,j)
                continue
              }
          }
        // for i=0,m-1 qtv.x[i]=v[i].x[ii] // if want these values need a separate vector
        iterator_statement
    //*** if qtset -> iterate through resetting NQS according to changed variables
        if (qtset) for (i=1;i<=na;i+=2) { j=cols.x[int(i/2)]
            if (cd.x[j]==0) {
                cob.v[j].x[ii]=$&i
              } else if (cd.x[j]==2) {
                fcds.object(cob.v[j].x[ii]).s=$si
              } else if (cd.x[j]==1) {
                if (!eqojt(fcdo.object(cob.v[j].x[ii]),$oi)) {
                    printf("%s qt ERRB: can't reassign obj: %d %s %s\n",this,\
                           i,fcdo.object(cob.v[j].x[ii]),$oi)
                  }
              }
          }
        if (cntr>-1) {i=cntr $&i+=1}
      }
    qtset=0 // turn back off
  }


//** iterator ut(&x1,NAME1,&x2,NAME2,...) 
// like qt but iterates over selected items without a copy (ie with selcp=0)
// ut(&x1,NAME1,&x2,NAME2,...,&x)  
// ut(&x1,NAME1,&x2,NAME2,...,5,7,&x) // just from 5 to 7
// ut(&x1,NAME1,&x2,NAME2,...,8) // ending at 8
// note &x arg location is opposite to that for ltr
// eg for sp.ut(&x,"PRID",&y,"POID",&z,"NC1",&ii,"WID1",&jj,"WT1") print x,y,z,ii,jj
// NB set qtset if resetting values
iterator ut () { local a,i,j,ii,jj,na,val,noset,min,max,cntr localobj cols,cd
    na=numarg()
    a=allocvecs(cols,cd)
    min=0 max=ind.size-1
    if (argtype(na)==3) {i=cntr=na $&i=0 na-=1} else cntr=-1
    if (argtype(na-1)==0) { // 2 values for min and max
          i=na-1 min=$i i=na max=$i na-=2
      }
    if (na/2!=int(na/2)) { // odd number
        if (argtype(na)==0) { i=na max=$i na-=1 
          } else {printf("%s::ut() needs even # of args\n",this) return }
      }
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) {printf("NQS WARNING: ut() called after full select(); switching\n") 
        cob=this }
  //*** pick up column numbers
    for (i=2;i<=na;i+=2) { 
        if (argtype(i)!=2) val=$i else val=fi($si)
        cols.append(val) // cols has col #s
        if (val<0 || val>=m) { if (argtype(i)==2) printf("(%s)",$si)
            printf("%s::ut() ERR %d not found\n",this,val) return }
      }
    cd.copy(fcd)          // cd gives codes for col's
  //*** pick up the arguments
    for (i=1;i<=na;i+=2) { 
        // can't do iteration over externally defined strings (eg -1) see useslist()
        if (cols.x[int(i/2)]<0) continue
        if (cd.x[cols.x[int(i/2)]]!=0) { 
            if (argtype(i)==3) {
                printf("NQS::ut() WARNING using list index statt str for col %s\n",s[cols.x[int(i/2)]].s) 
                cd.set(cols.x[int(i/2)],0)
              }
          }
        if (cd.x[cols.x[int(i/2)]]==2 && argtype(i)!=2) {
            printf("%s::ut() ERR %s is strdec but arg %d not string\n",this,s[cols.x[int(i/2)]].s,i) return }
        if (cd.x[cols.x[int(i/2)]]==1 && argtype(i)!=1) {
            printf("%s::ut() ERR %s is odec but arg %d not obj\n",this,s[cols.x[int(i/2)]].s,i) return }
      }
  //*** iterate through setting local variables to values in NQS
    for (jj=min;jj<=max;jj+=1) { ii=ind.x[jj]
        for (i=1;i<=na;i+=2) { j=cols.x[int(i/2)]
            if (cd.x[j]==0) {
                $&i=cob.v[j].x[ii]
              } else if (cd.x[j]==2) {
                $si=fcds.object(cob.v[j].x[ii]).s
              } else if (cd.x[j]==1) {
                $oi=fcdo.object(cob.v[j].x[ii])
              } else {
                printf("%s ut ERRA: %d %d\n",this,i,j)
                continue
              }
          }
        iterator_statement
    //*** if qtset -> iterate through resetting NQS according to changed variables
        if (qtset) for (i=1;i<=na;i+=2) { j=cols.x[int(i/2)]
            if (cd.x[j]==0) {
                cob.v[j].x[ii]=$&i
              } else if (cd.x[j]==2) {
                fcds.object(cob.v[j].x[ii]).s=$si
              } else if (cd.x[j]==1) {
                if (!eqojt(fcdo.object(cob.v[j].x[ii]),$oi)) {
                    printf("%s ut ERRB: can't reassign obj: %d %s %s\n",this,\
                           i,fcdo.object(cob.v[j].x[ii]),$oi)
                  }
              }
          }
        if (cntr>-1) {i=cntr $&i+=1}
      }
    dealloc(a)
    qtset=0 // turn back off
  }

//** iterator vt("proc",&x1,NAME1,&x2,NAME2,...) 
proc vt () { local a,i,j,ii,na,val,noset,min,max,cntr localobj cols,cd,at
    na=numarg()
    a=allocvecs(cols,cd)
    min=0 max=size(1)-1
    if (argtype(na)==3) {i=cntr=na $&i=0 na-=1} else cntr=-1
    if (argtype(na-1)==0) { // 2 values for min and max
          i=na-1 min=$i i=na max=$i na-=2
      }
    if (na/2==int(na/2)) { // odd number
        if (argtype(na)==0) { i=na max=$i na-=1 
          } else {printf("%s::vt() needs odd # of args\n",this) return }
      }
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) { printf(" vt() err: run .vt() on full set") return }
  //*** pick up column numbers
    for i=2,na { 
        if (argtype(i)!=2) val=$i else val=fi($si)
        cols.append(val) // cols has col #s
        if (val<0 || val>=m) { if (argtype(i)==2) printf("(%s)",$si)
            printf("%s::vt() ERR %d not found\n",this,val) return }
        if (fcd.x[val]!=0 && fcd.x[val]!=1) {
            printf("%s::vt() ERR %d not handled (%d)\n",this,fcd.x[va],val) return }
      }
  //*** iterate through setting local variables to values in NQS
    sprint(tstr,"%s.nqsvt(\"%s\",%s,%s,%s,%s)",cols,$s1,fcdo,fcd,vl,ind)
    execute(tstr)
    dealloc(a)
  }

//** calc() spread-sheet functionality using vector functions
// takes a compound expression utilizing column names in slant brackets <>
// anything quoted can use either ' or \"
// eg sp.calc("<DIST>.c.mul(DELD).add(DEL)")
proc calc () { local ii,vn,exec
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        printf("eg calc(\"<SCR>.copy(<COL1>.c.mul(<COL2>).add(5))\") \ntakes a compound expression utilizing column names in slant brackets <>\nanything quoted can use either ' slash quote.\n")
        return 
      } else sstr=$s1
    exec=1
    if (argtype(2)==2) if (strcmp($s2,"NOEXEC")==0) exec=0
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    while (sfunc.tail(sstr,"<",sstr2)!=-1) {
        sfunc.head(sstr2,">",sstr2)
        if (strcmp(sstr2,"SCR")==0) { 
            sprint(sstr3,"%s",cob.scr)
          } else if (isnum(sstr2)) {
            sscanf(sstr2,"%d",&vn)
            sprint(sstr3,"%s",cob.v[vn])
          } else if ((vn=fi(sstr2))==-1) {
            return // error 
          } else {
            sprint(sstr3,"%s",cob.v[vn])      
          }
        sprint(sstr2,"<%s>",sstr2)
        repl_mstr(sstr,sstr2,sstr3,sstr4)
      }
    repl_mstr(sstr,"'","\"",sstr4)
    if (exec) execute(sstr)
  }

//** sort () sort according to one index
func sort () { local beg,ii,vn
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    if (argtype(1)==0) vn=$1 else vn=fi($s1)
    if (vn<0||vn>=m) return -1
    if (fcd.x[vn]==1) {
        cob.scr.resize(0)
        for ii=0,cob.v[vn].size-1 cob.scr.append(oform(fcdo.o(cob.v[vn].x[ii])))
        if (cob.scr.x[0]==NOP) { // looking at a list of vectors
            printf("NQS:sort ERR define oform to sort obj field %s\n",s[vn].s) return 0 }
        cob.scr.sortindex(cob.ind)    
      } else {
        cob.v[vn].sortindex(cob.ind)
      }
    if (numarg()==2) if ($2==-1) cob.ind.reverse
    fewind()
    return vn
  }  

//** vsort(vec) sort according to vec which may have redundancy
func vsort () { local beg,ii,x localobj o
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    o=$o1
    if (numarg()==2) if ($2==-1) o.reverse
    cob.scr.resize(cob.v.size)
    for (beg=0;beg<m;beg+=50) { // fewind() can only handle vecst.mod:VRRY vecs at a time
        tmplist.remove_all
        for (ii=beg;ii<beg+50 && ii<m;ii+=1) tmplist.append(cob.v[ii])
        x=cob.scr.fewind(o,tmplist,1)
      }      
    return x
  }  

//** percl ("FIELD",n %ile) check whether the first n% of the vector are in the top n %ile
// usage -- reverse sort according to 1 field and then ask if other field is in top n %ile
func percl () { local beg,ii,vn,nile,sz
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    if (argtype(1)==0) vn=$1 else vn=fi($s1)
    if (vn<0||vn>=m) return -1
    sz=cob.v[vn].size
    nile=int($2*sz/100)
    scr[1].copy(cob.v[vn]) scr[1].sort() scr.resize(0) scr.copy(scr[1],sz-nile-1,sz-1)
    scr.reverse() // the top n-ile percentile
    scr[2].resize(0) scr[2].copy(cob.v[vn],0,nile) // the first set of values from NQS
    // scr[1].insct(scr,scr[2])    // find all common values
    for ii=0,scr[2].size-1 if (scr.contains(scr[2].x[ii])) return ii // which one is top of scr[2]
    return -1
  }  

// family("COLA",val,"COLB","COLC")
// pick out rows that have are same as row with "COLA" val except that COLB COLC
//  etc. can be anything
func family () { local a,i,ii,vn,va,nile,sz,om localobj key,arg
    tog("DB") // start at full db
    a=allocvecs(key,arg)
    sz=size(1)
    tmplist.remove_all arg.resize(0) key.resize(0)
    if (select(-1,$s1,$2)!=1) printf("WARNING: NQS family found more than 1 %s=%g\n",$s1,$2)
    va=fi($s1)
    scr.resize(0) scr.append(va)
    for i=3,numarg() scr.append(fi($si))
    for i=0,m-1 if (! scr.contains(i)) {
        tmplist.append(v[i])
        key.append(EQU) 
        arg.append(v[i].x[ind.x[0]],0)
      }
    ind.resize(v.size)
    ind.slct(key,arg,tmplist) // run select function
    if (ind.size>0) {
        out.ind.copy(ind) 
        aind()
        cob=out
      } else if (verbose) printf("None selected\n") 
    dealloc(a)
    return ind.size
  }  

// psel(%ile,"COLA","COLB","COLC")
// psel("COLA",%ileA,"COLB",%ileB,"COLC",%ileC)
// neg %ile means bottom -- eg 10 is largest 10% and -10 is smallest 10%
// return top percentile in these columns
func psel () { local a,i,ii,vn,nile,sz,om localobj key,arg
    tog("DB") // start at full db
    a=allocvecs(key,arg)
    om=numarg()-1
    sz=size(1)
    tmplist.remove_all arg.resize(0) key.resize(0)
    if (argtype(1)==0) {
        if (int($1*sz/100)==0) { printf("%s pselERR: unable %d%% of %d\n",this,$1,sz)
            return -1 }
        key.resize(om)
        if ($1>0) { 
            nile=sz-int($1*sz/100) 
            key.fill(GTE) 
          } else { 
            nile=-int($1*sz/100)
            key.fill(LTE) 
          }
        for i=2,numarg() { 
            if (argtype(i)==0) vn=$i else vn=fi($si)
            if (vn<0||vn>=m) return -1
            tmplist.append(v[vn])
            scr[1].copy(v[vn])
            scr[1].sort()
            arg.append(scr[1].x[nile],0) // 2nd arg for GTE ignored
            if (verbose) printf("%s:%g ",$si,scr[1].x[nile])
          }
      } else for i=1,numarg() { 
        tstr=$si
        vn=fi($si)      i+=1
        if (int($i*sz/100)==0) { printf("NQS psel(): WARNING: ignoring %d%% of %d\n",$i,sz)
            continue }
        if (vn<0||vn>=m) return -1
        tmplist.append(v[vn])
        scr[1].copy(v[vn])
        scr[1].sort()
        if ($i>0) { 
            nile=sz-int($i*sz/100) 
            key.append(GTE) 
          } else { 
            nile=-int($i*sz/100)
            key.append(LTE) 
          }
        arg.append(scr[1].x[nile],0) // 2nd arg for GTE ignored
        if (verbose) printf("%s:%g ",tstr,scr[1].x[nile])
      }
    ind.resize(v.size)
    ind.slct(key,arg,tmplist) // run select function
    if (ind.size>0) {
        out.ind.copy(ind) 
        aind()
        cob=out
      } else if (verbose) printf("None selected\n") 
    if (verbose) print ""
    dealloc(a)
    return ind.size
  }  

//** uniq(COLNAME) will pick out unique row (1st) for the chosen column
func uniq () { local vn
    if (! eqobj(cob,out)) {printf("Only run NQS:uniq() on prior selected set.\n") return -1}
    vn=sort($s1)
    cob.ind.resize(cob.v.size)
    cob.ind.redundout(cob.v[vn],1)
    fewind()
    return cob.ind.size
  }

//** elimrepeats(COLA[,COLB,...])
func elimrepeats () { local a,b,i,ii,indflag localobj sl,tl,v1
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) {printf("%s ERR: run elimrepeats on full db\n",this)  return 0.}
    if (size(1)==0) { printf("%s:elimirepeats Empty NQS\n",this) return 0.}
    a=allocvecs(v1) b=1 indflag=0
    sl=new List() tl=new List()
    if (numarg()==0) {
        for ii=0,m-1 { sl.append(v[ii]) v1.append(ii) }
        b=numarg()+1
      } else if (argtype(1)==0) if ($1==-1) {b=2 indflag=1}
    for i=b,numarg() {
        if (argtype(i)==0) ii=$i else if ((ii=fi($si))==-1) return 0
        sl.append(v[ii])
        v1.append(ii)
      }
    for ii=0,m-1 if (!v1.contains(ii)) tl.append(v[ii])
    for (ii=v1.size-1;ii>=0;ii-=1) sort(v1.x[ii]) // sort them in the reverse order of calling
    ii=ind.mredundout(sl,indflag,tl)
    dealloc(a)
    return ii
  }

//** covarc("vCol") -- generate covariance matrix from vectors in a single column
obfunc covarc () { local a,fl,n,m localobj mat,xo,v1
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    if ((fl=fi($s1))==-1) return -1
    if (fcd.x[fl]!=1) {printf("Must be an obj column\n") return -1}
    xo=get(fl,0).o
    if (!isojt(xo,ind))  {printf("Must be an vec column\n") return -1}
    n=size(1) // number of data vectors
    m=xo.size    // size of vector 
    a=allocvecs(v1)
    mat=new Matrix(m,m)
    cob.v[fl].covar(fcdo,v1)
    mat.from_vector(v1)
    dealloc(a)
    return mat
  }

//** tomatc("vCol") -- return matrix of vectors from a single column; load into rows of mat
obfunc tomatc () { local a,fl,n,m,ii localobj mat,xo,v1
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    if ((fl=fi($s1))==-1) return -1
    if (fcd.x[fl]!=1) {printf("Must be an obj column\n") return -1}
    xo=get(fl,0).o
    if (!isojt(xo,ind))  {printf("Must be an vec column\n") return -1}
    n=size(1) // number of data vectors
    m=xo.size    // size of vector 
    mat=new Matrix(n,m)
    for qt(xo,fl,&ii) mat.setrow(ii,xo)
    return mat
  }

//** shuffle()
proc shuffle () { local a,b,i,ii,indflag localobj sl,tl,v1
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ")
    if (size(1)==0) { printf("%s:shuffle Empty NQS\n",this) return}
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) out.ind.copy(ind)
    rdmord(cob.ind,cob.v.size)
    fewind()
  }

//** fewind () -- index all of the vecs in place using vecst.mod::fewind()
proc fewind () {
    cob.scr.resize(cob.v.size)
    for (beg=0;beg<m;beg+=50) { // fewind() can only handle vecst.mod:VRRY vecs at a time
        tmplist.remove_all
        for (ii=beg;ii<beg+50 && ii<m;ii+=1) tmplist.append(cob.v[ii])
        cob.scr.fewind(cob.ind,tmplist)
      }      
    cob.ind.resize(0) // prevents reusing it
  }

//** aind () -- index all of the vecs into out list
proc aind () { local beg,ii
    for (beg=0;beg<m;beg+=10) {
        tmplist.remove_all vlist.remove_all
        for ii=beg,beg+10 if (ii<m) {
            out.v[ii].resize(ind.size)
            tmplist.append(v[ii])
            vlist.append(out.v[ii])
          }
        ind.findx(tmplist,vlist)
      }      
  }  

//** append(VEC[,begin]) appends to ends of given vectors
// append(x1,x2,...); append(NQS)
proc append () { local ii,jj,i,flag,begin,o1fcd localobj xo
    cob=this
    if (m==0) { printf("%s append ERR0, attempted append to uninitialized NQS\n",this) return }
    if (argtype(1)==1 && fcd.x[0]!=1) {
        if (isobj($o1,"Vector")) { // a vector of values
            if (numarg()>1) begin=$2 else begin=0
            if (begin+$o1.size>m) { 
                printf("%s append ERR1: vec %s too large; doing nothing: %d>%d",this,$o1,begin+$o1.size,m)
              } else {
                for i=begin,begin+$o1.size-1 v[i].append($o1.x[i-begin])
              }
          } else if (isobj($o1,"NQS")) { // another NQS to add onto end
            if ($o1.m != m) { 
                printf("%s append ERR1a, %s size %d!= %s size %d?\n",this,this,m,$o1,$o1.m)
                return }
            for ii=0,m-1 { 
                o1fcd=$o1.fcd.x[ii]
                if (o1fcd==0) { v[ii].append($o1.cob.v[ii])
                  } else for jj=0,$o1.size(1)-1 { 
                    xo=$o1.get(ii,jj)
                    if (o1fcd==1) oval=xo.o else sval=xo.s
                    v[ii].append(newval(o1fcd,ii))
                  }
              }
          } else { printf("%s append ERR1b, what is %s?\n",this,$o1) }
        return
      }
    if (argtype(1)==2) if ((ii=fi($s1,"NOERR"))!=-1) { // a field name
        for i=1,numarg() { 
            if ((ii=fi($si))==-1) return  
            i+=1 
            if (argtype(i)==0) {
                v[ii].append($i)
              } else {
                if (argtype(i)==1) oval=$oi else if (argtype(i)==2) sval=$si
                v[ii].append(newval(argtype(i),ii))
              }
          }
        return
      }
    if (numarg()>m) { printf("%s append ERR2: args>m; doing nothing\n",this) return }
    if (numarg()<=m) {
        if (numarg()<m) printf("NQS::append() WARNING only filling %d/%d cols for %s\n\tuse NQS.pad",numarg(),m,this)
        for ii=0,numarg()-1 {
            i=ii+1
            if (argtype(i)==0) {
                v[ii].append($i)
              } else { 
                if (argtype(i)==1) oval=$oi else if (argtype(i)==2) sval=$si
                v[ii].append(newval(argtype(i),ii))
              }
          }
        return
      }
  }

//** appi(index,VEC) or append(index,x1,x2,...) appends to ends of vectors starting at index
proc appi () { local i,ix,n
    cob=this 
    if (argtype(1)==2) ix=fi($s1) else ix=$1
    if (numarg()==2 && argtype(2)==1 && fcd.x[ix]==0) { // a vector
        if ($o2.size>m-ix) { 
            printf("%s appi ERR1: vec too large; doing nothing %d %d %d %d\n",this,m,$o2.size,ix,m-ix)
          } else {
            n=-1
            for i=ix,ix+$o2.size-1 v[i].append($o2.x[n+=1])
          }
      } else {
        if (numarg()-1>m-ix) {
            printf("%s appi ERR2: args>m; doing nothing",this)
            return
          } 
        for i=2,numarg() {
            if (argtype(i)==0) { 
                v[ix+i-2].append($i)
              } else {
                if (argtype(i)==1) oval=$oi else if (argtype(i)==2) sval=$si
                v[ix+i-2].append(newval(argtype(i),ix+i-2))
              }
          }
      }
  }

//** map(FUNC,arg1,...) map $s1 command to other args, replacing strings with vectors as found
// eg nqs.map("gg",0,"volt","cai",2)
proc map () { local i,agt,wf
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        printf("map(FUNC,arg1,...) apply function to args using names for columns.\n")
        return }
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    sprint(sstr,"%s(",$s1) // the command
    wf=0
    for i=2,numarg() { // the args
        agt=argtype(i)
        if (agt==0) {
            sprint(sstr,"%s%g,",sstr,$i)
          } else if (agt==1) {
            sprint(sstr,"%s%s,",sstr,$oi)
          } else if (agt==2) {
            if ((vn=fi($si))==-1) {
                sprint(sstr,"%s\"%s\",",sstr,$si) 
                printf("NQS.map WARNING: including raw string: %s\n",$si) wf=1
              } else if (fcd.x[vn]==1) { // look at a list of obj's
                cob.scr.resize(0)
                for ii=0,cob.v[vn].size-1 cob.scr.append(oform(fcdo.o(cob.v[vn].x[ii])))
                if (cob.scr.x[0]==NOP) {
                    printf("map WARNING: oform not set for %s interp; replacing with fcdo indices\n",$si)
                    cob.scr.copy(cob.v[vn])
                  }
                sprint(sstr,"%s%s,",sstr,cob.scr) 
              } else if (vn==-2) { // code for scr vector
                sprint(sstr,"%s%s,",sstr,cob.scr) 
              } else {
                sprint(sstr,"%s%s,",sstr,cob.v[vn]) 
              }
          } else { printf("argtype %d for arg %d not implemented for NQS:map\n",agt,i) return }
      }
    chop(sstr) sprint(sstr,"%s)",sstr)
    if (wf && !batch_flag) if (boolean_dialog(sstr,"CANCEL","EXECUTE")) return
    // print sstr
    execute(sstr)
  }

//*** gr() use map to graph
// need to assign .crosshair_action so can do visual select procedure
proc gr () { local i,nm,gn,col,lne,f3d,y,x,done localobj symb
    nm=numarg() gn=0 f3d=-1
    col=2 lne=4
    done=0
    if (sfunc.len(marksym)==0) marksym="o"
  
    if (nm==0) { print "gr(\"Y\"[,\"X\",Z,g#,col,line])" return
      } else if (nm==1) {  map("gg",0,$s1,1,col,lne)               done=1
      } else if (nm==2 && argtype(2)==2) {  map("gg",0,$s1,$s2,col,lne)             done=1 }
    if (argtype(2)==2) i=3 else i=2
    if (! done)  {
        if (argtype(3)==2) f3d=fi($si) else i-=1
        i+=1 if (i<=nm) gn=$i 
        i+=1 if (i<=nm) col=$i 
        i+=1 if (i<=nm) lne=$i 
        if (f3d!=-1) {
            if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
            if (!gvmarkflag) {printf("%s gr ERR: 3D and gvmarkflag=0\n",this) return}
            y=fi($s1) x=fi($s2)
            if (lne==1) lne=2 else lne-=2 // will augment below
            if (x==-1 || y==-1) {printf("%s gr ERR: %s,%s not fi()\n",this,$s1,$s2) return}
            for i=0,cob.v.size-1 {
                if (i%9==0) lne+=2
                g[gn].mark(cob.v[x].x[i],cob.v[y].x[i],marksym,lne,cob.v[f3d].x[i]%9+1,4)
              }
          } else if (argtype(2)==2) {
            map("gg",gn,$s1,$s2,col,lne)
          } else {
            print gn,col,lne
            map("gg",gn,$s1,1,col,lne)
          }
      }
    g[gn].color(col)
  //  g[gn].label(0.05,0.95,$s1)
  //  if (nm>=2) g[gn].label(0.85,0.05,$s2)
    g[gn].color(1)
    if (argtype(2)==2) {
        setgrsel(g[gn],fi($s1),fi($s2))
        setchsel(g[gn],fi($s1),fi($s2))
      }
  }

//** grsel(): CTL-hit == Crosshair
//            SHT-hit == resize
//            hit-drag-release == show in square
//            SHT-hit-drag-release == show new thing there
// Type: press (2), drag (1), release (3)
// Keystate: META-SHT-CTL eg 101=5 is META-CTL
proc setgrsel () {
    $o1.menu_remove("Selector")
    sprint(tstr,"proc p(){grsel($1,$2,$3,$4,%d,%d)}",$2,$3)
    execute1(tstr,this)
    $o1.menu_tool("Selector", "p")
  }

proc setchsel () {
    sprint(tstr,"proc q(){chsel($1,$2,$3,%d,%d)}",$2,$3)
    execute1(tstr,this)
    $o1.crosshair_action("q")
  }

grsbegx=grsbegy=1e9
proc grsel () { local type, x0, y0, keystate, fl1,fl2,sel
    type=$1 x0=$2 y0=$3 keystate=$4 fl1=$5 fl2=$6
    if (type==3) {
        if (grsbegx==1e9) { // no drag was done
            if ((sel=select(fl2,"~",x0,fl1,"~",y0))!=0) {
                pr()
              } else print "Can't find ",s[fl2].s,"~ ",x0,s[fl1].s,"~ ",y0
          } else { // consider a rectangle
            order(&grsbegx,&x0) order(&grsbegy,&y0)
            if ((sel=select(fl2,"[]",grsbegx,x0,fl1,"[]",grsbegy,y0))!=0) {
                if (keystate==0) { grsel2() 
                  } else if (keystate==3) {  // CTL or SHIFT alone are being used by fvwm2
                    pr() // print grsbegx,x0,grsbegy,y0
                  }
              } else printf("Can't find %s %g-%g; %s %g-%g\n",s[fl2].s,grsbegx,x0,s[fl1].s,grsbegy,y0)
            grsbegx=grsbegy=1e9
          }
      } else if (type==1 && grsbegx==1e9) {grsbegx=x0 grsbegy=y0 }
  }

// order(&x,&y) returns the values in order
proc order () { local tmp
    if ($&2<$&1) { tmp=$&2 $&2=$&1 $&1=tmp }
  }

proc chsel () { local ascii, x0, y0,  fl1,fl2,sel
    x0=$1 y0=$2 ascii=$3 fl1=$4 fl2=$5
    if ((sel=select(fl2,"~",x0,fl1,"~",y0))!=0) {
        if (ascii==32) { chsel2()
          } else pr()
      } else print "Can't find ",s[fl2].s,"~ ",x0,s[fl1].s,"~ ",y0
  }

//** apply function or .op to every selected vector -- ignore return val, see applf
proc apply () { local i,fl
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        printf("apply(FUNC,COL1,...) apply function or .op to every selected vector.\n")
        printf("must be function, not proc, since will return value.\n")
        return }
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    if (numarg()==1) for i=0,m-1 { // apply to all vectors
        if (strm($s1,"^\\.")) sprint(sstr,"%s%s"  ,cob.v[i],$s1) else {
                                sprint(sstr,"%s(%s)",$s1,cob.v[i]) }
        execute(sstr)
      } else for i=2,numarg() {
        if (argtype(i)==0) fl=$i else if ((fl=fi($si))==-1) return
        if (fl==-2) sprint(sstr2,"%s",cob.scr) else sprint(sstr2,"%s",cob.v[fl]) 
        if (strm($s1,"^\\.")) sprint(sstr,"%s%s"  ,sstr2,$s1) else {
                                sprint(sstr,"%s(%s)",$s1,sstr2) }
        execute(sstr)
      }
  }

//** applf(FUNC,COL) function or .op which returns a value
func applf () { local min,max,a,i,fl,ret,na,flag localobj v1,v2
    na=numarg()
    if (na==0) { 
        printf("applf(FUNC,'COLA'[,...,vec]) apply function or .op to selected cols.\n")
        printf("applf(FUNC,vec) apply function or .op to all cols.\n")
        printf("with more than one column need a final vector to copy results to\n")
        printf("must use function, not proc, since will keep return value.\n")
        return -1 }
    a=allocvecs(v1,v2)
    v1.resize(1)
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ")
    if (argtype(na)==1) {flag=na na-=1} else flag=0 // flag to copy onto an output vector
    if (na==1) { min=0 max=m-1 } else { min=2 max=na } 
    for i=min,max {
        if (na==1) { fl=i
          } else {if (argtype(i)==0) fl=$i else if ((fl=fi($si))==-1) return -1}
        if (fl==-2) sprint(sstr2,"%s",cob.scr) else sprint(sstr2,"%s",cob.v[fl]) 
        if (strm($s1,"^\\.")) sprint(sstr,"%s.x[0]=%s%s"  ,v1,sstr2,$s1) else {
                                sprint(sstr,"%s.x[0]=%s(%s)",v1,$s1,sstr2) }
        execute(sstr)
        v2.append(v1.x[0])
      }
    if (flag) {i=flag $oi.copy(v2)}
    ret=v2.x[0]
    dealloc(a)
    return ret
  }

//** fill(NAME,val[,NAME1,val1 ...])
// fill each selected vector with next arg
func fill () { local i,fl,fl2,x
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        printf("fill(NAME,val[,NAME1,val1 ...])\n\tfill each selected vector with val\nval can be num, vector, or other col name\n")
        return -1}
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    for i=1,numarg() { 
        fl=fi($si) i+=1
        if (fl==-1) return -1
        field=0
        if (fcd.x[fl]==10) { // code field
            field=$i i+=1
          }
        if (argtype(i)==0) {
            if (field>0) cob.v[fl].uncode(field,$i) else cob.v[fl].fill($i)
          } else if (argtype(i)==1) {
            if (!isobj($oi,"Vector")){
                printf("%s:fill() ERRa: only fill with vector: %s\n",this,$oi) return -1}
            if ($oi.size!=cob.v.size){
                printf("%s:fill() ERRb: wrong vec size: %d!=%s:%d\n",this,cob.v.size,$oi,$oi.size) return -1}
            if (field>0) cob.v[fl].uncode(field,$oi) else cob.v[fl].copy($oi)
          } else if (argtype(i)==2) {
            fl2=fi($si,"NOERR")
            if (fl2== -1) { // add this string to this field?
                if (fcd.x[fl]==2) {
                    sval=$si
                    x=newval(2,fl)
                    cob.v[fl].fill(x)
                  } else {
                    printf("%s:fill() ERRc: trying to fill field %s with string %s\n",this,s[fl].s,$si)
                    return -1
                  }
              } else if (field>0) {
                     cob.v[fl].uncode(field,cob.v[fl2]) 
              } else cob.v[fl].copy(cob.v[fl2])
            i+=1
          }
      }
    return cob.v[fl].size
  }

//** fillin(NAME,val[,NAME1,val1 ...])
// fill in place according to indices in ind -- use with selcp==0
// can also do after a regular select() ie selcp==1 and avoid needing a delect
proc fillin () { local i,fl
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        printf("fillin(NAME,val[,NAME1,val1 ...])\n\tfill selected vectors in place\n")
        printf("\tuse after select(-1,...) eg selcp==0\n")
        return 
      }
    scr.resize(0)
    for (i=2;i<=numarg();i+=2) scr.append($i)
    tmplist.remove_all
    for (i=1;i<=numarg();i+=2) {
        if (argtype(i)==2) { 
            if ((fl=fi($si))==-1) return
          } else fl=$i
        tmplist.append(v[fl])
      }
    ind.sindv(tmplist,scr)
  }

//** fillv(NAME,v1[,NAME1,v2 ...])
// fill from vectors v1,v2,..., places in ind -- use with selcp=0
proc fillv () { local i,fl
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        printf("fillv(NAME,vec1[,NAME1,vec2 ...])\n\tfill selected vectors from vectors\n")
        printf("\tuse after select() with selcp==0\n")
        return 
      }
    tmplist.remove_all vlist.remove_all
    for (i=1;i<=numarg();i+=2) {
        if (argtype(i)==2) { 
            if ((fl=fi($si))==-1) return
          } else fl=$i
        tmplist.append(v[fl])
      }
    for (i=2;i<=numarg();i+=2) vlist.append($oi)
    ind.sindx(tmplist,vlist)
  }

//** pr() print out vectors
// eg pr("COLA","COLB",3,7)
// last args are max or min-max rows
// first set of args can be any of: col_names, file object, file name (not same as col name),
//      vector giving col numbers
func pr () { local ii,i,min,max,na,flag,jj,e,fout,sz,nohdr
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    if (m==0) {printf("%s EMPTY",this) return 0}
    scr[1].resize(0)
    nohdr=fout=flag=min=0 max=cob.v.size-1 na=numarg()
    if (argtype(na)==0 && argtype(na-1)==0) {  // pick up the limits first
        i=na na-=2
        max=$i i-=1 min=$i 
      } else if (argtype(na)==0) {
        i=na na-=1
        if ($i>=0) max=$i else min=max+$i // allow printing the end
      } 
    for i=1,na {
        if (argtype(i)==1) {  
            if (isobj($oi,"Vector")) {      flag=1 // column indices in a vector
                scr[1].copy($oi) 
              } else if (isobj($oi,"File")) { fout=1
              } else { printf("NQS::pr() Unknown object: %s\n",$oi) return 0 }
          } else if (argtype(i)==2) {
            if (fi($si,"NOERR")!=-1) { // column identifier to pick up
                scr[1].append(fi($si)) flag=1 
              } else if (strcmp($si,"NOHEADER")==0) { nohdr=1
              } else if (strm($si,"[<>]")) { flag=2  // something to calculate
              } else { // assume it's a file name
                if (fout) { fi($si) return 0 } // already picked up a filename
                if (!tmpfile.wopen($si)) printf("%s:Can't open %s for printing\n",this,$si)
                fout=1 
                printf("==== WARNING: printing ascii to file %s ====\n",$si)
              }
          }
      }
    if (flag==0) scr[1].indgen(0,m-1,1) // didn't pick up any columns
    if (scr[1].min<0 || scr[1].max>m-1) { printf("NQS:pr() bad col values: ") vlk(scr[1]) return 0 }
    if (max>size(1)){ max=size(1)-1
        printf("NQS:pr WARNING: %d rows requested but %s size=%d\n",max,this,size(1)) }
    if (min>size(1)){printf("NQS:pr ERROR: %s size=%d < min %d\n",this,size(1),min) return 0}
    if (!fout && flag!=2) print ""
    if (flag==2) {
        calc($s1,"NOEXEC")
        sprint(sstr,"XO=%s",sstr)
        execute(sstr)
        vlk(XO,min,max)
      } else {
        sz=scr[1].size-1
        if (!nohdr) { for i=0,sz {
              ii=scr[1].x[i]
              if (ii==-1) return -1
              if (fout) {
                  if (ii<0) tmpfile.printf("%s\t",is[-ii].s) else tmpfile.printf("%s(%d)\t",s[ii].s,ii)
                } else {
                  if (ii<0) printf("%s\t",is[-ii].s) else printf("%s(%d)\t",s[ii].s,ii)
                }
            } if (fout) tmpfile.printf("\n") else printf("\n") }
        for jj=min,max {
            for i=0,sz { ii=scr[1].x[i]
                if (ii==-2) { printf(dblform,cob.scr.x[jj]) 
                  } else if (ii==-3) { 
                    if (fout) tmpfile.printf(dblform,cob.ind.x[jj]) else printf(dblform,cob.ind.x[jj])
                  } else {
                    if (fout) { prtval(tmpfile,(e=getval(ii,cob.v[ii].x[jj])),tabform) 
                      } else if (sz) { prtval(   (e=getval(ii,cob.v[ii].x[jj])),tabform) 
                      } else {         prtval(   (e=getval(ii,cob.v[ii].x[jj])),tabform)  }
                    if (e==ERR) return ERR
                  }
              }
            if (fout) tmpfile.printf("\n") else if (sz) print "" else printf(" ")
          }
      }
    if (fout) tmpfile.close
    return 0
  }

//** prs() print out vectors
// eg prs("COLA","COLB",3,7)
func prs () { local ii,i,min,max,na,flag,jj,kk,e,fout,sz,nohdr
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) printf("NQS WARNING: prs() called after full select(); switching\n")
    cob=this
    if (m==0) {printf("%s EMPTY",this) return 0}
    nohdr=flag=min=0 max=ind.size-1 na=numarg()
    if (na>=2) { 
        if (argtype(na-1)==0) { 
            i=na na-=2
            max=$i i-=1 min=$i 
            flag=1 // took care of numbers
          }} 
    if (!flag && na>=1) { 
        if (argtype(na)==0) { 
            i=na na-=1
            if ($i>=0) max=$i else min=max+$i // allow printing the end
          }
      } 
    // reuse flag -- means printing only certain cols
    fout=flag=0 i=1 // fout==1 means print out to file
    if (na>=1) if (argtype(1)==2) if (fi($s1,"NOERR")==-1) { // call it a file name
        if (!tmpfile.wopen($s1)) printf("%s:Can't open %s for printing\n",this,$s1)
        fout=1 i+=1
        printf("==== WARNING: printing ascii to file %s ====\n",$s1)
        if (numarg()==2) if (argtype(2)==2) if (strcmp($s2,"NOHEADER")==0) {nohdr=1 i+=1}
      }
    if (na>=i) if (argtype(i)==2 || argtype(i)==1) flag=1 // column names
    if (max>ind.size()){ max=ind.size()-1
        printf("NQS:prs WARNING: %d rows requested but %s size=%d\n",max,this,ind.size()) }
    if (min>size(1)){printf("NQS:prs ERROR: %s size=%d < min %d\n",this,size(1),min) return 0}
    if (!fout) print ""
    if (flag) {
        scr[1].resize(0)
        if (argtype(i)==1) scr[1].copy($oi) else for (;i<=na;i+=1) scr[1].append(fi($si)) 
        sz=scr[1].size-1
        if (!nohdr) { for i=0,sz {
              ii=scr[1].x[i]
              if (ii==-1) return -1
              if (fout) {
                  if (ii<0) tmpfile.printf("%s\t",is[-ii].s) else tmpfile.printf("%s(%d)\t",s[ii].s,ii)
                } else {
                  if (ii<0) printf("%s\t",is[-ii].s) else printf("%s(%d)\t",s[ii].s,ii)
                }
            } if (fout) tmpfile.printf("\n") else printf("\n") }
        for kk=min,max { jj=ind.x[kk]
            for i=0,sz { ii=scr[1].x[i]
                if (ii==-2) { printf(dblform,cob.scr.x[jj]) 
                  } else if (ii==-3) { 
                    if (fout) tmpfile.printf(dblform,cob.ind.x[jj]) else printf(dblform,cob.ind.x[jj])
                  } else {
                    if (fout) { prtval(tmpfile,(e=getval(ii,cob.v[ii].x[jj])),tabform) 
                      } else if (sz) { prtval(   (e=getval(ii,cob.v[ii].x[jj])),tabform) 
                      } else {         prtval(   (e=getval(ii,cob.v[ii].x[jj])),tabform)  }
                    if (e==ERR) return ERR
                  }
              }
            if (fout) tmpfile.printf("\n") else if (sz) print "" else printf(" ")
          }
      } else {
        if (!nohdr) {
            if (fout) for ii=0,m-1 tmpfile.printf("%4.4s(%d)  ",s[ii].s,ii) else {
                for ii=0,m-1 printf("%4.4s(%d)  ",s[ii].s,ii) }
            if (fout) tmpfile.printf("\n") else print ""
          }
        for kk=min,max { jj=ind.x[kk]
            for ii=0,m-1 { 
                if (fout) prtval(tmpfile,e=getval(ii,cob.v[ii].x[jj]),tabform) else {
                    prtval(        e=getval(ii,cob.v[ii].x[jj]),"") 
                    printf("(%d)%s",ii,tabform)
                  }
                if (e==ERR) return  ERR
              }
            if (fout) tmpfile.printf("\n") else print ""
          }
      }
    if (fout) tmpfile.close
    return max-min+1
  }

//** prn() print out single index from vectors
proc prn () { local jj,ii,ix,max,e
    ix=$1
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    if (numarg()==2) max=$2 else max=ix
    for jj=ix,max {
        if (jj<0 || jj>=cob.v[0].size) { 
            printf("prn: Index out of range (%d)\n",cob.v[0].size) return }
        for ii=0,m-1 {
            printf("%s:",s[ii].s)
            prtval(e=getval(ii,cob.v[ii].x[jj])," ")
            if (e==ERR) return
          }
        print ""
      }
  }

//** zvec() -- clear -- resize all the vectors to 0
proc clear () { if (numarg()==1) zvec($1) else zvec() }
proc zvec () { local ii
    cob=this
    // fcds.remove_all fcds.append(new String("`EMPTY'"))
    if (isassigned(fcdo)) fcdo.remove_all
    for ii=0,m-1 { 
        if (numarg()==1) { v[ii].resize($1) v[ii].fill(0) }// resize the buffer if desirable
        v[ii].resize(0) 
      }
  }

//** pad() -- bring all vectors up to same length (of v[0])
func pad () { local sz,ii
    sz=-1
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    if (numarg()==1) sz=$1 else for ii=0,m-1 if (cob.v[ii].size>sz) sz=cob.v[ii].size
    for ii=0,m-1 { 
        // if (v[ii].size>sz) printf("NQS.pad WARNING: neg padding %d\n",ii)
        cob.v[ii].resize(sz)
      }
    return sz
  }

//** size() -- return num of vectors and size of each vector
func size () { local ii,sz,fl,sum
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    if (m==0) { print "0 x 0" return 0 } // empty
    sz=cob.v.size fl=0
    for ii=1,m-1 if (cob.v[ii].size!=sz) {fl=ii break}
    if (numarg()==1) {
        if ($1==2) {
            tog("DB") sum=0
            printf("\t%d cols x %d rows",m,sum+=v.buffer_size)
            for ii=1,m-1 printf(",%d",cob.v[ii].buffer_size)
            printf("\nOUT:\t%d cols x %d rows",m,sum+=out.v.buffer_size)
            for ii=1,m-1 printf(",%d",sum+=out.v[ii].buffer_size)
            printf("\nApprox. usage: %g kB\n",sum*8/1e3)
          } else if ($1==1 && fl) { // warn about discrepant sizes
            printf("%s size WARN: cols are not same length: %s:%d %d\n",this,s[fl].s,cob.v[fl].size,sz) }
      } else { // print basic info when have no args
        printf("%d cols x %d rows",m,cob.v.size)
        if (fl) for ii=1,m-1 printf(",%d",cob.v[ii].size)
        print ""
      }
    return cob.v.size
  }

//** resize(#cols[,#rows]) -- augment or dec the number of vectors
// resize("LABEL1","LABEL2",...)
// resize("LABEL1",VEC1,"LABEL2",VEC2) ... put on some vecs of same size
// resize("COL1","COL2"...) if these col names already exist just make a new copy of col
// resize(NQS) -- a horizontal 'append'
func resize () { local oldsz,newsz,i,ii,jj,kk,vsz,na,appfl,o1m,padfl
    cob=this padfl=0
    na=numarg()
    vsz=-1
    if (argtype(na)==2) { i=na
        if (strcmp($si,"PAD")==0) { padfl=1 na-=1 }
      }
    if (na==1) { 
        if        (argtype(1)==0) { 
            appfl=0 
            if ($1<0) newsz=m+$1 else newsz=$1 
          } else if (argtype(1)==2) { 
            newsz=m+1 appfl=2 
          } else if (argtype(1)==1) { // an NQS
            if (size(1)!=$o1.size(1)) {
                printf("NQS resize(NQS) warning: rows differ %d %d\n",size(1),$o1.size(1))}
            o1m=$o1.m
            newsz=m+o1m
            appfl=3
          }
      } else {
        if (argtype(1)==0 && argtype(2)==0) { 
            newsz=$1 appfl=0 
            vsz=$2
          } else if (argtype(1)==2 && argtype(2)==2) { 
            newsz=m+na appfl=2
          } else {
            if (int(na/2)!=na/2) { printf("%s Resize ERR: require even # of args",this)  return -1}
            newsz=m+numarg()/2
            appfl=1
          }
      }
    oldsz=m
    if (m==newsz) { printf("No resize -- same size: %s\n",this) 
        return m
      } else if (newsz>m) {
        tmplist.remove_all vlist.remove_all
        for ii=0,m-1 { 
            tmplist.append(v[ii]) tmplist.append(s[ii]) 
            tmplist.append(out.v[ii])
          }
        objref v[newsz],s[newsz]
        if (isassigned(out)) out.resize2(newsz) // create vectors for .out
        jj=-1
        for ii=0,m-1 { 
            v[ii]=tmplist.object(jj+=1) out.s[ii]=s[ii]=tmplist.object(jj+=1) 
            out.v[ii]=tmplist.object(jj+=1)
          }
        for ii=m,newsz-1 { 
            v[ii]=new Vector() out.s[ii]=s[ii]=new String() 
            out.v[ii]=new Vector()
          }
        out.m=m=newsz
        tmplist.remove_all
      } else {
        for (ii=m-1;ii>=newsz;ii-=1) { out.v[ii]=v[ii]=nil out.s[ii]=s[ii]=nil }
        out.m=m=newsz
      }
    x.resize(m) x.fill(0) fcd.resize(m)
    out.x.resize(m) out.x.fill(0) out.fcd=fcd
    if (vsz>=1) for ii=0,m-1 v[ii].resize(vsz)
    if (appfl==1) { // append
        for (ii=1;ii<=na;ii+=2) { i=ii
            if (argtype(i)!=2) { printf("%s RESIZE ERR: arg %d should be str\n",this,i) return -1}
            s[oldsz+(ii-1)/2].s=$si  i+=1
            if (argtype(i)==0) { 
                if ($i>0) v[oldsz+(ii-1)/2].resize($i)
              } else if (argtype(i)==1) { 
                v[oldsz+(ii-1)/2].copy($oi)
              } else {  printf("%s RESIZE ERR2: arg %d should be num or obj\n",this,i) return -1}
          }
      } else if (appfl==2) { 
        for (i=1;i<=na;i+=1) {
            if (argtype(i)!=2) { printf("%s RESIZE ERR3: arg %d should be str\n",this,i) return -1}
            tstr=$si
            if ((jj=fi(tstr,"EXACT"))!=-1) {
                while (fi(tstr,"EXACT")!=-1) sprint(tstr,"%s0",tstr) // find unique name
              }
            kk=oldsz+i-1
            s[kk].s=tstr
            if (jj>=0) { 
                if (fcd.x[jj]==1) {
                    if (verbose) printf("NQS::Resize: converting OBJ Col '%s' to DBL Col '%s'\n",$si,tstr) 
                    v[kk].resize(v[jj].size)
                    for ii=0,v[jj].size-1 v[kk].x[ii]=oform(fcdo.o(v[jj].x[ii]))
                  } else {
                    if (verbose) printf("NQS::Resize copying Col %s to %s\n",$si,tstr) 
                    v[kk].copy(v[jj]) 
                  }
              }
          }
      } else if (appfl==3) {
        for i=0,o1m-1 {
            tstr=$o1.s[i].s
            while (fi(tstr,"NOERR")!=-1) sprint(tstr,"%s0",tstr)
            s[oldsz+i].s=tstr
            v[oldsz+i].copy($o1.v[i])
          }
      }
    chk()
    if (padfl) pad()
    cob=this
    return m
  }

// for resizing the vector for .out
proc resize2 () { local newsz
    newsz=$1
    objref v[newsz],s[newsz]
  }

// grow(NQS) append NQS of same size to this one
func grow () { local ii
    if (m==0) { cp($o1)
      } else if (m!=$o1.m) { printf("%s,%s off different size: %d %d\n",this,$o1,m,$o1.m) return 0 
      } else if (eqobj(cob,out)) {printf("%s ERR: run grow on full db\n",this)  return 0.
      } else for ii=0,m-1 v[ii].append($o1.v[ii])
    return v.size
  }

//** keepcols("LABEL1",...)
func keepcols () { local i,fl
    scr.resize(0)
    for i=1,numarg() {
        if (argtype(i)==2) { 
            if ((fl=fi($si))==-1) return -1 
          } else fl=$i
        scr.append(fl)
      }
    for (i=m-1;i>=0;i-=1) if (! scr.contains(i)) delcol(i)
    return m
  }

//** delcol("LABEL1"[,"LABEL2",...])
func delcol () { local ii,i,a localobj v1
    tog("DB") // start at full db
    a=allocvecs(v1)
    if (numarg()==1 && argtype(1)==1) {
        v1.copy($o1)
      } else for i=1,numarg() {
        if (argtype(i)==2) { if ((fl=fi($si))==-1) return -1 } else fl=$i
        v1.append(fl)
      }
    v1.sort v1.reverse // get rid of last ones first
    for i=0,v1.size-1 { fl=v1.x[i]
        if (fl>m-1 || fl<0) { printf("%s ERR: delcol OOB:%d\n",this,fl)  dealloc(a) return -1 }
        for (ii=fl;ii<m-1;ii+=1) { 
            v[ii]=v[ii+1] s[ii]=s[ii+1] 
            out.s[ii]=s[ii+1] 
          }
        v[m-1]=nil s[m-1]=nil 
        out.v[m-1]=nil out.s[m-1]=nil 
        x.remove(fl) fcd.remove(fl)
        if (isobj(fcdl,"List")) fcdl.remove(fl)
        m -= 1
      }
    out.m=m
    dealloc(a)
    return m
  }

//** delrow(#)
func delrow () { local ii,jj,kk
    if (numarg()==1) {
        if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
        kk=$1
        if (kk<0 || kk>=cob.v.size) {printf("delrow %d OOR (%d)\n",kk,cob.v.size-1) return -1}
        for ii=0,m-1 cob.v[ii].remove(kk)
      } else { // remove selected
        tog("DB")
        if (ind.size>1) {
            sprint(sstr,"Remove %d rows from main table?",ind.size)
            if (!boolean_dialog(sstr,"OK","Cancel")) { print "Cancelled" return -1 }
          }
        for ii=0,m-1 for (jj=ind.size-1;jj>=0;jj-=1) { kk=ind.x[jj]
            v[ii].remove(kk)
          }
      }
    return v.size
  }

//** getrow(#[,vec])
// getrow("COL",val[,vec]) // return 1st row where "COL" is val
obfunc getrow () { local i,ii,ix,fl,flag localobj v1
    if (argtype(2)==0) { // fetch first matching row according to arg
        if (argtype(1)==2) fl=fi($s1) else fl=$1
        if (fl==-1) return
        if (numarg()==3) v1=$o3 else v1=new Vector()
        v1.resize(m)
        v[fl].fetch($2,vl,v1)
      } else {
        if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
        ix=$1 i=2
        if (argtype(i)==1) {v1=$oi i+=1} else v1=new Vector()
        v1.l2p(cob.vl,ix)
        for (ii=0;argtype(i)!=-1 && ii<v1.size;{i+=1 ii+=1}) if (argtype(i)==3) $&i=v1.x[ii]
      }
    return v1
  }

//** getcol("name") getcol("name",1) returns pointer
// getcol("name"[,VEC]) copies to VEC
// getcol("name",0) -- copies to new vector and returns it
obfunc getcol () { local a,fl,ii localobj v1,vo,l
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    if (argtype(1)==2) fl=fi($s1) else fl=$1
    if (fl==-1) return nil
    v1=vo=cob.v[fl]   //  default returns pointer
    if (fcd.x[fl]==1) {
        if (oform(fcdo.o(vo.x[0]))==NOP) {
            printf("NQS getcol Warning: returning indices for an object field\n")
          } else if (oform(fcdo.o(vo.x[0]))==OK) {
            l=new List()
            for ii=0,vo.size-1 l.append(fcdo.o(vo.x[ii]))
            return l
          } else {
            v1=new Vector(vo.size)
            for ii=0,vo.size-1 v1.x[ii]=oform(fcdo.o(vo.x[ii]))
            if (argtype(2)==1) {$o2.copy(v1) v1=$o2}
          }
      } else if (argtype(2)==0) {
        if ($2==0) v1=vo.c
      } else if (argtype(2)==1) { // copy into a preexisting vector
        v1=$o2
        v1.copy(vo)
      }
    return v1
  }

//** getsel("name"[,vec]) returns the select(-1,...) values
obfunc getsel () { local ii,fl localobj v1
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) printf("NQS WARNING: getsel() called after full select()\n")
    if (argtype(1)==2) fl=fi($s1) else fl=$1
    if (fl==-1) return v1
    if (numarg()<2) v1=new Vector(ind.size) else {v1=$o2 v1.resize(ind.size)}
    for ii=0,ind.size-1 v1.x[ii]=v[fl].x[ind.x[ii]]
    return v1
  }

//** renamecol("LABEL1","NEWNAME") -- rename column
func renamecol () { local oldsz
    if (argtype(1)==2) { 
        if ((fl=fi($s1))==-1) return 1
      } else fl=$1
    s[fl].s=$s2
    out.s[fl].s=$s2
    return 1
  }

//** renamecols("LABEL1","LABEL2"...) -- rename all column
proc renamecols () { local oldsz,i
    if (numarg()<m) printf("Renaming only %d/%d cols\n",numarg(),m)
    for i=1,numarg() s[i-1].s=$si
  }

//** sv(FNAME[,APPEND]) save the NQS
// to sv selected -- NQS.select(...) NQS.cp(NQS.out,1) NQS.sv()
proc sv () { local i,j,cd1,vers,a,aflag
    aflag=cd1=0 // flags cd1=1 -- no single value vec compression;
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf("==== WARNING: Saving selected only ====\n") 
    a=allocvecs(1)
    if (numarg()>0) file=$s1 else aflag=2
    if (numarg()>=2) aflag=$2
    if (numarg()>=3) cd1=$3 // 1:flag for not compressing
    if (aflag==2) { // will just continue saving in the current file
      } else if (aflag==1) { tmpfile.aopen(file)
      } else {
        if (tmpfile.ropen(file)) {
            if (batch_flag) {
                printf("NQS sv WARNING overwriting %s\n",file)
              } else if (!boolean_dialog("File exists","Overwrite","Cancel")) { 
                  print "Cancelled" return
              }
          }
        if (! tmpfile.wopen(file)) { printf("%s: can't open file\n",this) return }
      }
    mso[a].resize(m) mso[a].fill(0)
    // will be saved without full vectors
    if (cd1==0) for i=0,m-1 if (cob.v[i].ismono(0) && cob.v[i].size>10) {
        cd1=2 // 2 flag for using compression
        mso[a].x[i]=1
      }
    if (isassigned(fcdo)) foc=fcdo.count else foc=-1
    vers=version(1) // will assist for identifying file type if change format in future
    savenums(m,fcds.count,(cnt=fcd.count(-1)),foc,size(1),cd1,vers,0,0) // extra for codes
    wrvstr(file) wrvstr(comment)
    for i=0,m-1 wrvstr(s[i].s)
    fcd.vwrite(tmpfile)
    for i=0,fcds.count-1 wrvstr(fcds.object(i).s)
    for i=0,foc-1 {
        if (isojt(fcdo.object(i),v)) { 
            fspitchar(1,tmpfile)  // 1 for vector
            fcdo.o(i).vwrite(tmpfile)
          } else if (isojt(fcdo.object(i),this)) { 
            fspitchar(2,tmpfile)  // 2 for NQS
            fcdo.o(i).sv()
          } else {
            printf("NQS:sv() WARNING: Can't save obj %s for %s\n",fcdo.o(i),this)
            fspitchar(0,tmpfile) // 0 for nil
          }
      }
    if (cnt>0) for i=0,fcd.size-1 if (fcd.x[i]==-1) { 
        savenums(fcdl.object(i).count)
        for j=0,fcdl.object(i).count-1 wrvstr(fcdl.object(i).object(j).s)
      }
    for i=0,m-1 {
        if (cd1==2 && mso[a].x[i]==1) {
            savenums(-1e9,cob.v[i].size,cob.v[i].x[0])
          } else if (fcd.x[i]==10) {
            cob.v[i].vwrite(tmpfile,4) // must save CODE fully
          } else {
            cob.v[i].vwrite(tmpfile,svsetting)
          }
      }
    x.vwrite(tmpfile)
    if (aflag!=2) tmpfile.close 
    dealloc(a)
  }

//** rd(FNAME[,FLAG]) read format saved by sv()
// flag==2 - only read header
func rd () { local n,hflag,cd1,cd3,cd4,ii,oco
    hflag=0 cob=this
    if (numarg()>=1) if (argtype(1)==2) {
        if (!tmpfile.ropen($s1)) { printf("%s: can't open file %s\n",this,$s1) return 0 }
      } // else continue reading from current point in file
    if (numarg()>=2) hflag=$2 // only read header 
    cnt=fc=foc=0 
    // backward compatible -- if only 2 vals then cnt=0, cd1-4 unused at present
    n=readnums(&ii,&fc,&cnt,&foc,&v0sz,&cd1,&svvers,&cd3,&cd4)
    if (n<9) v0sz=cd1=svvers=cd3=cd4=-1
    if (cd1==2 && hflag==1) printf("NQSrdWARN0: can't do partial reads on compressed: %s\n",$s1)
    if (ii!=m) resize(ii)
    rdvstr(file) rdvstr(comment)
    if (sfunc.len(file)==0 && numarg()>0) file=$s1
    for i=0,m-1 rdvstr(s[i].s)
    fcd.vread(tmpfile)
    fcds.remove_all
    if (isassigned(fcdl)) fcdl.remove_all
    for i=0,fc-1 {  fcds.append(Xo=new String()) rdvstr(Xo.s) }
    if (foc>=0) { fcdo=new List() out.fcdo=fcdo }
    for i=0,foc-1 { 
        oco=fgchar(tmpfile)
        if (oco==1) {
            fcdo.append(Xo=new Vector()) 
            Xo.vread(tmpfile) 
          } else if (oco==2) {
            fcdo.append(Xo=new NQS())
            Xo.rd() 
          } else if (oco==0) {
            printf("NQS:rd() WARNING: Nil being read for %s\n",this)
          } else {
            printf("NQS:rd() ERROR: unrecognized char %d for %s\n",oco,this)
          }
      }
    if (cnt>0) for i=0,fcd.size-1 if (fcd.x[i]==-1) { 
        readnums(&cnt)
        Yo=new List()
        for j=0,cnt-1 {Xo=new String() Yo.append(Xo) rdvstr(Xo.s)}
        useslist(i,Yo)
      }
    if (hflag==1) { // v0sz will tell size of all vectors
        tell=tmpfile.tell
        tmpfile.seek(0,2)
        tellend=tmpfile.tell()
        if (v0sz==-1) printf("%s: rd header: can't do seeks since v's not same size:%s\n",this,file)
        return v0sz
      } else {
        v0sz=-1 // indicates that everything has been read in
        for i=0,m-1 { 
            v[i].vread(tmpfile)
            if (v[i].size>2) if (v[i].x[0]==-1e9) { 
                ii=v[i].x[2]
                v[i].resize(v[i].x[1]) 
                v[i].fill(ii) 
              }
          }
        x.vread(tmpfile)
      }
    if (foc==0) for ii=0,fcd.size-1 if (fcd.x[ii]==1) v[ii].fill(-1) // clear obj pointers
    out.cp(this,0) // leave vectors empty
    chk()
    return 1
  }

//** rdpiece() read a section of each vector
func rdpiece () { local ii,ix,end,jump,loc,bswap
    ix=$1
    if (numarg()>=2) bswap=$2 else bswap=0
    tmpfile.seek(tell+8) // start of first one
    if (ix<0) {printf("%s:rdpiece ERR: no room: neg index\n",this) return 0}
    if (ix*chunk>v0sz) return 0
    if ((ix+1)*chunk>v0sz) end=v0sz-ix*chunk else end=chunk
    for ii=0,m-1 {
        loc=tell+8+ii*(v0sz*4+8)+ix*4*chunk
        tmpfile.seek(loc)
        if (loc+end*4>tellend){printf("%s:rdpiece ERRA: ran out: %d %d",this,loc+end,tellend) return 0}
        v[ii].fread2(tmpfile,end,3+bswap)
      }
    return 1
  }
    

//** func rdcols()
// reads columns of ascii with optional labels at the top
// still won't read strings -- prob not worth fixing any more
// -- may want to go back to v617 for this
func rdcols () { local i,ii,cols,li,errflag,num,hflag,loc localobj fi,st
    hflag=1 errflag=0 st=new String2()
    if (argtype(1)==2) {
        fi=tmpfile st.s=$s1 loc=0 tflg=0
        if (! fi.ropen(st.s)) { printf("\trdcols ERR0: can't open file \"%s\"\n",st.s) return 0}
      } else {fi=$o1 fi.getname(st.s) hflag=0 loc=fi.tell() tflg=1}
    if (fcd.count(2)+fcd.count(0)!=m) {printf("\trdcols ERRA: only rd strs and dbls\n") return 0}
    if (fi.scanstr(sstr)==-1) {printf("\trdcols ERR1: file \"%s\"\n",st.s) return 0}
    if (tflg) hflag=0 else { 
          if (isnum(sstr)) hflag=0 else hflag=1 } // hflag=0 -> no header
    if (numarg()>1) { // names of columns
        resize(numarg()-1)
        for i=2,numarg() sethdrs(i-2,$si)
        if (hflag) {
            printf("Header in file %s: %s vs %s\n",st.s,sstr,s[0].s)
            hflag=2
          }
      } else if (!hflag) printf("No Header read for %s\n",st.s)
    cols=0
    if (hflag==1) {
        while (! isnum(sstr)) { 
            cols+=1 fi.scanstr(sstr) 
            resize(sstr)
          }
      } else {
        ncols=fcd.count(0) // assume that NQS was set up ahead
        cols=fcd.size
      }
    li=file_len(st.s)
    if (hflag || tflg) li-=1 // hack -- assuming that threw away one line 
    printf("%d cols; %d lines of data in %s.\n",cols,li,st.s)
    fi.seek(loc) // back to top
    // WARN: this will screw up if numbers are to be included as strings
    num=scr.scanf(fi,li*ncols) // note that this will skip over non-nums
    if (num!=li*ncols) { // err not reached since scanf dumps out
        printf("WARNING: expected %d vals; found %d\n",li*ncols,num) errflag=3 }
    if (fi.scanstr(sstr)>-1) { 
        printf("WARNING: %s found after reading in %d vals\n",sstr,li*cols) errflag=4 }
    fi.seek(loc)
    for ii=0,cols-1 { 
        if (fcd.x[ii]>0) continue
        if (hflag) fi.scanstr(s[ii].s)
        v[ii].resize(li)
        v[ii].copy(scr,0,ii,li*ncols-1,1,cols) // v[ii].mcol(scr,ii,cols)
      }  
    if (fcd.count(0)!=m) {
        fi.seek(loc) // need to pick up some strings
        for ii=0,li-1 for jj=0,cols-1 { 
            if (fi.scanstr(st.t)==-1) {printf("ERR reading at %d\n",fi.tell()) errflag=5 return 0}
            if (fcd.x[jj]==2) v[jj].append(newval(2,jj))
          }
      }
    if (errflag) { printf("rdcols ERR%d\n",errflag) return 0 }
    return cols
  }

//** func svR([filename])
// saves in a format that can be read by my rdnqs.R program
func svR () { local ii,jj,cols,li,errflag,num
    errflag=0
    if (eqobj(cob,out) && verbose) printf(" *Selected* ") 
    if (numarg()==1) sstr=$s1 else {
        sstr=file
        repl_mstr(sstr,"\.nqs$",".nqR")
      }
    if (tmpfile.ropen(sstr)) if (!boolean_dialog("File exists","Overwrite","Cancel")) { 
        print "Cancelled" return 0 }
    if (! tmpfile.wopen(sstr)) { printf("\tsvR ERR0: can't open file \"%s\"\n",sstr) return 0}
    tmpfile.printf("%d\n",m)
    for ii=0,m-1 tmpfile.printf("%s\n",s[ii].s)
    for ii=0,m-1 cob.v[ii].vwrite(tmpfile)
    tmpfile.close()
    return ii
  }

//** func svcols(filename)
// saves numeric columns for R -- read with aa=read.table("filename")
func svcols () { local ii,jj,cols,li,errflag,num
    errflag=0
    if (tmpfile.ropen($s1)) if (!boolean_dialog("File exists","Overwrite","Cancel")) { 
        print "Cancelled" return 0 }
    if (! tmpfile.wopen($s1)) { printf("\tsvcols ERR0: can't open file \"%s\"\n",$s1) return 0}
    sstr2="\t"  // delimiter
    for ii=0,m-1 tmpfile.printf("%s%s",s[ii].s,sstr2)
    tmpfile.printf("\n")
    for ii=0,size(1)-1 {
        tmpfile.printf("%d%s",ii,sstr2)
        for jj=0,m-1 {
            getval(jj,v[jj].x[ii]) 
            tmpfile.printf("%g%s",nval,sstr2)
          }
        tmpfile.printf("\n")
      }
    tmpfile.close
    return ii
  }

//** join(nqs2,"PIVOT"[,"COLA",...]) 
// [selected fields of] nqs2 will be appended to this
// index field should only appear once in nqs2
func join () { local vn,vn1,vn2,i,ii,jj,kk,val localobj al,bl
    al=new List() bl=new List()
    if ((vn1=fi($s2))==-1 || (vn2=$o1.fi($s2))==-1) { 
        printf("NQS::join() %s not found in both %s %s\n",$s2,$o1,this) return -1 }
    if (!v[vn1].ismono) {   print "Sorting A..."  sort(vn1) }
    if (!$o1.v[vn2].ismono){print "Sorting B..."  $o1.sort(vn2) }
    if (!$o1.v[vn2].ismono(2)){ printf("Pivot B has repeats\n") return -1 }
    scr.resize($o1.m) scr.fill(-1)
    if (numarg()>2) for i=3,numarg() { 
        if ((vn=$o1.fi($si))==-1) return -1
        if (fi($si,"NOERR")!=-1) sprint(tstr,"%sB",$si) else tstr=$si
        scr.x[vn]=resize(tstr)-1 // index for this
      } else for ii=0,$o1.m-1 if (! strcmp($o1.s[ii].s,$s2)==0) { // don't add pivot field
        if ($o1.fcd.x[ii]!=0) {printf("%s:join ERRA not double field\n",this) return -1}
        if (fi($o1.s[ii].s,"NOERR")!=-1) sprint(tstr,"%sB",$o1.s[ii].s) else tstr=$o1.s[ii].s
        scr.x[ii]=resize(tstr)-1 // index for this
      } 
    pad()
    for jj=0,scr.size-1 { kk=scr.x[jj]
        if (kk!=-1) { al.append(v[kk]) bl.append($o1.v[jj]) }
      }
    v[vn1].join($o1.v[vn2],al,bl)
    return m
  }

//** cp(NQS[,VEC_COPY]) copy 1 NQS to another
// default: VEC_COPY==1; side effect of NO_VEC_COPY is no fcd,fcds creation
proc copy () { if (numarg()==2) cp($o1,$2) else cp($o1) }
proc cpout () { // copy .out to this
    cob=this
    for ii=0,m-1 v[ii].copy(out.v[ii])
  }
proc cp () { local ii,csz,veccp,outcp localobj o,oo
    cob=this
    csz=$o1.m
    outcp=0
    if (numarg()==2) veccp=$2 else veccp=1
    if (m!=csz) if (isassigned(out)) resize(csz) else {
        resize2(csz)
        outcp=1
      }
    objl.remove_all
    for ii=0,$o1.objl.count-1 { objl.append($o1.objl.object(ii)) }
    file=$o1.file comment=$o1.comment
    if (outcp) for ii=0,m-1 { 
        s[ii]=up.s[ii]
        v[ii]=new Vector()
      } else for ii=0,m-1 { 
        s[ii].s=$o1.s[ii].s 
        if (veccp) v[ii].copy($o1.v[ii]) // 2nd arg to not copy vectors
      }
    if (veccp==1) {  // full copy
        fcd.copy($o1.fcd) 
        for ii=0,$o1.fcds.count-1 fcds.append($o1.fcds.object(ii)) // strings not being copies
        if (isobj($o1.fcdl,"List")) { fcdl=new List() out.fcdl=fcdl
            for ii=0,$o1.fcdl.count-1 fcdl.append($o1.fcdl.object(ii)) }
        if (isobj($o1.fcdo,"List")) { fcdo=new List() out.fcdo=fcdo
            o=$o1.fcdo
            for ii=0,o.count-1 {
                if (isojt(o.o(ii),v)) { // a vector
                    oo=new Vector(o.o(ii).size) oo.copy(o.o(ii)) fcdo.append(oo) 
                  } else if (isojt(o.o(ii),out)) { // a vector
                    oo=new NQS() oo.cp(o.o(ii)) fcdo.append(oo) 
                  } else {
                    printf("Can't copy a %s\n",o.o(ii)) return 
                  }
              }
          }
      } else if (! isassigned(fcd)) { // use pointers for .out
        fcd=$o1.fcd fcds=$o1.fcds fcdl=$o1.fcdl tmplist=$o1.tmplist
      } 
    x.copy($o1.x) x.resize(m)
    scr.copy($o1.scr) ind.copy($o1.ind)
  }

//** eq(NQS) -- just check the vecs
func eq () { local ii,jj,af,ix,epsilon localobj v1
    if (numarg()>=2) { 
        af=1 
        if ($2!=1) epsilon=$2 else epsilon=1e-5
      } else af=0 // af is flag for approx eq
    if ($o1.m!=m) { printf("# of cols differ %d vs %d\n",m,$o1.m) return 0 }
    for ii=0,m-1 if (strcmp($o1.s[ii].s,s[ii].s)!=0) { 
        printf("%d col names differ: %s vs %s",ii,s[ii].s,$o1.s[ii].s) return 0 }
    for ii=0,m-1 if ($o1.v[ii].size != v[ii].size) { 
        printf("%d col lengths differ: %d vs %d",ii,v[ii].size,$o1.v[ii].size) return 0 }
    if (af) {
        a=allocvecs(v1)
        for ii=0,m-1 {
            v1.copy(v[ii])
            v1.sub($o1.v[ii])
            v1.abs()
            if (v1.max>epsilon) {
                ix=v1.max_ind
                printf("%s cols differ: \n",s[ii].s,ix,v[ii].x[ix],$o1.v[ii].x[ix])
              }
          }
        if (numarg()>=3) $o3.copy(v1)
        dealloc(a)
      } else for ii=0,m-1 if (! $o1.v[ii].eq(v[ii])) { 
        printf("%s cols differ at ",s[ii].s)
        for jj=0,v[ii].size-1 if ($o1.v[ii].x[jj] != v[ii].x[jj]) {
            printf("element %d: %g vs %g",jj,v[ii].x[jj],$o1.v[ii].x[jj])
            if ($o1.v[ii].x[jj]-v[ii].x[jj]<1e-5) {
                printf("\n\tTry for approximately equal using flag: nq.eq(nq2,1)\n")}
            return 0
          }
      }
    if (! fcdseq($o1)) return 0
    if (! fcdoeq($o1)) return 0
    return 1
  }

//** fcdseq() -- check that string lists are identical in two NQSs -- this is
// sufficient but not nec for comparing string columns for JOIN
// in order to use JOIN must share same fcds by setting up with strdec(NQS,...)
// (could break out separate lists for each str column -- tried in nqs.hoc220;
//  but separate lists would be problem: two columns might require same indices if 
//  either could be used to for "JOIN" to another nqs
func fcdseq () { local ii,jj,cnt
    cnt=fcds.count
    if (eqobj(fcds,$o1.fcds)) {
        printf("%s %s already share string list fcds\n",this,$o1)
        return 1
      }
    if (cnt!=$o1.fcds.count) {
        printf("DIFFERING (1) string lists (fcds) %d %d\n",fcds.count,$o1.fcds.count)
        return 0
      }
    for ii=0,cnt-1 if (!strcmp(fcds.object(ii).s,$o1.fcds.object(ii).s)==0) {
        printf("DIFFERING (2) string lists (fcds) %d:%s vs %s",ii,fcds.object(ii).s,$o1.fcds.object(ii).s)
        return 0
      }
    if (numarg()==2) return 1 // just check fcds and not fcd and fcdl
    if (! fcd.eq($o1.fcd)) {
        printf("DIFFERING (3) col keys (fcd) ") vlk(fcd) vlk($o1.fcd)
        return 0
      }
    if (! isassigned(fcdl) && isassigned($o1.fcdl)) {
          printf("DIFFERING (4) uselists() string lists: absent in %s\n",this)
          return 0
      }
    if (isassigned(fcdl)) {
        if (! isassigned($o1.fcdl)) {
            printf("DIFFERING (5) uselists() string lists absent in %s\n",$o1)
            return 0
          }
        if (fcdl.count!=$o1.fcdl.count) {
            printf("DIFFERING (6) uselists() list list counts %d vs %d",fcdl.count,$o1.fcdl.count)
            return 0
          }
        for ii=0,fcdl.count-1 if (fcd.x[ii]==-1) {
            if (!isobj(fcdl.object(ii),"List") || !isobj($o1.fcdl.object(ii),"List")) {
                printf("DIFFERING (7) uselists() string lists (fcdl.obj) %d:%s vs %s",ii,\
                           fcdl.object(ii),$o1.fcdl.object(ii))
                return 0
              }
            if (fcdl.object(ii).count != $o1.fcdl.object(ii).count) {
                printf("DIFFERING (8) uselists() string lists counts (fcdl.obj) %d:%d vs %d",ii,\
                           fcdl.object(ii).count,$o1.fcdl.object(ii).count)
                return 0
              }
            for jj=0,fcdl.object(ii).count-1 {
                if (!strcmp(fcdl.object(ii).object(jj).s,$o1.fcdl.object(ii).object(jj).s)==0) {
                    printf("DIFFERING (9) uselists() string lists (fcdl.obj) %d,%d:%s vs %s",ii,jj,\
                           fcdl.object(ii).object(jj).s,$o1.fcdl.object(ii).object(jj).s)
                    return 0
                  }
              }
          }
      }
    return 1
  }

//** fcdoeq() -- check that object lists are identical in two NQSs
func fcdoeq () { local ii,jj,cnt
    if (! isassigned(fcdo) && ! isassigned($o1.fcdo)) return 1
    if (! isassigned(fcdo)) {
        printf("No object list in %s\n",this)
        return 0
      }
    if (! isassigned($o1.fcdo)) {
        printf("No object list in %s\n",$o1)
        return 0
      }
    cnt=fcdo.count
    if (cnt!=$o1.fcdo.count) {
        printf("DIFFERING (1) object lists (fcdo) %d %d\n",fcdo.count,$o1.fcdo.count)
        return 0
      }
    for ii=0,cnt-1 {
        if (!isojt(fcdo.o(ii),$o1.fcdo.o(ii))) {
            printf("DIFFERING (2) obj lists (fcdo) %s,%s (%s,%s)",fcdo.o(ii),$o1.fcdo.o(ii),this,$o1)
            return 0
          }
        if (1) { // vector and nqs both use .eq() a vector: isojt(fcdo.o(ii),v)
            if (! fcdo.o(ii).eq($o1.fcdo.o(ii))) {
                printf("DIFFERING obj lists (fcdo) : differ %s,%s (%s,%s)",\
                       fcdo.o(ii),$o1.fcdo.o(ii),this,$o1)
                return 0
              }
          }
      }
    return 1
  }

//** strdec() -- declare these columns to be strings
func strdec () { local i,min
    min=1
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) {
        printf("strdec() ERR: string fields can only be declared at top level\n") return 0}
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        printf("strdec(NAME[,NAME1 ...])\n\tdeclare these field to be string fields\n") return 0}
    out.fcd=fcd
    if (argtype(1)==1) {
        if (fcds.count>0) if (! fcdseq($o1,1)) {  // just check fcds and not fcd, fcdl
            printf("Pre-existing string lists differ; unable to join %s %s\n",this,$o1)
            return 0
          }
        fcds=$o1.fcds // share string list to allow JOIN on a string field
        min=2 
      }
    for i=min,numarg() { 
        if (argtype(i)==2) fl=fi($si) else fl=$i
        if (fl>-1) {
            fcd.x[fl]=2
            sval="`EMPTY'"
            newval(2,fl)   // don't want to put on more than one
          }
      }
    return 1
  }

//** fdec() -- declare these columns to be files with methods
func fdec () { local i,j,na
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) {
        printf("fdec() ERR: object fields can only be declared at top level\n") return 0}
    na=numarg()
    if (na==0 || na%3!=0) { printf("fdec(\"COLNAME\",\"METHOD\",\"PATH\"[,...])\n") return 0 }
    out.fcd=fcd
    for (j=1;j<=na;j+=3) { 
        i=j
        if (argtype(i)==0) fl=$i else fl=fi($si)
        if (fl==-1) return 0 else fcd.x[fl]=11
        i+=1 s[fl].t=$si i+=1 
        if (sfunc.len($si)==0) { sprint(s[fl].t,"%s(\"",s[fl].t)
          } else sprint(s[fl].t,"%s(\"%s/",$si,s[fl].t)
      }
    if (! isobj(fcdo,"List")) { fcdo=new List() out.fcdo=fcdo }
    return 1
  }

obfunc methget () { local fl,ix localobj o
    fl=$1 ix=$2
    if ((o=fcdo.o(ix).o)!=nil) return o
    sprint(tstr,"tmpobj=%s%s\")",s[fl].t,fcds.o(fcdo.o(ix).x).s)
    execute(tstr)
    o=tmpobj // need to use external global tmpobj
    fcdo.o(ix).o=o
    return o
  }

//** coddec() -- declare these columns to be coded
func coddec () { local i,min
    min=1
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) {
        printf("coddec() ERR: CODE fields can only be declared at top level\n") return 0}
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        printf("coddec(NAME[,NAME1 ...])\n\tdeclare these field to be code fields\n") return 0}
    out.fcd=fcd
    for i=min,numarg() { 
        fl=fi($si)
        if (fl>-1) fcd.x[fl]=10
      }
    return 1
  }

//** deriv("COLA",...) generates a col with differences between each row value and preceding
proc deriv () { local fl,i
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) { printf("Take deriv on whole set only\n") return }
    for i=1,numarg() { 
        if (argtype(i)==0) fl=$i else fl=fi($si)
        if (fl==-1) return
        sprint(tstr,"%s'",s[fl].s)   resize(tstr)
        v[m-1].deriv(v[fl],1,1)
        v[m-1].insrt(0,0)
      }
  }

//** odec() -- declare these columns to be objects
func odec () { local i
    if (eqobj(cob,out)) {
        printf("odec() ERR: object fields can only be declared at top level\n") return 0}
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        printf("odec(NAME[,NAME1 ...])\n\tdeclare these field to be object fields\n") return 0}
    out.fcd=fcd
    for i=1,numarg() { 
        if (argtype(i)==0) fl=$i else fl=fi($si)
        if (fl>-1) fcd.x[fl]=1
      }
    if (! isobj(fcdo,"List")) { fcdo=new List() out.fcdo=fcdo }
    return 1
  }

//** mo([flag][,STAT1,...]) -- create global objectvars that point to the vectors
// first time use flag=1 to create new global objrefs, else just shift them
// flag=1 reassign objl but don't care if they already exist
// flag=2 don't print out the assignments
// flag=3 reassign objl; make sure they're unique
// flag=4 clear the vectors
// should we also create a set of global scalars to assign to in an iterator?
proc mo () { local ii,flag,i,hf
    if (numarg()>=1) flag=$1 else flag=0 // flag:create objrefs
    if (flag==1 || flag==3) {
        if (objl.count>0) {
            if (flag==3) if (batch_flag) {
                printf("NQS mo(3) WARNING: Renamed object pointers.\n")
              } else if (! boolean_dialog("New name object pointers?","YES","NO")) return
            if (flag==1) if (batch_flag) {
                printf("NQS mo(1) WARNING: Rassigned object pointers.\n")
              } else if (! boolean_dialog("Reassign object pointers?","YES","NO")) return
          }
        objl.remove_all
        for ii=0,m-1 if (sfunc.len(s[ii].s)>0) {
            sstr=s[ii].s
            repl_mstr(sstr,"[^A-za-z0-9]","",execstr)
            sprint(sstr,"%sv",sstr)
            if (flag==3) { // make sure it's unique
                hf=0
                while (name_declared(sstr)) { hf=1
                    printf("%s exists ... ",sstr)
                    sprint(sstr,"%sv",sstr) 
                  } 
                if (hf) printf(" -> %s\n",sstr)
              } else if (name_declared(sstr)) printf("%s reassigned: ",sstr)
            printf("%s -> v[%d] (%s)\n",sstr,ii,s[ii].s)
            sprint(execstr,"objref %s",sstr) execute(execstr)
            sprint(execstr,"%s=%s",sstr,v[ii]) execute(execstr)
            objl.append(new String(sstr))
          }
        sprint(execstr,"objref indv") execute(execstr)
        sprint(execstr,"indv=%s",ind) execute(execstr)
      } else {
        if (objl.count==0) { 
            printf("Must create vecs with mo(1)\n") 
          } else if (objl.count>m) { 
            printf("STAT:mo ERR: wrong objref count in objl: %d vs %d\n",objl.count,m)
            return
          } else {
            if (objl.count<m) { 
                printf("STAT:mo WARNING: unreferenced vecs for %s: refs %d<m %d\n",this,objl.count,m) }
            for ii=0,objl.count-1 {
                Xo=objl.object(ii)
                if (flag==0) printf("%s -> %s.v[%d] (%s)\n",Xo.s,this,ii,s[ii].s)
                if (flag==4) {sprint(execstr,"%s=nil",Xo.s) 
                  } else        sprint(execstr,"%s=%s",Xo.s,v[ii]) 
                execute(execstr)
              }
          }
        sprint(execstr,"objref indv") execute(execstr)
        if (flag!=4) { sprint(execstr,"indv=%s",ind) execute(execstr) }
      }
    if (numarg()>1) for i=2,numarg() { // propagate the objl to other STATs
        $oi.objl.remove_all
        for ii=0,objl.count-1 $oi.objl.append(objl.object(ii))
      }
  }

//** unnan() gets rid of nans and inf's in numerical cols
proc unnan () { local ii
    for ii=0,m-1 if (fcd.x[ii]==0) v[ii].unnan(0)
  }

func version () { local x
    if (numarg()==0) print nqsvers
    sfunc.tail(nqsvers,",v [1-9]*.",tstr)
    sscanf(tstr,"%d",&x)
    return x
  }

//* endtemplate
endtemplate NQS

//* array template -- an array pretending to be a list
begintemplate OARR
public oo,max,count,o,object,append,o2l,l2o,name,id
objref oo[1]
strdef name

proc init () {
    max=$1 id=count=0
    objref oo[max] 
  }
obfunc o () { // allow an array to pretend to be a list
    if ($1<0 || $1>=max) {printf("OOB for OARR: %d >= %d\n",$1,max) return oo[0]} 
    if ($1>=count) printf("OARR WARNING: %d not assigned\n",$1)
    return oo[$1]
  }
obfunc object () { // allow an array to pretend to be a list
    if ($1<0 || $1>=max) {printf("OOB for OARR: %d >= %d\n",$1,max) return oo[0]} 
    if ($1>=count) printf("OARR WARNING: %d not assigned\n",$1)
    return oo[$1]
  }
func append () {
    if (count>max-1) {printf("OARR ERR: out of room: %d\n",max) return -1}
    oo[count]=$o1 count+=1
    return count
  }
// copy array to a list
proc o2l () { local jj,min,mx
    if (numarg()==3) {min=$2 mx=$3} else {min=0 mx=count}
    for jj=min,mx $o1.append(oo[jj])
  }
// copy list to array
proc l2o () { local jj,min,mx
    if (numarg()==3) {min=$2 mx=$3} else {min=0 mx=$o1.count-1}
    for jj=min,mx oo[jj]=$o1.o(jj)
  }
endtemplate OARR

//* ancillary routines
//* sopset() returns symbolic arg associated with a string
proc sopset() { local i
    for i=1,20 sops[i-1]=$i // AUGMENT TO ADD NEW OPSYM
  }
sopset(ALL,NEG,POS,CHK,NOZ,GTH,GTE,LTH,LTE,EQU,EQV,EQW,EQX,NEQ,SEQ,RXP,IBE,EBI,IBI,EBE) // ADD NEW OPSYM NAME

proc sofset () {
    for scase(XO,"ALL","NEG","POS","CHK","NOZ","GTH","GTE","LTH","LTE","EQU","EQV","EQW","EQX","NEQ","SEQ","RXP","IBE","EBI","IBI","EBE") for j=1,5 { 
        sprint(tstr,"%s%d=%s*%d",XO.s,j,XO.s,j+1)
        execute(tstr)
      }
  }
sofset()

//** whvarg
func whvarg () { local ret
    ret=-1
    // ADD NEW OPSYM STRING
            // ALL  NEG   POS  CHK  NOZ   GTH  GTE  LTH LTE EQU   EQV   EQW   EQX  NEQ  SEQ  RXP  IBE  EBI  IBI   EBE
    for scase("ALL","<0",">0","CHK","!=0",">",">=","<","<=","===","EQV","EQW","EQX","!=","=~","~~","[)","(]","[]","()") {
        if (strcmp($s1,temp_string_)==0) {ret=i1 break}
      }
    if (ret==-1) return ret else return sops[ret]
  }

//** whkey(KEY,STR) 
// place name of KEY from vecst.mod in temp_string_
func whkey () { local key
    for scase("ALL","NEG","POS","CHK","NOZ","GTH","GTE","LTH","LTE","EQU","EQV","EQW","EQX","NEQ","SEQ","RXP","IBE","EBI","IBI","EBE") { // ADD NEW OPSYM NAME
        sprint(tstr,"x=%s",temp_string_) execute(tstr)
        if (x==$1) {
            if (numarg()==2) $s2=temp_string_ else print temp_string_
            break
          }
      }
    return x
  }

//** varstr(tstr) -- make a variable out of string by removing nonalphanumeric characters
func varstr () { local a,z,A,Z,a0,a9,a_,len,ii,sflag
    a=97 z=122 A=65 Z=90 a0=48 a9=57 a_=95 // ascii codes
    if (numarg()==2) sflag=1 else sflag=0
    len = sfunc.len($s1)
    for ({x=0 ii=0};ii<len && !((x>=a&&x<=z)||(x>=A&&x<=Z));ii+=1) { // allowed first char
        sscanf($s1,"%c%*s",&x)
        sfunc.right($s1,1)
      }
    if (ii==len) { printf("varstr() ERR: no useable characters") return 0}
    sprint($s1,"%c%s",x,$s1)
    for (;ii<=len;ii+=1) {
        sscanf($s1,"%c%*s",&x)
        sfunc.right($s1,1)
        if ((x>=a&&x<=z)||(x>=A&&x<=Z)||(x>=a0&&x<=a9)||(x==a_)) { // allowed chars
            sprint($s1,"%s%c",$s1,x)
          }
      }
    if (sflag) { 
        sprint($s1,"strdef %s",$s1) 
        execute($s1) 
        sfunc.right($s1,7) // strip leading "strdef"
      } else {
        sprint($s1,"%s=0",$s1) 
        execute($s1) 
        sfunc.left($s1,sfunc.len($s1)-2) // strip the =0
      }
    return 1
  }

strdef h1
h1="Select operators: \nALL <0  >0  CHK !=0  >  >=  <   <=  ==  EQV EQW EQX !=  =~  ~~  [)  (]  []  ()\nALL NEG POS CHK NOZ GTH GTE LTH LTE EQU EQV EQW EQX NEQ SEQ RXP IBE EBI IBI EBE\nmost are obvious; those that are not\nEQV: value equal to same row value another column (takes string arg)\nEQW: value found in other vector (takes vector or NQS arg)\nSEQ: string equal (takes string)\nRXP: regular expression comparison (takes string)\nIBE,EBI...: I=inclusive, E=exclusive for ranges\n"

proc nqshelp () {
    if (numarg()==0) {
      } else {
        if (strcmp($s1,"select")==0) {
            // ed=new TextEditor(h1,9,160) ed.map
            printf("%s",h1)
          }
      }
  }

proc delnqs () { local i
    for i=1,numarg() nqsdel($oi) 
  }
proc nqsdel () { localobj iq,xo
    if (isassigned($o1)) {
        iq=$o1
        if (isassigned(iq.fcdo)) for ltr(xo,iq.fcdo) if (isojt(xo,iq)) nqsdel(xo)
        if (isassigned(iq.out)) {iq.out.cob=nil  iq.out=nil}
        iq.cob=nil iq=nil 
      }
    if (!istmpobj($o1)) $o1=nil
    tmpobj=nil
  }

//* pmap() maps a function arg1 onto multiple args or a , sep string of args
proc pmap () { local i,na localobj st
    st=new String()
    na=numarg()
    sprint(st.s,"%s(",$s1) // 1st arg is name of proc
    for i=2,na sprint(st.s,"%s%s,",st.s,$si)
    if (na>=2) chop(st.s)
    sprint(st.s,"%s)",st.s)
    execute1(st.s)
  }

func fmap () { local i,na localobj st,o
    st=new String() o=new DBL()
    na=numarg()
    sprint(st.s,"%s.x=%s(",o,$s1) // 1st arg is name of proc
    for i=2,na sprint(st.s,"%s%s,",st.s,$si)
    if (na>=2) chop(st.s)
    sprint(st.s,"%s)",st.s)
    execute1(st.s)
    return o.x
  }

//* bugs and missing features
// 1. for NQS, does resize work with object columns? i.e. 
// >  >  nqs1 has an object column
// >  >  can i do nqs2.resize(nqs1) to add nqs1 to nqs2?
// >  looks like I haven't bothered with that case (nqs.hoc_579:2188)
// 2. oc>  for ii=2,3 nq[ii-2].resize(nq[ii]) -- meaningless err messages?
// (~/nrniv/place/load.hoc_54:60)
// NQS[48] fi ERR: regexp matches more than once: 1 spkstats.killp
// NQS[48] fi ERR: regexp matches more than once: 2 spkstats.prup
// END /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/nqs.hoc
//================================================================
gnum=-1
declare("show_panel",1)
obfunc file_with_dot(){} // stubs to declare later, otherwise external barfs
obfunc filname(){} 
obfunc dirname(){}
func file_len(){}
proc tog (){if (numarg()==1) print $&1=1-$&1 else print gvmarkflag=1-gvmarkflag}
proc pvout2 () { }  // stub for manipulating printlist
proc rv2 () { }  // stub for manipulating the vectors before graphing
proc rv3 () { }  // stub for manipulating the label
func setfilt2 () { return 0 }  // stub for setting filter
func dir2mf2() {return 1} // stub for checking whether to include a trace

//* template vfile_line (vector file line) template gives information about a line
//  in a file that gives a vector: name, size and location
begintemplate vfile_line
  public name, size, loc, segs, num, ix, f
  strdef name,f
  double loc[1]
  proc init () { 
      segs=1
      if (numarg()>4) if (argtype(5)==0) segs=$5 else f=$s5
      name=$s1 size=$2 num=$4
      double loc[segs]
      loc[0] = $3
      ix=-1 // can be used as index if needed
    }
endtemplate vfile_line

//* template vitem (vector item) is an internal vector used to store output from 
// new vitem(var_name,vec_size,friendly_name)
// new vitem(var_name,vec_size,1) -- force tvec creation even if not cvode_local
// a simulation holds the name and the vector itself
tvflag_on=1
begintemplate vitem
  external cvode,tvflag_on,isassigned
  public tvec,vec,name,tvflag,pstep,o,code,resize
  objref tvec,vec,o,this // o not set here but used for Acells
  strdef tstr,name // variable name
  proc init () {
      name=$s1  tvflag=0 pstep=0 code=0
      if (cvode.active()) { if (cvode.use_local_dt()) tvflag=1 else tvflag=-1 }
      if (tvflag_on) tvflag=1
      if (argtype(2)==0) vec=new Vector($2) else if (argtype(2)==1) vec=$o2
      if (argtype(3)==0) { // sloppy -- what if pstep=1??
          if ($3==1) tvflag=1 else {tvflag=0 pstep=$3} 
        } else if (argtype(3)==1) {
          tvec=$o3
          tvflag=1 // don't create another one
        }
      if (argtype(4)==0) if ($4==1) tvflag=1 else {tvflag=0 pstep=$4}
      if (tvflag==1 && !isassigned(tvec)) tvec=new Vector($2) 
      if (tvflag==-1) {
          sprint(tstr,"if (!isassigned(tvec)) tvec=new Vector(%d)",$2) execute(tstr) 
          sprint(tstr,"%s.tvec=tvec",this) execute(tstr)
        }
    }
  proc resize () {
      vec.resize($1) 
      if (isassigned(tvec)) tvec.resize($1)
    }
endtemplate vitem

//* main template: GRV
// the attributes of a particular set of graphs including line colors,
// world coordinates, etc
// glist is a list of all graphs created from this panel
// llist is a list of available names and associated vectors or locations
begintemplate GRV
  public color,line,super,curcol,comment,vecpanel,mesg,tmplist,gxpan
  public glist,oglist,llist,tvec,size,shift,vsz,vjmp,tloc,vloc,remote
  public entries,segments,clear,keepgr
  public read_vfile,rvaltdisp,read_file,grvec,remgrs,clear,record,read_pclamp
  public cpplitem,chgplname,npl,new_pri,prlexp,numovecs,fchooser
  public read_vdotfile,rpanel,panobjl,ddir,filter
  public rlist,rvlist,attrpanl,wvpanl,remgrs,collapsegrs,viewplot,nvwall
  public geall,lblall,relbl,grall,grsel,tposvec,fliptb,setrange,setgrransel,grransel
  public chrange,rv,rv_readvec,rvec,rvl,read_rfile,gv
  public grrtsize,ge,pvall,pvother,pvplist,pvclose,vf2fwf
  public pvnext,pvout,prvec,pv,lpvec,nvplt,apbrowse,apkill
  public newpl,find_secname,mkmenu,dir2pr,dir2mf,read_mf
  public mkpanel,pbrgr,remprl,filename,onum,po,stub,go
  public rvtr,vrdr,prdr,tmpobj,printlist,output_file,attr0,attrnum,s,vite
  public glist,llist,tvec,ind,vec,vrtmp,tmpvec,tf1,tmpobj,apvb,printStep
  public gvmarkflag,gveraseflag,fchooser_flag,byte_store,bst,szstr,regexp,tmpfile
  public magga,mvga,ll

  double size[4],vsz[2],wvloc[4],x[4]
  objref glist, oglist, llist, tvec, ind, vec, vrtmp, tmpvec, tf1, tmpobj, apvb, ovb, printlist
  objref vite,scob,printlist,szstr[4],g,this,tmplist,panobj,panobjl,Xo,Yo,tmpfile, gcomms
  strdef comment,recstr,grvecstr,readtag,rvvec_name,grep,tstr,tstr2,ddir,filter
  strdef temp_string_,temp_string2_,output_file,s,filename,mesg,regexp
  external sfunc,osname,vfile_line,vitem,uname,nil,simname,gnum,XO,YO,graphList,isassigned
  external isobj,isit,mso,msoptr,allocvecs,dealloc,tstop,method,cvode,show_panel,rv2,rv3,setfilt2
  external cvode_active,cvode_local,datestr,runnum,i1,graphItem,GRV,strm,objnum,DBL,dir2mf2
  external file_with_dot,count_substr,file_len,filname,dirname,dir,grv_,repl_mstr,pvout2

// list iterator ltr
// usage 'for ltr(YO, tmplist) { print YO }'
iterator ltr () { local i
    ii1=0
    for i = 0,$o2.count-1 {
        $o1 = $o2.object(i)
        iterator_statement
        ii1+=1
      }
    $o1=nil
  }

proc init () { local flag,nopan
    flag=1e9
    if (numarg()==1) if (argtype(1)==0) flag=$1 
    if (numarg()==2) if (argtype(2)==0) flag=$2 else printf("2nd arg for GRV should be flag\n")
    nopan=0 color=1 line=1 curcol=1 keepgr=tloc=-1 nvec=bvec=super=0 vjmp=50 entries=1 segments=1
    fchooser_flag=0
    vsz[0] = 300  vsz[1] = 200
    glist = new List()
    tmpfile = new File()
    oglist = glist // save old glist for after superimpose
    llist=new List() gcomms=new List() printlist=llist
    tvec=new Vector(0) ind=tvec.c vec=tvec.c vrtmp=tvec.c tmpvec=tvec.c
    rvvec_name = "vec"
    ddir = "data/"
    printStep=gvmarkflag=gveraseflag=mff=0
    remote=0
    entries=segments=shift=0
    tloc=vloc=vjmp=x=y=luprd=0
    wvloc[0]=50 wvloc[1]=50 wvloc[2]=800 wvloc[3]=150
    onum=objnum(this)
  
    for ii=0,3 { szstr[ii] = new String() }
    if (sfunc.substr(osname,"inux")==1) grep="grep -a" else grep="grep"
    readtag = "^//[:pbCM ]"  // regexp used to identify header in mixed binary files
    { szstr[0].s="Set xmin" szstr[1].s="Set xmax" szstr[2].s="Set ymin" szstr[3].s="Set ymax" }
    multi_files = 1 // set 0 to show individual segments of multi-seg files
    dec_runnum = 0  // whether to decrement runnum when saving a new file
    byte_store = 4  // store as ascii (0), byte (1), int (2), float (3), double (4)
    tvec_bytesize = 4  // always store tvecs with more precision
    outvecint = 0     // dump vectors every outvecint time if not 0
    outvect = 0     // time for next vec dump
    labelm = 1       // set to 0 to turn off labeling
    attr0=0 // default is a panel for reading files
    if (flag==0) { // make a sim-recording panel
        if (numarg()>1) printf("GRV WARNING: creating simpan, ignoring filename\n")
        attr0=1 attrnum=0
        if (! isobj(panobjl,"List")) panobjl = new List() 
        attrnum=panobjl.append(this)-1
        if (attrnum!=0) printf("GRV WARNING: attr0 with attrnum=%d!\n",attrnum)
        if (show_panel) vecpanel()
        sprint(tstr,"printlist=%s.printlist",this)
        execute(tstr)
        sprint(s,"GRV[%d]:%s (sim vecs)",objnum(this),simname)
        return
      }
    panobjl=grv_.panobjl
    attrnum=panobjl.append(this)-1
    if (flag==-2) nopan=1 
    if (flag==-1) { fchooser() // ask user for filename
      } else if (numarg()>=1) {
        if (argtype(1)==2) read_vfile($s1)
      }
    if (!nopan) attrpanl()
  }

//** newfile() calls fchooser
proc newfile () { localobj o
    o = apvb
    fchooser() 
    attrpanl()
  }

//** bst() selects byte_store
func bst () { 
    if (numarg()>=1) byte_store=$1 
    if (numarg()>=2) tvec_bytesize=$2
    return byte_store 
  }

//* attrpanl() gives attributes for a set of graphs
proc attrpanl () { local ii,jj
    sfunc.tail(filename,"data.*/",grvecstr)
    apvb=new VBox() 
    apvb.intercept(1) 
    xpanel(temp_string_)
    xvarlabel(filename)
    if (sfunc.len(mesg)>40) sfunc.left(mesg,40)
    xvarlabel(mesg)
    xvalue("Color(-1=multi)","color",1,"if (color==0) curcol=0",0,1)
    xvalue("Line","line",1,"",0,1)
    xpanel()
    xpanel("",1)
    xbutton("Superimpose: ","tog(&super) if (super==0) gnum=-1 sprint(mesg,\"super=%d\",super)")
    xbutton("Where?","sprimp()")
    xbutton("Restore","glist=oglist sprint(mesg,\"Restore graph list\")")
    xpanel()
    xpanel("",1)
    xbutton("Limits","wvpanl()")
    xbutton("Erase","geall()")
    xbutton("Mark","togmark()")
    if (attr0) xbutton("Panel","pbrgr(\"Graph\",\"gv\")") else {
        xbutton("New file","newfile()") }
    xpanel()
    xpanel("",1)
    xmenu("Graphs")
    xbutton("Erase/redraw","gveraseflag=-(gveraseflag-1) if (gveraseflag==1) super=1 else super=0 sprint(mesg,\"Erase=%d\",gveraseflag)")
    xbutton("Erase graphs","geall()")
    xbutton("Remove graphs","remgrs()")
    xbutton("Clean graph list","collapsegrs()")
    xbutton("Erase axes","setrange(3)")
    xbutton("Draw axes","setrange(0)")
    xbutton("Label graphs","lblall()")
    sprint(tstr,"execute(\"disptray(%d)\")",onum)
    xbutton("Make tray",tstr)
    xbutton("View = plot","for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.exec_menu(\"View = plot\")")
    xbutton("Crosshair","for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.exec_menu(\"Crosshair\")")
    xbutton("New view","for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.exec_menu(\"NewView\")")
    xbutton("Zoom","for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.exec_menu(\"Zoom in/out\")")
    xbutton("Delete Text","for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.exec_menu(\"Delete\")")
    xbutton("Move Text","for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.exec_menu(\"Move Text\")")
    xbutton("Change Text","for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.exec_menu(\"Change Text\")")
    xmenu()
    // sprint(temp_string_,"remote",attrnum)
    // sprint(temp_string2_,"grall(%d)",attrnum)
    // xvalue("Graph all",temp_string_,0,temp_string2_)
    if (attr0) redo_printlist() else xbutton("Show full panel","rpanel()")
    xpanel()
    apvb.intercept(0) 
    if (attr0) {   sprint(s,"GRV[%d] %s SIM CONTROL",objnum(this),simname)
      } else       { 
        if (sfunc.len(filename)>0) filname(filename,grvecstr)
        sprint(s,"GRV[%d] %s:%s",objnum(this),simname,grvecstr) 
      }
    apvb.map(s)
  }

//** sprimp() superimpose on another sim
proc sprimp () {
    super=1
    sprint(tstr,"SUPERIMPOSE %s ON?",s)
    ovb=new VBox() 
    ovb.intercept(1) 
    xpanel(tstr)
    xvalue("Superimpose on Graph[#]","gnum",1)
    for ltr(Xo,panobjl) {
        sprint(temp_string2_,"glist=%s.glist sprint(mesg,\"Using graph list from %s\") ovb.unmap() ovb=nil",Xo,Xo)
        xbutton(Xo.s,temp_string2_)
      }
    xpanel()
    ovb.intercept(0) 
    ovb.map(tstr)
    ovb.dismiss_action("ovb.unmap ovb=nil")
  }

//** fchooser() finds file and then create panel from it using rpanel
proc fchooser () { 
    if (fchooser_flag == 0) {  // create panel first time only
        if (setfilt2(filter)) { // do nothing
          } else if (strm(filter,"\\*")) { // do nothing
          } else sprint(filter,"*%s*",datestr)
        tmpfile.chooser("","Read from a file",filter,"Open","Cancel",ddir)
      }
    fchooser_flag = 1
    if (tmpfile.chooser()) {
        // find out whether this is a vector file or not
        tmpfile.getname(filename)
        if (strm(filename,"\.mf")) read_mf() else read_vfile() 
      }
  }

//** newpan() create a new panel and call fchooser from there
proc newpan () { tmpobj=new GRV(-1) }

//** read_vfile() creates a panattr object from information in a file
// (uses grep to avoid loading big file)
// assumes file in tmpfile
func read_vfile () { local flag, ii, sz, loc, mult, sze, cloc, segs
    if (numarg()>=2) if (strcmp(filename,$s1)==0) return 2 // check if file is already active 
    if (attr0) {
        if (!boolean_dialog("Look at file data instead of sim?","YES","NO")) {
            printf("Read file cancelled\n")
            return 0
          }
      } else { attr0=0 }
    if (numarg()>=1) filename=$s1 else tmpfile.getname(filename)
    if (strm(filename,"\.mf$")) return read_mf(filename)
    sprint(s,"GRV[%d] %s: %s",objnum(this),simname,filename)
    clear()
    // grab hold of the different lines using grep
    file_with_dot(filename,temp_string_) // put .filename into temp_string_
    if (!tmpfile.ropen(temp_string_)) {
        print "E1: Can't open ",temp_string_ // avoid grep error
        return 0
      } else flag = 1 // signifies that .file exists to use as key
    while ((numr = tmpfile.gets(tstr)) != -1) {  // throw out the leading '//'
        // read the line
        if (sfunc.head(tstr,"//[^b]",temp_string2_)==0) {
            read_vinfo()  // a line giving info about the file (eg comment)
          } else {   // NB: code in v60:516 to pickup byte_store value
            if (flag && entries > 1) { // a .file with MULTI segs
                tmpfile.seek(-numr,1) // backup to beginning of line
                read_vdotfile()
              } else if (segments > 1) { // mult segs: different times for same var
                tmpfile.seek(-numr,1) // backup to beginning of line
                segments = read_vsegs() //**** NEEDS to be recovered from grvec.hoc442
              } else {  // read each line in for itself
                if (  sscanf(tstr,"//b%1ld %g %s %ld %ld",&bvec,&nvec,tstr2,&sze,&loc)!=5) {
                    if (sscanf(tstr,"//b%1ld %s %ld %ld",&bvec,tstr2,&sze,&loc)!=4) {
                        printf("**** GRV read_vfile() parse ERR on %s in %s",tstr,filename)
                      } else if (printStep==-2) nvec=-2 else nvec=-1 // guess
                  }
                if (nvec==2) {
                    printf("read_vfile forward compat. **** WARNING ****\n\t****consider edit of %s dot file to change 2 to -2\n",filename)
                    nvec=-2
                  }
                if (strcmp(tstr2,"CVODE1.0 tvec")==0) {
                    tvec.resize(0)
                    printStep=-1
                    tloc = loc // where to find tvec later
                  } else {
                    tmpobj = new vfile_line(tstr2,sze,loc,nvec) // name size loc num
                    llist.append(tmpobj)
                    tmpobj = nil
                  }
              }
          }
      }
    if (llist.count==0) {
        printf("grvec.hoc::read_vfile ERR no vecs read from %s\n",filename)}
    if (entries==1) entries = llist.count
    if (! flag && segments>1) write_vsegs()  // create key .file
    if (! tmpfile.ropen(filename)) { print "E3: Can't open ",filename
        return 0
      }
    if (printStep==-1) rtvec() // code for cvode_active()
    mff=0
    return 1
  }

//** rtvec() reads tvec if it exists, returns -1 if it doesn't
func rtvec () {
    if (tloc > -1) {
        tmpfile.seek(tloc)
        tvec.vread(tmpfile)
        return 1
      } else {
        return 0
      }
  }

proc write_vsegs () { print "NEEDS to be ported from grvec.hoc442" }

//** read_vinfo()
proc read_vinfo () {
    if (strm(tstr,"//printStep")) {
        sfunc.tail(tstr," ",tstr) // just take end of string following space
        sscanf(tstr,"%g",&printStep) // printstep==-1 means cvode
      } else if (strm(tstr,"^//:")) { // a comment
        sfunc.tail(tstr,"//: *",tstr)
        sfunc.head(tstr,"\n",comment) // chop final newline
        mesg=comment
      } else if (strm(tstr,"^//CPU")) { // the machine type for byte storage
        sfunc.tail(tstr," ",tstr)
        if (! strm(tstr,uname)) {
            printf("%s written from %s\n",filename,tstr)
          }
      } else if (strm(tstr,"^//MULTI")) { // multiple lines for each entry
        sfunc.tail(tstr," ",tstr)
        if (sscanf(tstr,"%d %d",&entries,&segments)==2) {
            if (! multi_files) printf("**************** GRV read_vinfo ERRa\n") 
          } else segments=1
      } else {
        printf("Line:\t%s\n\tnot recognized in %s\n",tstr,filename)
      }
  }

//** read_vdotfile() read .file in abbreviated format (see write_vsegs)
proc read_vdotfile() { local loc,entries,segments,ii
    entries=entries segments=segments
    for i=1,entries {  // read this abbreviated file version (much faster)
        tmpfile.scanstr(temp_string_)
        loc = tmpfile.scanvar()
        tmpobj = new vfile_line(temp_string_,-1,loc,segments) // don't set size
        llist.append(tmpobj)
        for ii=1,segments-1 { tmpobj.loc[ii] = tmpfile.scanvar() }
      }
  }

//** rpanel() creates a panel from information in llist
proc rpanel () { local ii
    if (llist.count > 8) { rlist() return }
    sprint(temp_string_,"%s ",simname)
    xpanel(temp_string_)
    xlabel(filename)
    for ii=0,llist.count-1 {
        sprint(temp_string2_,"rv(%d)",ii)
        xbutton(llist.object(ii).name,temp_string2_)
      }
    xbutton("Attributes","attrpanl()")
    sprint(temp_string_,"lpvec(filename,vrtmp,%g)",printStep)
    xbutton("Print last vec",temp_string_)
    xbutton("Erase","ge()")
    xpanel()
  }

//** rlist(): like rpanel() but puts up a browser list instead of a panel
proc rlist () {
    sprint(tstr,"%d items on list: Enter regexp for subset or \"All\"",llist.count)
    if (llist.count>50 || numarg()>=1) {
        if (numarg()>=1) regexp=$s1 else if (!string_dialog(tstr,regexp)) return
        if (! strm(regexp,"[Aa][Ll][Ll]")) {
            if (! isobj(tmplist,"List")) tmplist = new List()
            tmplist.remove_all
            for ltr(Xo,llist) {
                Xo.ix=ii1
                if (strm(Xo.name,regexp)) tmplist.append(Xo)
              }
            tmplist.browser(filename,"name")
            tmplist.accept_action("rv(tmplist.object(hoc_ac_).ix)")
            printf("%d selected\n",tmplist.count)
            return
          }
      }
    llist.browser(filename,"name")
    llist.accept_action("rv(hoc_ac_)")
  }

//** rvlist(): like rpanel() but puts up a browser list instead of a panel
proc rvlist () { local flag,rdstr
    rdstr = 1
    flag = $1
    if (numarg()==2) { recstr=$s2  rdstr=0 }
    if (flag==0) {
        llist.browser(filename,"name")
        llist.accept_action("rvec(hoc_ac_)")
      } else if (flag==1) { // proc(vec)
        if (rdstr) string_dialog("Procedure name: proc, called as proc(vec)",recstr)
        llist.browser(recstr,"name")
        sprint(temp_string_,"rv_readvec(hoc_ac_,%s) execute1(\"%s(%s)\")",rvvec_name,recstr,rvvec_name)
        llist.accept_action(temp_string_)
        print ":",recstr,":",temp_string_,":",rvvec_name
      } else if (flag==2) { // vec.command
        if (rdstr) string_dialog("comm: print vec.comm",recstr)
        llist.browser(recstr,"name")
        sprint(temp_string_,"{rvec(hoc_ac_) print %s.%s}",rvvec_name,recstr)
        llist.accept_action(temp_string_)
      }
  }

//* rv() reads line of vector file into IV graph via vector
// rv(llist_ind1[,llist_ind2])
// rvaltdisp(tvec,vec,name)
func rvaltdisp () { return 0 } // if returns 1 means there is an alternate display for rv
obfunc rv () { local inx,inx2 localobj o
    // open the file and go to correct position
    if (numarg() == 0) { print "rv(ind1,ind2) reads into vrtmp bzw vec" return this}
    inx = $1
    if (attr0) {return gv(inx)}
    o=llist.object(inx)
    if (numarg()>1) inx2 = $2 else inx2 = -1 // to graph one vec against another 
    rv_readvec(inx,vrtmp)
    rv2(vrtmp,tvec)
    // create a new plot if necessary and set color
    if (vrtmp.size==0) { // assume this is a spike train in tvec
        nvplt(ind,vrtmp)
        ind.resize(tvec.size) ind.fill(0)
        ind.mark(graphItem,tvec,"O",line,curcol)
      } else if (inx2>-1) { // only make sense if they share the same tvec
        rv_readvec(inx2,vec)
        nvplt(vec,vrtmp)
        if (numarg() >= 3) {
            vec.mark(graphItem,vrtmp,$s3,line,curcol)
          } else {
            vec.mark(graphItem,vrtmp,"O",line,curcol)
          }
      } else if (o.num==-2) {
        nvplt(vrtmp,tvec)
        if (gvmarkflag) {
            if (! rvaltdisp(tvec,vrtmp,llist.object(inx).name)) {
                vrtmp.mark(graphItem,tvec,"O",line,curcol,4) }
          } else vrtmp.line(graphItem,tvec,curcol,line)
      } else if (o.num==-1) {
        printf("rv() PROBLEM: CVODE global read not implemented\n")
      } else {
        if (o.num==0) {
            printf("rv WARNING: taking printstep %g for %s\n",printStep,o.name)
            o.num=printStep
          }
        nvplt(vrtmp,o.num)
        if (gvmarkflag) {
                 vrtmp.mark(graphItem,o.num,"O",line,curcol,4)
          } else vrtmp.line(graphItem,o.num,curcol,line)
      }
    // too much fussing with labels
    if (sfunc.substr(filename,"batch")!=-1 || \
        sfunc.substr(filename,"data")==-1) {
        grvecstr = filename
        } else sfunc.tail(filename,"data",grvecstr)
    if (sfunc.len(llist.object(inx).name)>40) {
        grvecstr=llist.object(inx).name } else {
        sprint(grvecstr,"%s:%s",grvecstr,llist.object(inx).name) }
    rv3(grvecstr)
    if (super == 0 && labelm) { graphItem.label(0,0.9,grvecstr)
      } else if (labelm) graphItem.label(0.0,0.95,grvecstr)
    return graphItem
  }

//* gv(vnum) graphs vector
obfunc gv () {  local a,inx,lin localobj o,v1,vtmp
    inx=-1
    lin=line
    a=allocvecs(vtmp)
    if (numarg()==0) { inx = hoc_ac_ } else { 
        if (argtype(1)==0) inx = $1
        if (argtype(1)==2) {
            for ltr(Xo,printlist) if (strm(Xo.name,$s1)) inx=ii1
            if (inx==-1) {print $s1," not found" return this}}
      }
    if (numarg()>=2) { color=curcol=$2 }
    if (numarg()>=3) { lin=$3 }
    o = printlist.object(inx)
    vtmp.copy(o.vec)
    rv2(o.vec) // alters vtmp
    if (o.vec.size==0) { // assume that this is spk trace
        if (o.tvec.size==0) { printf("\tNO SPIKES IN %s\n",printlist.object(inx).name)
          } else {
            nvplt(o.tvec)
            ind.resize(o.tvec.size) ind.fill(1)
            ind.mark(graphItem,o.tvec,"O",lin,curcol)
          }
      } else { 
        if (o.tvflag!=0) { // o.tvec should point to tvec if tvflag==-1
            nvplt(o.vec,o.tvec)
            if (gvmarkflag) { o.vec.mark(graphItem,o.tvec,"O",lin,curcol)
              } else {          o.vec.line(graphItem,o.tvec,curcol,lin) }
          } else {
            if (o.pstep==0) {
                printf("gv WARNING: vitem.pstep not set with tvflag==0 (%s)\n",o)
                o.pstep=printStep
              }
            nvplt(o.vec,o.pstep)
            if (gvmarkflag) { o.vec.mark(graphItem,o.pstep,"O",lin,curcol)
              } else {          o.vec.line(graphItem,o.pstep,curcol,lin) }
          }
        if (labelm) {
            grvecstr=printlist.object(inx).name
            rv3(grvecstr) graphItem.label(0.,0.9,grvecstr) 
          }
      }
    o.vec.copy(vtmp) // in case has been changed by rv2()
    dealloc(a)
    return graphItem
  }


// go(n) will goto location in the data file
obfunc go () { localobj o
    if (argtype(1)==0) { inx=$1 o=llist.object(inx) } else o=$o1
    tmpfile.seek(o.loc)
    return o
  }

// rv_readvec(index,vec)
// read vector #index from file into vector vec
func rv_readvec () { local inx,ii,n localobj o
    if (argtype(1)==0) { inx=$1 o=llist.object(inx) } else o=$o1
    n=o.num
    if (mff) {tstr=filename filename=o.f}
    tmpfile.getname(temp_string_) // may not be necessary?
    if (strcmp(temp_string_,filename)!=0 || tmpfile.isopen()==0) { // don't reopen file if there
        if (! tmpfile.ropen(filename)) {
            print "ERROR rv() can't read ",filename 
            return 0
          }
      }
    tmpfile.seek(o.loc)
    if (numarg()>=3) { 
        if (n!=-2) {
            printf("ERROR rv() called with 2 vecs but only find 1 in %s %s %d\n",filename,o.name,inx)
            return 0
          }
        $o2.vread(tmpfile) $o3.vread(tmpfile) 
      } else {
        if (n==-2) if (! tvec.vread(tmpfile)) {
            printf("rv_readvec tvec READ failure in %s %s %d\n",filename,o.name,inx)
            return 0
          }
        if (! $o2.vread(tmpfile)) {
            printf("rv_readvec vec READ failure in %s %s %d\n",filename,o.name,inx)
            return 0
          }
        if (n==-2 && (tvec.size != $o2.size)) {
            printf("rv_readvec size mismatch in %s %s %d\n",filename,o.name,inx)
            return 0
          }
      }
    if (segments>1) { // needs rewrite
        tmpvec = new Vector($o2.size)
        for ii=1,segments-1 {
            tmpfile.seek(llist.object(inx).loc[ii])
            tmpvec.vread(tmpfile)
            $o2.copy(tmpvec,$o2.size)
          }
        tmpvec = nil
      }
    if (mff) filename=tstr // restore
    return n
  }

//** vf2fwf() take a file in vformat and prints out as multiple fwrites
proc vf2fwf () { local ii localobj f
    f=new File()
    f.wopen($s1)
    for ii=0,entries-1 {
        rv_readvec(ii,vrtmp)
        vrtmp.fwrite(f)
        printf("%d ",vrtmp.size)
      }
    f.close
    printf("\n dt=%g\n",printStep)
  }

//** rvec(num[,vec]) writes to vec, or contents of rvvec_name or
//  to vector of same name if rvvec_name is empty
proc rvec () { local flag,on
    flag=0
    if (sfunc.len(rvvec_name)==0) flag=1
    if (numarg()<1) on=hoc_ac_ else on=$1
    if (numarg()>1) sprint(rvvec_name,"%s",$o2)
    if (sfunc.len(rvvec_name)==0) rvvec_name=llist.object(on).name 
    printf("Copying %s to %s\n",llist.object(on).name,rvvec_name) 
    sprint(temp_string_,"%s.rv_readvec(%d,%s)",this,on,rvvec_name)
    if (flag) rvvec_name="" // clear it again
    if (! execute1(temp_string_)) print "ERROR: Declare target as a vector"
    if (numarg()==4) $o4.copy(tvec)
  }

//** rvl() reads line of vector file into IV graph via vector
// rvl(name,pos[,pos2,pos3,etc])
proc rvl () { local i
    // open the file and go to correct position
    tmpfile.getname(temp_string_)
    if (strcmp(temp_string_,filename)!=0 || tmpfile.isopen()==0) {
        tmpfile.ropen(filename) }  // only open if necessary
    if (tmpfile.isopen==0) { printf("ERROR: %s not found.\n",filename)
          return }
    if (numarg() == 3) { 
        tmpfile.seek($3)
        tmpfile.gets(temp_string_) // throw away line
        vrtmp.vread(tmpfile)
      } else {
        tmpvec = new Vector()
        for i=3,numarg() {
            tmpfile.seek($i)
            tmpvec.vread(tmpfile)
            vrtmp.copy(tmpvec,vrtmp.size)
          } 
      }
    tmpvec = nil
    nvplt(vrtmp)
    vrtmp.line(graphItem,printStep,curcol,line)
    // graph it and label the graph
    if (sfunc.substr(filename,"batch")!=-1) { grvecstr = filename
      } else { sfunc.tail(filename,"data",grvecstr) }
    sprint(grvecstr,"%s:%s",grvecstr,$s2)
    if (super==0 && labelm) { graphItem.label(0,0.9,grvecstr)
      } else if (labelm) graphItem.label(grvecstr)
  }

//* utility programs (not all used or even all usable)
//** nvplt() put up new voltage plot
obfunc nvplt () { local xs,ys,flag,prstep
    prstep=10
    if (super == 0) flag=1 else {
        if (gnum>-1) {
            sprint(tstr,"{Graph[%d]}",gnum)
            if (execute1(tstr,0)) { // Graph[gnum] exists
                if (Graph[gnum].view_count>0) { 
                    graphItem=Graph[gnum] flag=0
                  }               
              } 
          } else if (isobj(graphItem,"Graph")) if (graphItem.view_count() > 0) { 
            flag=0
          } else { flag=1 }                   // else need new graph
      }
    if (flag) {
        if (numarg()==2) if (argtype(2)==0) prstep=$2 else prstep=-1
        if (size[1] != 0) { // xmax is set
            newpl(size[0],size[1],size[2],size[3])
          } else if (prstep<0) {
            newpl(0,$o2.max,$o1.min,$o1.max)
          } else {
            newpl(0,$o1.size()*prstep,$o1.min,$o1.max)
          }
      } else if (gveraseflag) graphItem.erase_all
    if (color == -1) {
        curcol += 1
        if (curcol == 0 || curcol>7) curcol = 1 
      } else curcol = color
    graphItem.color(curcol)
    g=graphItem
    return g
  }

//** grrtsize() use view=plot and then pad a little
proc grrtsize () { local h,w,frac
    if (numarg()>=1) tmpobj=$o1 else tmpobj=graphItem
    if (numarg()>=2) frac = $2 else frac=.05
    tmpobj.exec_menu("View = plot")
    tmpobj.size(&x)
    w=frac*(x[1]-x[0])  h=frac*(x[3]-x[2])
    x[0]-=2*w x[1]+=w x[2]-=4*h x[3]+=h // need extra padding on bottom
    tmpobj.size(x[0],x[1],x[2],x[3])
  }

//** newpl()
proc newpl () { local w,h
    if (numarg()==5) newPlot($1,$2,$3,$4) // 5th arg is flag
    if (numarg()==8) {wvloc[0]=$5 wvloc[1]=$6 wvloc[2]=$7 wvloc[3]=$8}
    graphItem = new Graph(0) 
    g=graphItem
    graphItem.xaxis()	// view axis for x and y
    graphItem.view($1,$3,$2-$1,$4-$3,wvloc[0],wvloc[1],wvloc[2],wvloc[3])
    glist.append(graphItem)
  }

//** find_secname(variable,result): put secname into result
proc find_secname () { localobj o
    if ((sfunc.head($s1,"\.[_A-Za-z0-9]+$",$s2))==0) { // strip off stuff after terminal .
        printf("grvec.hoc:find_secname ERR: no section found: %s\n",$s1) err() }
    if (    strm($s1,"\.[_A-Za-z0-9]+[(][0-9.]+[)]$")) {  // form eg v(0.5)
        sfunc.head($s1,"\.[_A-Za-z0-9]+[(][0-9.]+[)]$",$s2)
      } else {
        o=isit($s2)
        if (o.x) {  // the stem is an obj
          o.o.get_loc() 
          sectionname($s2)
          pop_section()
          } else {
            printf("grvec.hoc:f_s ERR0: Can't find sec: %s\n",$s1) err() 
          }
      }
  }

//** vecpanel() main panel
proc vecpanel () {
    if (! attr0) {printf("vecpanel (main panel) can only be run from attr0\n") return }
    fchooser_flag = 0  // used to initialize the file chooser
    sprint(temp_string_,"%s Vectors",simname)
    xpanel(temp_string_)
    xbutton("Graph from file","newpan()")
    xbutton("Sim vectors","pbrgr(\"Graph\",\"gv\")")
    xbutton("Sim attributes","attrpanl(0)")
    xbutton("Save Sim","pvall()")
    xbutton("Panels","apbrowse()")
    redo_printlist()
    xpanel()
  }

//** lpvec(title,vector,printstep) dumps a single vector onto the printer using jgraph
proc lpvec () { local inx,ii
    tmpfile.wopen("lptmp")
    tmpfile.printf("newgraph\nnewcurve pts\n")
    for ii = 0,$o2.size-1 {
        tmpfile.printf("%g ",ii*$3)
        $o2.printf(tmpfile,"%g",ii,ii)
      }
    tmpfile.printf("marktype none\nlinetype solid\ntitle : %s\n",$s1)
    tmpfile.close()
    system("jgraph -P lptmp > lptmp2")
    system("lpt lptmp2")
  }

//** remgrs() -- clears glist
proc remgrs () { local ii
    for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.unmap
    if (keepgr!=-1) {
        for (ii=glist.count-1;ii>0;ii-=1) glist.remove(ii) // leave #1
      } else glist.remove_all
  }

//** clear() -- clears llist
proc clear () {
    entries=1 segments=1
    comment = ""
    llist.remove_all()
  }

//** ll() same as external llist
proc ll () { 
    if (numarg()==1) {
        if (attr0==1) { for ltr(XO,printlist) if (strm(XO.name,$s1)) print ii1,XO.name,XO.vec.size
          } else          for ltr(XO,llist) if (strm(XO.name,$s1)) print ii1,XO.name,XO.size
      } else {
        if (attr0==1) { for ltr(XO,printlist) print ii1,XO.name,XO.vec.size
          } else          for ltr(XO,llist) print ii1,XO.name,XO.size
      }
  }

//* read_pclamp(file,vscale,tscale): read physiol data file, similar to read_file()
proc read_pclamp () { local ii,cols,pt,length,pstep,tscale,vscale
    if (! tmpfile.ropen($s1)) { printf("\tERROR: can't open file \"%s\"\n",$s1) }
    if (numarg()>=2) vscale=$2 else vscale=1
    if (numarg()>=3) tscale=$3 else tscale=1e3
    printlist.remove_all()
    method("implicit") printStep=0.1
    tmpfile.gets(temp_string_)  
    length=1
    while (! strm(temp_string_,"^\"Time")) {
        length += 1
        tmpfile.gets(temp_string_)  // first word in line was not a number so next line
      }
    temp_string2_ = temp_string_ // column def line
    cols = count_substr(temp_string_,"[(]") // destructive function
    pt = tmpfile.tell()
    length = file_len($s1) - length
    vrtmp.scanf(tmpfile,length,1,cols) // tvec
    pstep=vrtmp.x[1]-vrtmp.x[0]
    pstep*=tscale // typically gives it in s statt ms
    print "Reading ", cols, " columns; ", length, " lines; tstep=",pstep
    for ii=2,cols { // pick up all of the columns
        tmpfile.seek(pt)
        vrtmp.scanf(tmpfile,length,ii,cols)
        vrtmp.mul(vscale) // correct for a common scaling
        npl("col",ii,vrtmp,pstep)
      }
    if (1) {
        sprint(temp_string2_,"%s:%s",$s1,temp_string2_)
        file_with_dot($s1,filename,"v") // put vfilename into name
        print "Saving to ",filename
        pvplist(filename,temp_string2_)
      }
  }

//* read_file(file,cols[,length]): read multicolumn file
//  see also read_pclamp() above
func read_file () { local ii,cols,pt,length
    if (numarg()==0) { print "\tread_file(\"file\",cols)"
        print "\t(must set tstop and printStep.)"
        return 0
      }
    printStep=10
    if (cvode_status()!=0) print "WARNING: Turn off cvode."
    if (numarg()==3) { length = $3 } else { length=tstop/printStep }
    cols = $2
    if (! tmpfile.ropen($s1)) { printf("\tERROR: can't open file \"%s\"\n",$s1) return 0}
    //  printlist.remove_all()
    tmpfile.scanstr(temp_string_)  pt = 0
    // skip over a comment line; note that this will skip extra line if comment line is
    // just one word long
    while (sfunc.head(temp_string_,"[^-+0-9.e]",temp_string2_) != -1) {
        tmpfile.gets(temp_string_)  // first word in line was not a number so next line
        pt = tmpfile.tell()         // location at next line
        tmpfile.scanstr(temp_string_) // get first word here
        print temp_string2_
      }
    for ii=1,cols { // pick up all of the columns
        tmpfile.seek(pt)
        vrtmp.scanf(tmpfile,length,ii,cols)
        npl("col",ii,vrtmp)
      }
    return 1
  }

//* read_rfile(file): read multirow file
//  use col2row to transpose columnar file first
proc read_rfile() { local num
    if (numarg()==0) { print "\tread_rfile(\"file\")" return }
    if (! tmpfile.ropen($s1)) { printf("\tERROR: can't open file \"%s\"\n",$s1) return}
    printlist.remove_all()
    while (tmpfile.scanstr(temp_string_) != -1) {  // read lines
        num = tmpfile.scanvar() // pick up number of items in col
        vrtmp.scanf(tmpfile,num)
        npl(temp_string_,vrtmp)
      }
  }

//* redo_printlist() menu allows removal or addition of inidividual items
proc redo_printlist () {
    xmenu("Printlist")
    xbutton("Save Sim","pvall()")
    xbutton("Add var to printlist","redolist(0)")
    xbutton("Clear printlist","printlist.remove_all()")
    xbutton("Remove item from printlist","redolist(1)")
    xbutton("Vector.op","redolist(2)")
    xbutton("Proc(vector)","redolist(6)")
    xbutton("Link XO->vec,YO->tvec","redolist(7)")
    xbutton("Graph vector","redolist(4)")
    xbutton("Save printlist","redolist(5)")
    xbutton("Archive to file:","pbrgr(\"Archive\",\"pv\")")
    xbutton("Add all obj's of this type to printlist","redolist(3)")
    xmenu()
  }

//* redolist() set of functions for altering the printlist called by redo_printlist()
proc redolist () { local ii,flag
    if (! isobj(printlist,"List")) printlist = new List()
    flag = $1  rdstr = 1
    if (numarg()==2) { recstr=$s2  rdstr=0 }
    if (flag==0) {
        if (! isobj(scob,"SymChooser")) scob = new SymChooser()
        if (scob.run()) {
            scob.text(temp_string_)
            npl(temp_string_)
          }
      } else if (flag==1) { // remove item
        printlist.browser("Double click on item to remove","name")
        printlist.accept_action("printlist.remove(hoc_ac_)")
      } else if (flag==2) { // .op
        if (rdstr) string_dialog("Enter operation to be run on vec",recstr)
        temp_string_ = "\"%s.%s = %g\\n\""
        sprint(temp_string_,"printf(%s,printlist.object(hoc_ac_).name,\"%s\",x=printlist.object(hoc_ac_).vec.%s)",temp_string_,recstr,recstr)
        printlist.browser(recstr,"name")
        printlist.accept_action(temp_string_)
      } else if (flag==3) { // put another set of things on list
        if (! isobj(scob,"SymChooser")) scob = new SymChooser()
        if (rdstr) string_dialog("String to be used as suffix for all items on list",recstr)
        scob.run()
        scob.text(temp_string_)
        tmplist = new List(temp_string_)
        record(tmplist,recstr)
      } else if (flag==4) { // show it
        pbrgr("Graph","gv")
      } else if (flag==5) {
        fchooser_flag = 0
        tmpfile.chooser("a","Add printlist to file")
        if (tmpfile.chooser()==1) {
            tmpfile.printf("\nproc make_printlist() { \n")
              tmpfile.printf("  printlist.remove_all()\n")
              for ii=0,printlist.count-1 {
                  tmpfile.printf("  npl(\"%s\")\n",printlist.object(ii).name)
                }
              tmpfile.printf("}\nmake_printlist()\n")
            tmpfile.close()
          }
      } else if (flag==6) { // proc(vec)
        if (rdstr) string_dialog("Enter procedure name \"proc\",called as proc(vec,var,num)",recstr)
        printlist.browser(recstr,"name")
        sprint(temp_string_,"%s(printlist.object(hoc_ac_).vec,printlist.object(hoc_ac_).name,hoc_ac_)",recstr)
        printlist.accept_action(temp_string_)
      } else if (flag==7) { // XO is pointer to vec
        printlist.browser("XO","name")
        sprint(temp_string_,"{tmpobj=printlist.object(hoc_ac_) print hoc_ac_,tmpobj.name XO=tmpobj.vec YO=tmpobj.tvec}")
        printlist.accept_action(temp_string_)
      } 
  }

//** mkmenu(title,action,proc) makes a menu from printlist
proc mkmenu () { local ii
    xmenu($s1)
    for ii=0,printlist.count-1 {
        sprint(temp_string_,"%s %s",$s2,printlist.object(ii).name)
        sprint(temp_string2_,"%s(%d)",$s3,ii)
        xbutton(temp_string_,temp_string2_)
      }
    sprint(temp_string_,"mkpanel(\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\")",$s1,$s2,$s3)
    xbutton("Leave up",temp_string_)
    xmenu()
  }

//** pbrgr(browser name,action) is used to put up a browser
// note action given without '()'
proc pbrgr () {
    if (printlist.count == 1) {
        gv(0)
      } else if (printlist.count <= 8) {
        mkpanel("Vector",$s1,$s2)
      } else {
        sprint(temp_string_,"%s:%s",simname,$s1)
        printlist.browser(temp_string_,"name")
        sprint(temp_string2_,"%s()",$s2)
        printlist.accept_action(temp_string2_)
      }
  }

//** mkpanel(title,action,proc) makes a panel from printlist
proc mkpanel () { local ii
    sprint(temp_string_,"%s:%s",simname,$s1)
    xpanel(temp_string_)
    for ii=0,printlist.count-1 {
        sprint(temp_string_,"%s %s",$s2,printlist.object(ii).name)
        sprint(temp_string2_,"%s(%d)",$s3,ii)
        xbutton(temp_string_,temp_string2_)
      }
    xpanel()
  }

//** remprl() -- remove printlist item by name
proc remprl () { local flag
    flag=0
    if (numarg()==2) flag=1 else print "LISTING ONLY; rerun with 2 args to remove"
    for (ii=printlist.count-1;ii>=0;ii-=1) {
        Xo=printlist.object(ii)
        if (strm(Xo.name,$s1)) if (flag) printlist.remove(ii) else print Xo.name
      }
  }

// for ltr(XO,glist) { print XO,XO.view_count }

//** wvpanl() 
proc wvpanl () { local  ii
    sfunc.tail(filename,"data.*/",grvecstr)
    sprint(temp_string_,"%s:%s (WVPANL)",simname,grvecstr)
    xpanel(temp_string_)
    sprint(temp_string_,"%d Vectors",llist.count)
    xlabel(temp_string_)
    for ii=0,3 {
         sprint(temp_string_,"size[%d]",ii)
         sprint(temp_string2_,"chrange(%d)",ii)
         xvalue(szstr[ii].s,temp_string_,0,temp_string2_,0,1)
      }
    xvalue("Shift L/R","shift",0,"chrange(-2)",0,1)
    xmenu("Other")
    xbutton("Clear/Set to G0","chrange(-1)")
    xbutton("View=plot","viewplot()")
    xbutton("0,tstop,-90,50","setrange(0,tstop,-90,50)")
    // xbutton("Clean graph list","collapsegrs()")
    xbutton("Attributes","attrpanl()")
    xmenu()
    xpanel()
    if (glist.count>0) for ii=0,3 if (size[ii]==0) size[ii]=glist.object(0).size(ii+1)
  }

//** chrange() changes range for a set of graphs (called from attrpanl)
proc chrange () { local cnt, flag, ii, sz1, sz2, sz3, sz4
    if (numarg()==1) { flag = $1 } else { flag = -1 }
    cnt = glist.count()
    for (ii=cnt-1;ii>=0;ii=ii-1) if (glist.object(ii).view_count() == 0) glist.remove(ii)
    cnt = glist.count() // check again after removing any with no views
    if (cnt==0) { for ii=0,3 size[ii]=0 return }
    // flag -1 means set everything from the first graph
    if (flag==-1) for ii=0,3 size[ii] = glist.object(0).size(ii+1)
    if (flag==-2) for ii=0+luprd,1+luprd size[ii] += shift // shift right or left
    if (flag==5) { size[0]=0 size[1]=tstop } // just set x
    // for each of the graphs
    for ltr(Xo,glist) {
        sz1=Xo.size(1) sz2=Xo.size(2) sz3=Xo.size(3) sz4=Xo.size(4)
        if (flag==0) Xo.size(size[0],sz2,sz3,sz4)
        if (flag==1) Xo.size(sz1,size[1],sz3,sz4)
        if (flag==2) Xo.size(sz1,sz2,size[2],sz4)
        if (flag==3) Xo.size(sz1,sz2,sz3,size[3])
        if (flag==-1 || flag==4) Xo.size(size[0],size[1],size[2],size[3])
        if ((flag==-2 && !luprd) || flag==5) Xo.size(size[0],size[1],sz3,sz4)
        if (flag==-2 && luprd) Xo.size(sz1,sz2,size[2],size[3])
      }
    for ii=0,3 if (size[ii]==0) size[ii]=glist.object(0).size(ii+1)
  }

//** grall() graphs all of the lines from the file
// use vector $o2 as indices for vectors (see tposvec)
proc grall () { local cnt,ii,min,max,gr,skip,iskp,vind,sind,a
    if (numarg()==0) {printf("grall(min,max,gr_offset,skipgr,iskp]): graph vectors.\n") return }
    sind=vind=0
    cnt = llist.count()
    min=0 max=cnt-1
    // will reset max if is vector with numarg()==2
    // with 2 args, vector $o2 gives indices for vectors (see tposvec)
    if (numarg()>=1) {
        if (argtype(1)==0) { min=$1
          } else { // a vector of indices or a string for prdr/vrdr
            a=allocvecs(1)
            if (argtype(1)==1) { vind=1 mso[a].copy($o1) } else sind=1
          }
      }
    if (numarg()>1) { max=$2 if (max<0) max+=llist.count }
    if (numarg()>2) gr=$3 else gr=0
    if (numarg()>3) skip=$4 else skip=1
    if (numarg()>4) iskp=$5 else iskp=1
    if (iskp==0) iskp=1
    if (super==1 && glist.count==0) { 
        remgrs()
        print "Creating plot"
        skip=0
        newPlot(0,tstop,-100,100) glist.append(graphItem)}
    if (super==0 && glist.count==0) size[1]=0
    if (sind) { 
        // for vrdr(aa,$s2,1,1) aa.x(0).append(ii1)
        vind=1
      }
    if (vind) { min=0 max=mso[a].size-1 }
    for (ii=min;ii<=max;ii+=iskp) {
        if (super == 1) { 
            if (gr >= glist.count()) break
            graphItem = glist.object(gr) 
            gr=gr+skip
          }
        if (vind) rv(mso[a].x[ii]) else rv(ii)
      }
    if (vind) dealloc(a)
  }

// go through tmplist selected in rlist and graph onto glist
proc grsel () { localobj o
    for ii=0,tmplist.count-1 {
        rv_readvec((o=tmplist.o(ii)),vrtmp)
        if (ii<glist.count) graphItem=glist.o(ii) else {
            printf("GRV grsel() glist exhausted\n")
            return }
        if (o.num==-2) { // guess should do mark
            vrtmp.mark(graphItem,tvec,"O",line+2,curcol,4)
          } else vrtmp.line(graphItem,o.num,curcol,line)
      }
  }    

// tposvec(rows,cols): generate the indices for a transposed matrix of rows x cols
proc tposvec () { local rows,cols,i,j
    rows=$2 cols=$3
    $o1.resize($2*$3)
    for (i=0;i<rows;i+=1) for (j=0;j<cols;j+=1) $o1.x[j*rows+i]=i*cols+j
  }

// fliptb(rows,cols): generate the indices for a transposed matrix of rows x cols
proc fliptb () { local rows,cols,i,j,p
    rows=$2 cols=$3
    if ($o1.size != $2*$3) {print "Wrong size vector in fliptb()" return}
    p = allocvecs(1) mso[p].resize(rows)
    for (j=0;j<cols;j+=1) {
        mso[p].copy($o1,j*rows,(j+1)*rows-1)
        mso[p].reverse
        $o1.copy(mso[p],j*rows)
      }
  }

//** setrange() sets the range
// setrange(x0,x1,y0,y1)
proc setrange () { local i,ii
    if (numarg()==0){print "setrange(x0,x1,y0,y1)\n setrange(3) erases axes"}
    if (numarg()==0) { for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.size(0,tstop,-100,50)
      } else if (numarg()==1) { for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.xaxis($1)
      } else if (numarg()==2) { for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.size(0,tstop,$1,$2)
      } else {
        size[0]=$1
        for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.size($1,$2,$3,$4)
        for i=1,4 size[i-1]=$i
      }
    for ii=0,3 if (size[ii]==0) size[ii]=glist.object(0).size(ii+1)
  }

//* gxpan()
proc gxpan () { local x localobj xo,yo,g1
    gcomms.remove_all
    gcomms.append(new String2("Move","mvga"))
    gcomms.append(new String2("Mag","magga"))
    for ltr(xo,gcomms) for ltr(yo,glist) {
        yo.menu_remove(xo.s)
        yo.menu_tool(xo.s,xo.t)
      }
    gcomms.append(new String2("Crosshair",""))
    xpanel("Manipulate graphs",1)
    x=-1
    for ltr(xo,gcomms) {sprint(tstr,"mvgaset(%d)",x+=1) xradiobutton(xo.s,tstr)}
    xpanel()
  }  

proc mvgaset () { localobj yo
    print $1,gcomms.o($1).s
    for ltr(yo,glist) yo.exec_menu(gcomms.o($1).s) 
  }

proc mvga () { local type,x,y,keystate,sz1,sz2,sz3,sz4 localobj xo,yo
    type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4 // 2 for press, 1 for dragging, and 3 for release
    xo=glist.o(0)
    sz1=xo.size(1) sz2=xo.size(2) sz3=xo.size(3) sz4=xo.size(4)
    if (type == 2) {
        begx=x begy=y
      } else if (type==3) {
        x-=begx y-=begy
        size[0]=sz1-x size[1]=sz2-x size[2]=sz3-y size[3]=sz4-y
        for ltr(xo,glist) xo.size(sz1-x,sz2-x,sz3-y,sz4-y)
      }
  }

proc magga () { local tmp,type,x,y,begx,begy,keystate,sz1,sz2,sz3,sz4 localobj xo,yo
    type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4 // 2 for press, 1 for dragging, and 3 for release
    xo=glist.o(0)
    sz1=xo.size(1) sz2=xo.size(2) sz3=xo.size(3) sz4=xo.size(4)
    if (type == 2) {
        begx=x begy=y
      } else if (type==3) {
        if (x<begx) { tmp=x x=begx begx=tmp }
        if (y<begy) { tmp=y y=begy begy=tmp }
        size[0]=begx size[1]=x size[2]=begy size[3]=y
        for ltr(xo,glist) xo.size(size[0],size[1],size[2],size[3])
      }
  }

//* grransel() -- graph range select
proc setgrransel () {
    for ltr(Xo,glist) { 
        Xo.menu_remove("REVIEW")
        sprint(tstr,"proc p%d(){grransel($1,$2,$3,$4,%d,%s)}",ii1,ii1,Xo)
        execute1(tstr)
        sprint(tstr,"p%d",ii1)
        Xo.menu_tool("REVIEW", tstr)
        Xo.exec_menu("REVIEW")
      }
  }
  
//** grransel(): CTL-hit == Crosshair
//               SHT-hit == resize
//               hit-drag-release == show in square
//               SHT-hit-drag-release == show new thing there
// Type: press (2), drag (1), release (3)
// Keystate: META-SHT-CTL eg 101=5 is META-CTL
grrcnt=-1
// not debugged
proc grransel () { local type, x0, y0, keystate, ii, gr
    type=$1 x0=$2 y0=$3 keystate=$4 gr=$5
    graphItem=$o7 // = glist.object(gr)
    if (keystate==1 && type==2) { graphItem.exec_menu("Crosshair") // CTL-MOUSE-1
      } else if (keystate==3 && type==3) { 
        print grrcnt
        if (grrcnt>-1) { printf("Graphing %s\n",printlist.object(grrcnt).name)
            graphItem.erase_all()
            rv(grrcnt) 
            graphItem.exec_menu("View = plot")
          }
        graphItem.size(size[0],size[1],size[2],size[3])
      } else if (keystate==2 && type==2) { grrcnt=-1
      } else if (keystate==2 && type==1) { 
        x+=1 // slow it down five-fold
        if (x>5) { grrcnt=(grrcnt+1)%printlist.count
            printf("%d: %s\n",grrcnt,printlist.object(grrcnt).name)
            x=0
          }
      } else if (keystate==0 && type==2) { x=x0 y=y0 } else if (keystate==0 && type==3) {
        graphItem.size(x,x0,y,y0) // resize to chosen square
      } 
  }

//** remgrs() gets rid of all of the graphs (called from attrpanl)
proc remgrs () { local ii,cnt
    if (isobj(graphItem,"Graph")) { graphItem.unmap graphItem = nil }
    for ltr (Xo,glist) Xo.unmap()
    glist.remove_all
  }

//** collapsegrs () take off of glist graphs that have been closed on screen
proc collapsegrs () { local ii
    for (ii=glist.count-1;ii>=0;ii-=1) {
        if (glist.object(ii).view_count() == 0) { 
            glist.remove(ii)
          }
      }
  }

//** viewplot() set the world for each graph correctly
proc viewplot () { local cnt,ii,flag,sz1,sz2,sz3,sz4
    if (numarg()==1) flag=$1 else flag=-1
    if (flag==0) { sz1=sz3=1e10 sz2=sz4=-1e10 }
    for ltr(Xo,glist) {
        Xo.size(&x[0])
        if (flag==0) { 
            if (x[0]<sz1) sz1=x[0]
            if (x[1]>sz2) sz2=x[1]
            if (x[2]<sz3) sz3=x[2]
            if (x[3]>sz4) sz4=x[3]
          } else if (flag==9) {
            Xo.size(0,tstop,x[2],x[3])
          } else { Xo.size(x[0],x[1],x[2],x[3]) }
      }
    if (flag==9) { size[0]=0 size[1]=tstop }
    if (flag==0) for ltr(Xo,glist) Xo.size(sz1,sz2,sz3,sz4)
  }

//** nvwall() changes the size of the graphs
proc nvwall () { local cnt,ii,sz1,sz2,sz3,sz4,wd,ht
    if (numarg()==2) { wd=$1 ht=$2 } else { wd=vsz[0] ht=vsz[1] }
    cnt = glist.count()
    for (ii=cnt-1;ii>=0;ii=ii-1) { 
        if (glist.object(ii).view_count()==0) {glist.remove(ii)
          } else {
            sz1 = glist.object(ii).size(1)
            sz2 = glist.object(ii).size(2)
            sz3 = glist.object(ii).size(3)
            sz4 = glist.object(ii).size(4)
            glist.object(ii).unmap()
            vloc = vloc+vjmp
            if (vloc > 700) { vloc = 0 }
            glist.object(ii).view(sz1,sz3,sz2-sz1,sz4-sz3,0,vloc,wd,ht)
          }
      }
  }

//** geall() erases all of the graphs
proc geall () { local cnt,ii
    cnt = glist.count()
    for ii=0,cnt-1 { 
        glist.object(ii).erase_all()
      }
  }

//** lblall(label,#,xloc,yloc) put label on all of the graphs
// arg3 tells which single graph to put it on
proc lblall () { local cnt,ii,min,max,lx,ly
    if (numarg()==0) { printf("lblall([,loc])\n")  return }
    cnt = glist.count()
    if (numarg()>1) { min=max=$2 } else { min=0 max=cnt-1 }
    if (numarg()==5) { lx=$3 ly=$4 } else { lx=0.1 ly=0.8 }
    if (numarg()>1) { if (sfunc.len($s1)>0) { temp_string_ = $s1
        }}
    for ii=min,max { 
        glist.object(ii).color(color)
        glist.object(ii).label(lx,ly,temp_string_)
      }
  }

//** relbl() put appropriate label on all of the graphs
proc relbl () { local cnt,ii,min,max,lx,ly
    if (numarg()==0) { printf("relbl([str])\n")  return }
    cnt = glist.count()
    if (numarg()==4) { lx=$3 ly=$4 } else { lx=0.1 ly=0.8 }
    if (numarg()>1) glist.object(0).label($s2)
    for ii=0,glist.count-1 {
        Xo=glist.object(0) Yo=llist.object(0)
        Xo.color(0)
        Xo.label(0.,.9,Yo.name) 
        Xo.color(color)
        Xo.label(lx,ly,Yo.vec.label)
      }
  }

//** toggle functions
proc tog (){if (numarg()==0) print super=1-super else print $&1=1-$&1}
proc togmark () {
    if (gvmarkflag==0) { gvmarkflag=1 if (line<4) line+=1
      } else {             gvmarkflag=0 if (line>6) line-=1
      }
    sprint(tstr,"gvmarkflag=%d",gvmarkflag) // set external gvmarkflag as well
    execute(tstr)
    sprint(mesg,"mark=%d",gvmarkflag)
  }

//* panobjl stuff
proc apbrowse () {
    panobjl.browser("attrpanls","s")
    panobjl.accept_action("panobjl.object(hoc_ac_).attrpanl()")
  }

//** po(NUM) set global panobj to that number
proc po () { 
    sprint(tstr,"panobj=GRV[%d]",$1)
    execute(tstr)
  }

proc apkill () {
    panobjl.browser("attrpanls","s")
    panobjl.accept_action("panobjl.remove(hoc_ac_)")
  }

//* printlist stuff

//** record(list,what,vecptr) from items in $o1 object(ii).$s2 in vectors
// $o1 is the list arg $s2 is the thing to be recorded [eg soma.v(0.5)]
// optional $3 is the name of an object belonging to list items that will
// serve as a pointer to the recording vector
proc record () { local ii, dur, na3
    if (isobj($o1,"List")) for ltr(Xo,$o1) {
        sprint(recstr,"%s.%s",Xo,$s2)
        npl(recstr) 
        if (numarg()==3) { 
            sprint(temp_string_,"%s.%s=printlist.object(printlist.count-1).vec",Xo,$s3)
            execute(temp_string_) // only way to get call by ref for object
          }
      } else forsec $o1 { // assume sectionlist
        sprint(recstr,"%s.%s",secname(),$s2)
        npl(recstr) 
        if (numarg()==3) { 
            sprint(temp_string_,"%s.%s=printlist.object(printlist.count-1).vec",Xo,$s3)
            execute(temp_string_) // only way to get call by ref for object
          }
      } 
  }

//** npl(name) adds this item to the printlist
//  npl(name,vec) adds this vec to the printlist
//  npl(name,vec,tvec) adds this vec to the printlist
//  npl(var,name) use name instead of variable name
//  npl(var,ptr) provide an objref to point to the vec
//  npl(name,num,vec)??adds this vec to the printlist under name_num0,name_num1,etc
proc npl () { local dur,nflag,tvflag,prstep  // METHOD DEPENDENT
    if (! isobj(printlist,"List")) printlist = new List()
    tvflag=nflag=0  prstep=0.05
    if (cvode_status()==0.0) {
        sprint(tstr,"%s.printStep=printStep",this)
        execute(tstr)
        prstep=printStep
      } else if (cvode_status()==1.1) {
        tvflag=1
      } else if (cvode_status()==1.0) { // ??
      }
    if (outvecint == 0) dur = tstop else dur = outvecint
    grvecstr = $s1
    repl_mstr(grvecstr," ","",temp_string2_) // no longer splits on '/'
    // eg npl(name,ii,vec)
    if (numarg()>=4) if ($4<=0) tvflag=1 else { tvflag=0 prstep=$4 }
    if (numarg()>=3) { // allows formation of tags on the fly
        if (argtype(3)==0) { 
            if ($3<=0) tvflag=1 else { tvflag=0 prstep=$3 }
          } else if (argtype(2)==0) {
            sprint(temp_string_,"%s%s",grvecstr,":%d")
            sprint(temp_string_,temp_string_,$2)
            vite = new vitem(temp_string_,$o3.size)
            vite.vec.copy($o3)
            if (numarg()==4) if (argtype(4)==1) {
                vite.tvec.copy($o4) vite.tvflag=1 vite.pstep=0
              } else if (argtype(4)==0) { vite.pstep=$4
              } else printf("Arg 4 unrecognized in npl?\n")
            printlist.append(vite)
            return
          } else if (argtype(2)==1) { 
            vite = new vitem(grvecstr,$o2.size,1)
            vite.vec.copy($o2) vite.tvec.copy($o3)
            printlist.append(vite)
            return
          }
      } 
    if (numarg()>=2) { // second arg is a vector to store
        if (argtype(2)==1) {
            vite = new vitem(grvecstr,$o2.size)
            vite.tvflag=tvflag vite.pstep=prstep
            vite.vec.copy($o2)
            printlist.append(vite)
            return
          } else if (argtype(2)==2) {  // give explicit name for the thing to store
            nflag=1
          }
      }
    if (cvode_status()==1.0) { 
        if (tvec.buffer_size==0){tvec.resize(dur/prstep+10) tvec.resize(0)}
        tvec.record(&t) 
      } else if (isobj(tvec,"Vector")) if (tvec.size!=0) { 
        tvec.resize(0) tvec.play_remove()          
      }
    if (nflag) { 
        if (tvflag) { vite = new vitem($s2,dur/prstep+10,1) } else {
                        vite = new vitem($s2,dur/prstep+10,prstep)   }
      } else {
        if (tvflag) { vite = new vitem(grvecstr,dur/prstep+10,1) } else {
                        vite = new vitem(grvecstr,dur/prstep+10,prstep) }
      }
    if (numarg()==2) if (argtype(2)==1) $o2=vite.vec // allow user to assign a pointer
    printlist.append(vite)
    if (tvflag) {
        vite.vec.resize(dur/prstep+10) vite.tvec.resize(dur/prstep+10)
        find_secname(grvecstr,temp_string_) // with lvardt, need to assign in proper context
        sprint(temp_string_,"%s {cvode.record(&%s,%s.vite.vec,%s.vite.tvec)}",temp_string_,grvecstr,this,this)
      } else if (cvode_status()==1.0) { // don't give an explicit prstep
        vite.vec.resize(dur/prstep+10)
        sprint(temp_string_,"%s.vite.vec.record(&%s)",this,grvecstr)
      } else {
        sprint(temp_string_,"%s.vite.vec.record(&%s,%g)",this,grvecstr,prstep)
      }
    if (! execute1(temp_string_)) print "Unable to excute ",temp_string_
    vite=nil
  }

//** store cvode state in a double in form active.local
func cvode_status () { return cvode.active() + cvode.use_local_dt()/10 }

proc ulv () {  }

//** pvall() dumps all vectors to output_file
// Save logic:
// 1) Interactive mode: you're watching simulations while printing out
// data.  You see something you like and save it - the runnum in the
// index file then corrsponds to the number on the data file, it is
// subsequently augmented
// 2) Batch mode: you're running very long sims and saving directly to
// vector files.  You put together a simulation you want and save it
// immediately rather than waiting for the sim to return (in 1 or 2
// days).  To correspond, the data file (v*) must then be numbered
// 'runnum-dec_runnum'
proc pvall () { 
    if (numarg()>=1) { 
        comment = $s1 // a comment
      } else if (sfunc.len(comment)==0) {
        sprint(tstr,"%s.comment=comment",this) execute(tstr)
        sprint(tstr,"Use: %s ?",comment)
        if (!boolean_dialog(tstr)) return
      }
    if (numarg()>=2) output_file=$s2 else {
        sprint(output_file,"%sv%s.%02d",ddir,datestr,runnum-dec_runnum)
        while (tmpfile.ropen(output_file)) { runnum = runnum+1
            printf("%s found, trying %sv%s.%02d\n",output_file,ddir,datestr,runnum-dec_runnum)
            sprint(output_file,"%sv%s.%02d",ddir,datestr,runnum-dec_runnum) 
          }
      }
    printf("Saving to %s\n",output_file)
    pvplist(output_file,comment)
    sprint(output_file,"%sv%s.%02d",ddir,datestr,runnum)
    comment=""
  }

//** pvplist(file,comment,tback) print out the printlist with comment at head
proc pvother () {}  // user can dump other vectors at top with prvec()
proc pvplist () { local inx,tmin,tmax,tback localobj oq,xo
    output_file=$s1
    if (! pvplist0()) return // open file(s)
    pvplist1($s2) // print string header
    if (numarg()==3) if ($3>1) {
        tback=$3 tmax=printlist.o(0).tvec.max
        if (tmax>tback) {
            tmin=tmax-tback
            oq=new NQS() 
            for ltr(xo,printlist) {
                oq.setcols(xo.tvec,xo.vec)
                oq.select(0,">",tmin)
                oq.cpout()
                oq.resize(0)
              }
          }
      }
    pvout() 
    if (numarg()<3) { // leave for appending if $3==1
                         tmpfile.close() tf1.close()
      } else if ($3>1) { tmpfile.close() tf1.close() }
  }

//** pvclose() -- close files used for writing
proc pvclose () {
    tmpfile.close()
    tf1.close()
  }

//** pvplist0() -- open output_file and ancillary dot file if needed
func pvplist0 () { localobj st
    st=new String2()
    file_with_dot(output_file,st.s) // put .filename into st.s
    if (numarg()==0) {
        if (tmpfile.ropen(st.s)) { printf("WARNING: removing %s\n",st.s)
            sprint(st.t,"rm %s",st.s) system(st.t) }
        if (tmpfile.wopen(st.s)==0) { print "Can't open ",st.s  return 0}
        if (! isojt(tf1,tmpfile)) tf1=new File()
        tf1.wopen(output_file)
      } else {
        if (tmpfile.aopen(st.s)==0) { print "Can't open ",st.s," to append" return 0}
        if (! isojt(tf1,tmpfile)) tf1=new File()
        tf1.aopen(output_file)
      }
    return 1
  }

//** prplist1()
proc pvplist1 () {
    tmpfile.printf("//: %s\n",$s1) // comment
    if (cvode_status()==1.1) {
        tmpfile.printf("//printStep -2\n")
      } else if (cvode_status()==1.0) {
        tmpfile.printf("//printStep -1\n")
      } else {
        sprint(tstr,"%s.printStep=printStep",this)
        execute(tstr)
        tmpfile.printf("//printStep %g\n",printStep)
      }
    if (byte_store) tmpfile.printf("//CPU %s\n",uname)
  }

//** pvnext() append another printlist set to same file
proc pvnext () { local ii
    if ($1==0) { 
        pvplist(output_file,comment,1)
        return
      }
    pvplist0(0) // open for appending
    pvout()
    printf("Append to %s\n",output_file)
    tmpfile.close()
    tf1.close
  }

//** pvout() called by pvplist() and pvnext(), actually puts out the vecs
proc pvout () {  // METHOD DEPENDENT
    pvout2()
    if (cvode_status()==1.0 && tvec.max>0) { 
        tmpfile.printf("//b%d 1 %s %d %d\n",tvec_bytesize,"CVODE1.0 tvec",tvec.size,tf1.tell)
        tvec.vwrite(tf1,tvec_bytesize) 
      }
    for ltr(Xo,printlist) { // no whitespace allowed
        if (Xo.code==2) continue
        if (sfunc.len(Xo.vec.label)>0) sprint(temp_string_,"%s__(%s)",Xo.vec.label,Xo.name) else {
            temp_string_=Xo.name } 
        pvpone(Xo)
      }
  }

//** dir2pr(item#[,OUTFILE,OUTCOMMENT]) read the files in dir and add one item to printlist
// see also collect.hoc for batch use
proc dir2pr () { local ix,ps
    printlist.remove_all 
    ix=$1
    for ltr(Xo,dir) {
        read_vfile(Xo.s)
        rv_readvec(ix,vrtmp)
        ps=llist.o(ix).num // pstep: need if want to save a fixed step entry
        grv_.npl(comment,vrtmp,tvec)
      }
    if (numarg()==3) { grv_.pvplist($s2,$s3) read_vfile($s2) }
  }

//** dir2mf(FILENAME,COMMENT) read the files in dir and create a master file
proc dir2mf () { local ix,ps,n localobj f
    f=new File()
    f.wopen($s1)
    f.printf("//: %s\n",$s2)
    for ltr(Xo,dir) {
        read_vfile(Xo.s)
        n=-1
        for ltr(Yo,llist) if (dir2mf2(n+=1)) {
            // repl_mstr(comment," ",";",temp_string2_) // no spaces allowed
            // sprint(temp_string_,"%s_%s",Yo.name,comment)
            f.printf("//b%d %g %s %d %d %s\n",bvec,Yo.num,Yo.name,Yo.size,Yo.loc,filename)
          }
      }
    f.close()
  }

//** read_mf() reads a master file
// assumes file in tmpfile
func read_mf () { local ii,sz,loc,mult,sze,cloc,segs localobj o
    if (attr0) {
        if (!boolean_dialog("Look at file data instead of sim?","YES","NO")) {
            printf("Read file cancelled\n")
            return 0
          }
      } else { attr0=0 }
    if (numarg()==1) filename=$s1 else tmpfile.getname(filename)
    sprint(s,"GRV[%d] %s: %s",objnum(this),simname,filename)
    clear()
    if (!tmpfile.ropen(filename)) { print "E1: Can't open ",filename return 0 }
    while ((numr = tmpfile.gets(tstr)) != -1 && (sfunc.head(tstr,"//[^b]",temp_string2_)==0)) {
        read_vinfo()  // a line giving info about the file (eg comment)
      }
    tmpfile.seek(-numr,1) // back up
    ii=0
    while ((numr = tmpfile.gets(tstr)) != -1) {
        if (((ii+=1)%10000)==0) printf("%d ",ii)
        if (sscanf(tstr,"//b%1ld %g %s %ld %ld %s",&bvec,&nvec,tstr2,&sze,&loc,tstr)!=6) {
            printf("**** GRV read_mf() parse ERR on %s in %s",tstr,filename)
            return 0
          }
        llist.append(new vfile_line(tstr2,sze,loc,nvec,tstr))  // name size loc num
      }
    if (llist.count==0) {
        printf("grvec.hoc::read_mf ERR nothing read from %s\n",filename)
        return 0
      }
    entries=llist.count
    mff=1
    return 1
  }

//** prvec(name,vec,byte_flag[,file])
proc prvec () { local bflag
    if (numarg()>3) { tmpfile.aopen($s4) }
    bflag = $3
    tmpfile.printf("//b%d 1 %s %d %d\n",bflag,$s1,$o2.size,tf1.tell())
    $o2.vwrite(tf1,bflag) 
    if (numarg()>3) { tmpfile.close() }
  }

//** pv() dumps a single vector into output_file
proc pv () { local inx  
    sprint(output_file,"%sv%s.%02d",ddir,datestr,runnum-dec_runnum)
    if (numarg()==0) { inx = hoc_ac_ } else { inx = $1 }
    printf("Printing %s to %s\n",printlist.object(inx).name,output_file)
    // string_dialog("Name for saved vector",printlist.object(inx).name)
    if (tmpfile.ropen(output_file)) { // file exists already
        file_with_dot(output_file,temp_string_) // put .filename into temp_string_
        tmpfile.aopen(temp_string_) tf1.aopen(output_file)
        printf("Appending to %s\n",output_file)
      } else { 
        pvplist0()
        pvplist1(comment)
      }
    pvpone()
    tmpfile.close()
    tf1.close
  }

//** pvpone() -- write out a vector or vector pair to the file
proc pvpone () {  // METHOD DEPENDENT
    if (byte_store) {
        if (isassigned($o1.tvec)) {
            tmpfile.printf("//b%d -2 %s %d %d\n",byte_store,temp_string_,$o1.vec.size,tf1.tell)
            $o1.tvec.vwrite(tf1,tvec_bytesize) 
          } else if ($o1.pstep>0) {
            tmpfile.printf("//b%d %g %s %d %d\n",byte_store,$o1.pstep,temp_string_,$o1.vec.size,tf1.tell)
          } else {
            tmpfile.printf("//b%d -1 %s %d %d\n",byte_store,temp_string_,$o1.vec.size,tf1.tell)
          }
        $o1.vec.vwrite(tf1,byte_store)
      }
  }

//** cpplitem([num]) copy X0 to new item in printlist, optional arg can be pos or neg
proc cpplitem () { local num,cnt
    cnt = printlist.count
    if (numarg()>0) {if ($1>=0) num=$1 else num=cnt+$1} else num=cnt-1
    if (num>cnt-1 || num<0) {
        printf("%d!: Only %d items (0-%d) in list.\n",num,cnt,cnt-1) return 
      }
    if (numarg()>1) grvecstr=$s2 else sprint(grvecstr,"Copy_of_%s",printlist.object(num).name)
    npl(grvecstr,printlist.object(num).vec)
    print printlist.count-1,":XO -> ",grvecstr
    XO = printlist.object(printlist.count-1).vec
  }

//** chgplname([num],STR) change name of item in printlist
proc chgplname () { local num,cnt
    cnt = printlist.count
    if (numarg()>0) {if ($1>=0) num=$1 else num=cnt+$1} else num=cnt-1
    if (num>cnt-1 || num<0) {
        printf("%d!: Only %d items (0-%d) in list.\n",num,cnt,cnt-1) return 
      }
    printlist.object(num).name=$s2
  }

// new_pri(NAME,TVEC,VEC) quick and dirty new_printlist_item
proc new_pri () {
    vite = new vitem($s1,$o2.size)
    if (numarg()==3) { vite.tvec.copy($o2) vite.vec.copy($o3) } else vite.vec.copy($o2)
    printlist.append(vite)
    vite=nil
  }

//* prlexp(sz) expands all the vectors in printlist to size sz
proc prlexp () { 
    sz = $1
    tvec.resize(sz)
    for ltr(Xo,printlist) { Xo.vec.resize(sz) }
  }

//* iterators for printlist and files
//** rvtr() read vector iterator
// usage 'for rvtr(vec) XO.vec.printf' where # is attrpanl#
// not debugged for presence of tvec in cvode
iterator rvtr () { local i,flag,s4flag
    if (numarg()>=2) {$&2=0} else {i1 = 0}
    if (numarg()==3) s4flag=1 else s4flag=0
    for i = 0, entries-1 {
        tstr = llist.object(i).name
        if (s4flag) {if (strm(tstr,$s3)) flag=1 else flag=0}
        if (flag) {
            rv_readvec(i,$o1)    
            iterator_statement
            if (numarg()>=2) { $&2+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
          }
      }
  }

//** vrdr(vlist[,REGEXP or INDV,flag,&y]) -- used for llist
// similar to rvtr() but does interpolation
// use regexp eg for prdr("PYR2.8") { etc }
// optional flag to NOT interpolate
// indv gives set of llist nums to search through (can use with "" as regexp)
// sets 4 vectors in vlist: voltage,times,interp v, interp t
iterator vrdr () { local flag,a,ii localobj rxp,v1,tv1,v2,tv2,ipt
    if (numarg()==0) printf("\t**** HELP::  vrdr(vlist[,REGEXP or INDV,flag,&y]) ****\n")
    curcol=0
    rxp=new String()
    a=allocvecs(ipt)
    if (!isojt($o1,llist)) $o1=new List()
    if ($o1.count==4) { // use the list we're given
        for ii=0,3 if (!isojt($o1.o(ii),vrtmp)) {
            printf("vrdr: Nonvector in vlist:%s\n",$o1.o(ii))
            return
          }
      } else {
        $o1.remove_all 
        for ii=0,3 $o1.append(new Vector())
      }
    v1=$o1.o(0) tv1=$o1.o(1) v2=$o1.o(2) tv2=$o1.o(3) 
    ipt.indgen(0,llist.count-1,1)
    if (numarg()>=2) if (argtype(2)==1) { ipt.copy($o2) 
                } else if (argtype(2)==2) { rxp.s=$s2
                } else { printf("vrdr() ERR arg 2 should be vector or string\n") }
    if (numarg()>=3) flag=$3 else flag=0
    if (numarg()>=4) {$&4=0} else {ii1 = 0}
    if (!flag) {
        if (tvec.max != tstop) printf("WARNING: tvec set?: %g %g\n",tstop,tvec.max)
        tv2.copy(tvec)  // tvec must be preassigned for interpolation
      }
    tmpfile.ropen(filename)
    for (ii1=0;ii1<llist.count;ii1+=1) {
        if (ipt.contains(ii1) && strm(llist.object(ii1).name,rxp.s)) {
            XO=llist.object(ii1)
            if (mff) if (strcmp(filename,XO.f)!=0) { filename=XO.f tmpfile.ropen(filename) }
            tmpfile.seek(XO.loc)
            if (XO.num==-2) tv1.vread(tmpfile) else {
                if (XO.num<=0) {printf("vrdr INTERR; ?printStep for interpolation\n") err()}
                tv1.indgen(0,tstop+0.01,XO.num) }
            v1.vread(tmpfile)
            v2.resize(0)
            if (XO.num==-2 && !flag) v2.interpolate(tv2,tv1,v1)
            i1=ii1
            iterator_statement
            if (numarg()>=4) { $&4+=1 }
          }
      }
    tmpfile.close
    dealloc(a)
  }

//** prdr() -- used for printlist
// use regexp eg for prdr("PYR2.8") { etc }
// optional flag to NOT interpolate
// ind=tvec, vec1=original trace, vec interpolated on tvec
// note that i1 here gives list number, not sequential
// eg for panobj.prdr("V$",1) gv(i1)
iterator prdr () { local flag
    if (numarg()>1) flag=$2 else flag=0
    if (numarg()==3) {$&3=0} else {i1 = 0}
    v1=tv1=v2=tv2=allocvecs(4) tv1+=1 v2+=2 tv2+=3
    if (!flag) {
        if (tvec.max != tstop) printf("WARNING: tvec set?: %g %g\n",tstop,tvec.max)
        mso[tv2].copy(tvec)  // tvec must be preassigned for interpolation
      }
    curcol=0
    if (attr0) for (ii1=0;ii1<printlist.count;ii1+=1) {
        XO=printlist.object(ii1)
        if (strm(XO.name,$s1)) {
            sprint(tstr,"tstr=\"%s\"",XO.name) execute(tstr) // set global tstr
            mso[v1].copy(XO.vec) 
            if (isit(XO.tvec)) mso[tv1].copy(XO.tvec) 
            if (!flag && isit(XO.tvec)) mso[v2].interpolate(mso[tv2],XO.tvec,XO.vec)
            i1=ii1
            iterator_statement
            if (numarg()==3) { $&3+=1 }
          }    
      } else for (ii1=0;ii1<llist.count;ii1+=1) {
        if (strm(llist.object(ii1).name,$s1)) {
            XO=llist.object(ii1)
            i1=ii1
            iterator_statement
            if (numarg()>=3) { $&3+=1 }
          }
      }
    dealloc(v1)
  }

//* outvec() routines for printing out in sections - NOT DEBUGGED

//** outvec_init([output_file,comment])
proc outvec_init() { local segs
    if (numarg()>0) { output_file = $s1 } else {
        sprint(output_file,"%sv%s.%02d",ddir,datestr,runnum-dec_runnum)
        while (tmpfile.ropen(output_file)) { runnum = runnum+1 // don't allow an overwrite
            sprint(output_file,"%sv%s.%02d",ddir,datestr,runnum-dec_runnum) }
      }
    if (numarg()>1) { comment = $s2 }
    print "\nOutput to ",output_file
    if (print_flag) { print "WARNING: print_flag=1 --> 0\n"
        print_flag = 0 }
    if (outvecint==0 || outvecint>tstop) {
        printf("WARNING: outvecint being set to tstop\n")
        outvecint = tstop }
    outvect = outvecint
    segs = int(tstop/outvecint)
    if (tstop/outvecint > segs) { segs=segs+1 }
    tmpfile.wopen(output_file)
    if (strcmp(comment,"")!=0) { tmpfile.printf("//: %s\n",comment) }
    tmpfile.printf("//printStep %g\n",printStep)
    tmpfile.printf("//MULTI %d %d\n",printlist.count,segs)
    tmpfile.close()
  }

//** outvecs()  : print out the vectors and reset them for recording
proc outvecs () { local ii
    if (t<outvect || outvecint == 0) { return }
    tmpfile.aopen(output_file)
    for ii=0,printlist.count-1 {
        tmpfile.printf("//b%d 1 %s %d %d\n",byte_store,printlist.object(ii).name,t-outvecint,tmpfile.tell())
        printlist.object(ii).vec.vwrite(tmpfile,byte_store)
        tmpfile.printf("\n")
        printlist.object(ii).vec.play_remove()
        sprint(temp_string_,"printlist.object(%d).vec.record(&%s,%g)",\
               ii,printlist.object(ii).name,printStep)
        execute(temp_string_)
      }
    tmpfile.close
    outvect = outvect+outvecint
  }

//** outvec_finish () : put out the last section if needed, update the output_file name
proc outvec_finish() {
    if (t > outvect-outvecint+2*dt) {
        tmpfile.aopen(output_file)
        for ii=0,printlist.count-1 {
            tmpfile.printf("//b%d 1 %s %d %d\n",byte_store,printlist.object(ii).name,t-outvecint,tmpfile.tell())
            printlist.object(ii).vec.vwrite(tmpfile,byte_store)
            tmpfile.printf("\n")
          }
        tmpfile.close()
      }
  }

//* endtemplate; assignments:
endtemplate GRV

printStep=0.1
grv_ = new GRV(0)
{panobj=grv_ printlist=grv_.printlist panobjl=grv_.panobjl}

//* external routines
//** new_printlist_item(name) adds this item to the printlist
//  new_printlist_item(name,vec) adds this vec to the printlist
//  new_printlist_item(name,vec,tvec) adds this vec to the printlist
//  new_printlist_item(var,name) use name instead of variable name
//  new_printlist_item(var,ptr) provide an objref to point to the vec
//  new_printlist_item(name,num,vec)??adds this vec to the printlist under name_num0,name_num1,etc
proc new_printlist_item () { local dur,nflag,tvflag
    if (! isassigned(grv_)) { grv_ = new GRV(0) printlist=grv_.printlist }
    if (numarg()==1) { grv_.npl($s1)
      } else if (numarg()==2) {
        if (argtype(2)==1) {
            grv_.npl($s1,$o2)
          } else if (argtype(2)==2) {
            grv_.npl($s1,$s2)
          } else grv_.npl($s1,$2)
      } else if (numarg()==3) {
        if (argtype(2)==1) {
            grv_.npl($s1,$o2,$o3)
          } else if (argtype(2)==0) {
            grv_.npl($s1,$2,$o3)
          }
      }
  }

//** llist() print out contents of a list
proc llist () { local done localobj o,st,xo
    st=new String()  o=panobj
    if (numarg()==2) st.s=$s2
    if (numarg()>=1) { 
        if (argtype(1)==1) {
            if (isobj($o1,"List")) { 
                if ($o1.count==0) {print "empty list" return}
                if (isobj($o1.object(0),"String2")) {
                    for ltr(xo,$o1) if (strm(xo.s,st.s)) print xo.s,xo.t
                  } else if (isobj($o1.object(0),"String")) { 
                    for ltr(xo,$o1) if (strm(xo.s,st.s))  print xo.s
                  } else if (isobj($o1.object(0),"Vector")) {
                    done=0
                    if (name_declared("oform")) if (oform(vec)!=NOP) {
                        for ltr(xo,$o1) print xo,oform(xo) 
                        done=1 
                      }
                    if (!done) for ltr(xo,$o1) print xo,xo.size
                  } else if (isobj($o1.object(0),"Union")) {
                    for ltr(xo,$o1) if (strm(xo.s,st.s)) print xo,xo.s,xo.t,xo.u,xo.v
                  } else for ltr(xo,$o1) print xo
                return
              } else o=$o1
          } else if (argtype(1)==2) st.s=$s1
      }
    if (o.attr0) { for ltr(xo,printlist) if (strm(xo.name,st.s)) print i1,xo.name,xo.vec.size
      } else         for ltr(xo,o.llist) if (strm(xo.name,st.s)) print i1,xo.name,xo.size      
  }

//** cpprl(PRINTLIST,TMPLIST) copies printlist vitem's to tmplist
proc cpprl () { localobj xo,yo
    $o2.remove_all
    for ltr(xo,$o1) {
        $o2.append((yo=new vitem(xo.name,xo.vec.size)))
        yo.tvflag=xo.tvflag yo.pstep=xo.pstep yo.o=xo.o yo.vec.copy(xo.vec)
        if (yo.tvflag) {yo.tvec=new Vector() yo.tvec.copy(xo.tvec)}
      }
  }

//** abbreviated proc calls
proc gvpwpl () { pwman_place(500,500) }
proc vp () { grv_.vecpanel }
obfunc gvnew () { 
    if (numarg()==1) {
        if (argtype(1)==0) {
            panobj=new GRV($1)
          } else if (argtype(1)==2) {
            panobj=new GRV($s1)
          } else if (argtype(1)==1) {
            $o1=new GRV(-2)
            panobj=$o1
          }
      } else if (numarg()==2) {
        if ($2>0) {
            panobj=panobjl.object($2)
            panobj.read_vfile($s1)
          } else panobj=new GRV($s1,$2) // file,flag
      } else panobj=new GRV(1) // default
    return panobj
  }

proc ap () { local ii,attr0,nopan localobj o
    nopan=ii=0
    if (numarg()==0) { o=panobj 
      } else if (numarg()>=1) {
        if (argtype(1)==0) { ii=$1 
            o=grv_.panobjl.object(ii)
            if (ii<0 || ii>=grv_.panobjl.count) { 
                printf("**** ap(%d) ERR panobj #%d not found -- run gvnew() \n",ii,ii) return }
          } else o=$o1
      }
    if (numarg()>=2) if (argtype(2)==0) if ($2==-2) nopan=1
    attr0=o.attr0
    o.attrpanl()
    if (!nopan) if (attr0) o.pbrgr("Graph","gv") else o.rpanel()
    panobj=o
  }
proc disptray () { print "Must load boxes.hoc to get trays" }

//** gg() graph vectors and functions directly
//** gs(#) select graph (by setting g and graphItem to this Graph#
proc gs () { 
    if (argtype(1)==1) {      g=$o1 graphItem=g 
      } else if (numarg()==2) { g[$1]=Graph[$2] 
      } else {                  g=Graph[$1] graphItem=g }
  }
// gg(g[i],vec) gg(vec,step) gg(vec,ind) gg(g,"FUNC","min,max") [color,line,symbol]
strdef symb
symb = "O"
gvmarkflag=0
obfunc gg () { local gp,na,newgr,clr,a,stp,i,tmp localobj ty,ts,abs,ord,o,go
    a=allocvecs(ty,abs,ord)
    ts=new String2()
    na=numarg() newgr=1
    ty.resize(10) ty.fill(-1)
    for i=1,na ty.x[i]=argtype(i)
    i=1
    clr=panobj.color lne=panobj.line
    if (ty.x[i]==0) { 
        gp=$i                                         i+=1
      } else gp=0
    if (gp<10) {
        if (isassigned(g[gp])) if (g[gp].view_count>0) newgr=0
        if (newgr) g[gp]=new Graph()
        go=graphItem=g[gp]
        graphList[0].append(g[gp])  panobj.glist.append(g[gp])
      } else {
        graphItem=go=new Graph()
        graphList[0].append(go)  panobj.glist.append(go)
      }
    if (gvmarkflag) ts.t="mark" else ts.t="line"
  
    if (na==1 && ty.x[0]==0) { return  // gg(#) just put up the graph
      } else if (na==i && ty.x[i]==1) { 
        sprint(ts.t,"%s.%s(%s,1",$oi,ts.t,go)   // gg(vec)
      } else if (ty.x[i]==2) { // gg("FUNC","min,max,step")
        min=0 max=10 stp=0
        ts.s=$si                                      i+=1
        if (ty.x[i]==2) {
            split($si,abs,"[:/]") min=abs.x[0] max=abs.x[1] 
            if (abs.size==3) stp=abs.x[2]               i+=1
          }
        if (stp==0) stp=(max-min)/200
        abs.indgen(min,max,stp) ord.copy(abs) 
        if (!name_declared(ts.s)) { // look for an x that will become $1
            if (!strm(ts.s,"[$]1")) { printf("gg ERR Can't find '$1' in %s\n",ts.s) return nil }
            sprint(ts.s,"func _gg_f(){return %s}",ts.s) execute1(ts.s)
            print ts.s
            ts.s="_gg_f"
          }
        ord.apply(ts.s)
        sprint(ts.t,"%s.%s(%s,%s",ord,ts.t,go,abs)
      } else if (ty.x[i]==1 && ty.x[i+1]==0) {     // gg(vec,step)
        o=$oi                                         i+=1
        if (isobj(o,"List")) {
            tmp=$i   i+=1
            if (int($i)!=$i) { // a timestep
                sprint(ts.t,"%s.%s(%s,%g",o.o(tmp),ts.t,go,$i)      i+=1  
              } else {
                sprint(ts.t,"%s.%s(%s,%s",o.o(tmp),ts.t,go,o.o($i)) i+=1  
              }
          } else { // vector
            sprint(ts.t,"%s.%s(%s,%g",o,ts.t,go,$i)     i+=1  
          }                                          
      } else if (ty.x[i]==1 && ty.x[i+1]==1) {     // gg(vec,ind)
        o=$oi                                         i+=1
        sprint(ts.t,"%s.%s(%s,%s",o,ts.t,go,$oi)   i+=1
      }
    if (ty.x[i]==0) { clr=$i                        i+=1 }
    if (ty.x[i]==0) { lne=$i                        i+=1 }
    if (ty.x[i]==2) { symb=$si                      i+=1 }
    if (sfunc.len(ts.t)>4) {
        if (gvmarkflag) { sprint(ts.s,"%s,\"%s\",%d,%d,1)",ts.t,symb,lne,clr)
          } else { sprint(ts.s,"%s,%d,%d)",ts.t,clr,lne) }
        execute(ts.s)
      }
    dealloc(a)
    return graphItem
  }

//*** ge() erases IV graph
proc ge () { if (numarg()==0) graphItem.erase_all() else g[$1].erase_all }

//** gv() calls internal gv
proc gv () {  local inx,na // EXTERNAL VERSION -- same name in template
    na=numarg()
    if        (argtype(1)==0) { inx = $1
      } else if (argtype(1)==2) {
          for ltr(XO,printlist) if (strm(XO.name,$s1)) inx=i1
          if (inx==-1) {print $s1," not found" return }
      }
    if (na==1) grv_.gv(inx) else if (na==2) grv_.gv(inx,$2) else if (na==3) grv_.gv(inx,$2,$3)
  }

//** restore_printlist() restores the plist from a file in an attrnum
objref vite
proc restore_printlist () { local cnt,ii,attrnum,savlvar localobj aa,st
    printf("NOT WORKING\n")
    st=new String()
    attrnum=$1
    printlist.remove_all
    panobj=grv_.panobjl.object(attrnum)
    for panobj.vrdr(aa,"",1) {
        vite= new vitem(st.s,aa.o(0).size)
        vite.vec.copy(aa.o(0))
        printlist.append(vite)
      }
  }

//** dirname(full,path) filname(full,file) splits up path/file
// eg filname("/home/billl/nrniv/thal/params.hoc",temp_string_)
//    temp_string_ => params.hoc
obfunc dirname () { localobj st
    st=new String2()
    sfunc.head($s1,"[^/]+$",st.s)
    sfunc.tail($s1,st.s,st.t)
    if (numarg()==2) $s2=st.s
    return st
  }

//** filname()
obfunc filname () { localobj st
    st=new String2()
    sfunc.head($s1,"[^/]+$",st.t)
    sfunc.tail($s1,st.t,st.s)
    if (numarg()==2) $s2=st.s
    return st
  }

//** file_with_dot(filename,[result,prefix]): put .filename into result
obfunc file_with_dot () { localobj st
    st=dirname($s1)
    if (numarg()==3) { sprint(st.s,"%s%s%s",st.s,$s3,st.t)
      } else             sprint(st.s,"%s.%s", st.s,    st.t)
    if (numarg()>=2) $s2=st.s
    return st
  }

//* fexists()
func fexists () { localobj o
    o=new File()
    return o.ropen($s1)
  }

//** ftype()
func ftype () { local ty localobj st
    ty=0
    st=new String2()
    sprint(st.t,"stat -c %%F %s 2>&1",$s1)
    system(st.t,st.s)
    chop(st.s)
    if (strm(st.s,"\n")) {               return 10 //  more than 1 file -- ie * used
      } else if (strm(st.s,"No such"))   { return -1
      } else if (strm(st.s,"directory")) { return 0
      } else if (strm(st.s,"symbolic")) {  return 8
      } else if (strm(st.s,"regular"))  {  return 2
      } else { // not identified
        printf("File %s is a %s\n",$s1,st.s)
        return -2
      }
  }

//** file_len() uses wc
func file_len () { local x localobj st
    st=new String()
    sprint(st.s,"wc -l \"%s\"",$s1)
    system(st.s,st.s)
    sscanf(st.s,"%d",&x)
    return x
  }

func cvode_status () { return cvode.active() + cvode.use_local_dt()/10 }

proc pvall () { localobj o
    o=panobjl.o(0)
    if (! o.attr0) { printf("pvall() ERR %s not attr0==0\n",o)
      } else o.pvall()
  }

//** procbutt() put up a single proc in a button
proc procbutt () {
    xpanel($s1)
    xbutton($s1,$s1)
    xpanel(500,500)
  }

// mdl2view(g,X,Y) converts model coordinates to view coordinates
// eg {XO=mdl2view(g,12,533.7) g.label(XO.x,XO.x[1],"AA",2,2,0.5,0.5,1)}
// translate from world coordinates into view coordinates
obfunc mdl2view () { local a,ii,x0,y0 localobj o,v1,g
    g=$o1 x0=$2 y0=$3
    if (argtype(4)==1) v1=$o4 else { v1=new Vector(4) g.size(&v1.x[0]) }
    o=new Union()
    o.x=   (x0-v1.x[0])/(v1.x[1]-v1.x[0])
    o.x[1]=(y0-v1.x[2])/(v1.x[3]-v1.x[2])  
    o.x[2]=o.x[0]*0.8+0.1 
    o.x[3]=o.x[1]*0.8+0.1 // scale and move over to where graph usually is
    return o
  }

proc stopper () {
    xpanel("STOP")
    xbutton("STOP","stoprun=1")
    xbutton("FINI","finish()")
    xbutton("CONT","time(\"cvode.solve(tstop)\")")
    xbutton("RUN","time()")
    xpanel()
  }

// END /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/grvec.hoc
//================================================================
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/syncode.hoc
// =Id=  syncode.hoc,v 1.402 2008/10/11 15:29:27 billl Exp 

//* setup
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/labels.hoc
// =Id=  labels.hoc,v 1.85 2008/11/12 14:07:27 billl Exp 

objref NCv,CODEv,DELv
objref PRIDv,POIDv,PRv,POv,DISTv,WT0v,WT1v // mo(1) will assign these
declare("ce",nil,"CTYP",new List(),"CPLA",new List(),"TPA",new List(),"nm",new List())
declare("STYP",new List(),"ncells",0,"ZTYP",new List(),"INCOL",new List())

//* utility functions
// plmin(val,var)
func plmin() { return $1 + $2*(2*u_rand() - 1) } 

//* cell types: 
// iex(), returns numeric index associated with a string or string object
func iex () { 
    if (argtype(1)==2) sprint(tstr,"x=%s",$s1) else sprint(tstr,"x=%s",$o1.s)
    execute(tstr) return x 
  }
// ice(), returns whether cell is an inhib cell based on its name starting with I
func ice () { local x
    if (argtype(1)==2) return strm($s1,"^I")
    if (argtype(1)==0) x=$1 else if (argtype(1)==1) x=$o1.type 
    return strm(CTYP.o(x).s,"^I")
  }
proc printtype () { local i
    for (i=1;argtype(i)==0;i+=1) if ($i!=-1) printf("%s(%d) ",CTYP.o($i).s,$i)
    if (argtype(i)==2) printf("%s",$si) else print ""
  }
proc celltype () { localobj st
    st=new String("\n")
    if (argtype(2)==2) st.s=$s2
    if (argtype(1)==0) printtype(ce.o($1).type,st.s) else printtype($o1.type,st.s) 
  }

obfunc n2i () { return names2indices($s1) }
obfunc names2indices () { local x localobj lo,xo,yo,mo,st
    lo=new List() st=new String()
    split($s1,lo)
    for ltr(xo,lo,&x) { sprint(st.s,"%s=%d",xo.s,x) execute(st.s) }
    if (numarg()>1) { 
        split($s2,mo) 
        for ltr2(xo,yo,lo,mo) xo.t=yo.s
      }
    return lo
  }

CTYP=names2indices("NU,SM,DP,SU,IN,TC,IRE,E6,I6,I6C,I6L,E5B,E5R,I5,E4,I4,E2,E2B,I2,I2Q,I2C,I2L")
CTYPi=CTYP.count  // number of cell types

// 1 cmp nrn, 2 cmp nrn, multi cmp nrn, intfire1, INTF, invlfire, nstim
for scase2(XO,"1-CMP","CMP1","2-CMP","CMP2","MULTI-CMP","MC","IntFire1","IF1","INTF","IF",\
          "INVLF","IFV","NStim","STM") { CPLA.append(XO)
    sprint(tstr,"%s=%d",XO.t,i1) execute(tstr) }
CPLAi=CPLA.count // count of cell templates

for scase2(XO,"REAL","RL","ARTC","AC","SOMA","SO","DEND","DN") {TPA.append(XO)}
TPAi=TPA.count

proc ae () { localobj xo
    STYP.remove_all
    for scase2(xo,"AMPA","AM","NMDA","NM","GABAA","GA","GABAB","GB","GABAB2","GB2",\
             "IClamp","IC","AMPA/NMDA","EX","GABAA/GABAB2","IX","Exp2Syn","E2Sy"){
        STYP.append(new String2(xo.t,xo.s)) // switch them around here
        sprint(tstr,"%s=%d",xo.t,i1)
        execute(tstr)
      }
    STYPi=STYP.count  // number of cell types
  }
ae()

for scase(XO,"DG","CA3","CA1","SUB","PSUB","MEC","LEC") {
    sprint(tstr,"%s=%d",XO.s,i1) execute(tstr) ZTYP.append(new String(XO.s))
  }

for scase2(XO,"RIGHT","RIT","INCOL","INC","LEFT","LFT") { INCOL.append(new String(XO.s))
    sprint(tstr,"%s=%d",XO.t,i1) execute(tstr) }
INCOLi=INCOL.count
// END /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/labels.hoc
//================================================================
strdef syn1,syn2
thresh = -20
objref cp,svs,ncq
objref ivspks,vspks,wvspks,ncl[1][1][1]
objref sp[3], c[1], ce, nc[1], cells[10] // enough room for 10 cell types
objref vite
double numc[CTYPi],ix[CTYPi],ixe[CTYPi],wmat[CTYPi][CTYPi][STYPi],wd0[CTYPi][CTYPi][STYPi]
Incol=2
ncl = new List()
sp = new NQS()

//* iterator ixt(),ctt(),stt()
iterator ctt () { local jj // global ii
    if (argtype(2)==3) $&2=0 else i1=0
    for jj=0,CTYPi-1 if (numc[jj]!=0) { 
        if (ce!=nil) if (ix[jj]<ce.count()) { 
            if (argtype(1)==1) $o1=ce.o(ix[jj]) else XO=ce.o(ix[jj]) 
          }
        if (argtype(1)==3) $&1=jj else ii=jj
        iterator_statement
        if (argtype(2)==3) $&2+=1 else i1+=1
      }
  }

//* iterator cttr() -- reverse iterator of ctt
iterator cttr () { local jj // global ii
    if (argtype(2)==3) $&2=0 else i1=0
    for(jj=CTYPi-1;jj>=0;jj-=1) if (numc[jj]!=0) { 
        if (ce!=nil) if (ix[jj]<ce.count()) { 
            if (argtype(1)==1) $o1=ce.o(ix[jj]) else XO=ce.o(ix[jj]) 
          }
        if (argtype(1)==3) $&1=jj else ii=jj
        iterator_statement
        if (argtype(2)==3) $&2+=1 else i1+=1
      }
  }


iterator stt () { local ia,ja,ka,ib,jb,im,jm // global ii,jj,kk
    i1=ib=jb=0 im=jm=CTYPi-1 
    if (argtype(1)==0) if ($1>=0) ib=im=$1
    if (argtype(2)==0) if ($2>=0) jb=jm=$2
    if (argtype(4)==3) $&4=0
    for ia=ib,im for ja=jb,jm if (numc[ia]!=0 && numc[ja]!=0) {
        if (ce!=nil) if (ix[ia]<ce.count()) {XO=ce.o(ix[ia]) YO=ce.o(ix[ja])}
        for ka=0,STYPi-1 if (wmat[ia][ja][ka]!=0) {
            if (argtype(3)==3) { $&1=ia $&2=ja $&3=ka } else { ii=ia jj=ja kk=ka }
            iterator_statement
            if (argtype(4)==3) $&4+=1 else i1+=1
          }
      }
  }

ixi=ixj=0 // ixi steps through cell#s and ixj is consecutive
for ii=0,CTYPi-1 ixe[ii]=-1
// ctype(#,TYPE)
func ctype () { local ii
    if (numarg()==2) {
        return ($1>=ix[$2] && $1<=ixe[$2]) 
      } else {
        for ii=0,CTYPi-1 if ($1>=ix[ii] && $1<=ixe[ii]) return ii 
        return -1
      }
  }
// ixt(type[,col,vec]); ixt(type,&x); ixt(type,col,&x)
iterator ixt () { local ty,col,a,lfl,ixa,i localobj o
    ty=$1 lfl=0
    if (argtype(2)==0) col=$2 else { col=-1 if (argtype(2)==3) lfl=2 }
    if (argtype(3)==1) { o=$o3 vrsz(numc[ty],o,"O") } else if (argtype(3)==3) lfl=3
    i=lfl
    if (col<0) {
        for ({ixa=ix[ty] ixj=0};ixa<=ixe[ty];{ixa+=1 ixj+=1}) { XO=ce.o(ixa)
            if (lfl) $&i=ixa else ixi=ixa
            iterator_statement
          }
      } else {
        if (col>=ncols) printf("ixt ERR: Only %d columns (%d)\n",ncols,col) else {
            a=ix[ty]+col*numc[ty]/ncols
            for ({ixa=a ixj=0};ixa<a+numc[ty]/ncols;{ixa+=1 ixj+=1}) { XO=ce.o(ixa)
                if (lfl) $&i=ixa else ixi=ixa
                iterator_statement
              }
          }
      }
    if (o!=nil) stat(o)
  }

// for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("", "", "")) print XO.precell,XO.postcell,XO.syn
//* synapse linking -- old routines not using NQS
//** geolink(s1,s2,s3) s1 for presyns and s2 for postsyns, connect s3's
// only checks for INTF as a possible pre/post point process
// connects a layer to another assuming 1 dim netgeom
proc geolink() { local i,ii,a,sav,nowrap,noself
    if (numarg()==0) { print "\tgeolink(s1,s2,s3,DEFCON)"
        print "  make connections from s1 to s2 connecting onto s3 type PPs."
        print "  DEFCON struct defines connection"
        return
      }
    // default to yes wrap; yes within-column connect unless $s1==$s2
    nowrap = !$o4.wrap  noself=!$o4.self
    if (strcmp($s1,$s2)==0) $o4.self=0
    tmpobj=new List($s1)
    // object containing a receive/event PP need fflag=1 and intf as name of PP
    if (tmpobj.object(0).fflag) { // presynaptic object flag
        sprint(temp_string_,"ncl.append(new NetCon(XO.intf, YO.%s))",$s3)
      } else {
        sprint(temp_string_,"XO.soma ncl.append(new NetCon(&v(.5), YO.%s))",$s3)
      }
    for ltr (XO,tmpobj,&y) { // presyn list
        $o4.grot(y)
        for lvtr (YO,&x,new List($s2),$o4.scr) { // postsyn list and vector
            if (x==1) { // connect
                print "connecting ",XO," to ",YO
                execute(temp_string_)
              }
          }
      }
    XO=nil YO=nil
  }

//** glink() same as geolink but takes lists statt strings
proc glink() { local i,ii,a,sav,nowrap,noself
    if (numarg()==0) { print "\tgeolink(l1,l2,DEFCON)"
        print "  make connections from items in l1 to items in l2."
        print "  DEFCON struct defines connection"
        return
      }
    // default to yes wrap; yes within-column connect unless $s1==$s2
    nowrap = !$o4.wrap  noself=!$o4.self
    // object containing a receive/event PP need fflag=1 and intf as name of PP
    if ($o1.object(0).fflag) { // presynaptic object flag
        sprint(temp_string_,"ncl.append(new NetCon(XO.intf, YO.%s))",$s3)
      } else {
        sprint(temp_string_,"XO.soma ncl.append(new NetCon(&v(.5), YO.%s))",$s3)
      }
    for ltr (XO,$o1,&y) { // presyn list
        $o4.grot(y)
        for lvtr (YO,&x,$o2,$o4.scr) { // postsyn list and vector
            if (x==1) { // connect
                // print "connecting ",XO," to ",YO
                execute(temp_string_)
              }
          }
      }
    XO=nil YO=nil
  }

//** synlink(s1,s2,s3,[gmax,del]) s1 for presyns and s2 for postsyns, connect s3's
//  eg synlink("PYR","INH","AMPA")
// provides full connectivity
proc synlink() { local gm,dl
    if (numarg()==0) { print "\tsynlink(s1,s2,s3)"
        print "  make connections from all of type s1 to one of type s2 "
        print "     only connecting onto s3 type PPs."
        print "  Matching done with regexps."
        return
      }
    if (numarg()==5) { gm=$4 dl=$5 } else { gm=0 dl=1 }
    tmplist = new List($s3) // list of postsyn point processes 
    for ltr (XO,new List($s1)) { // presyn list
        for ltr (YO,tmplist) {
            if (pp_loc(YO,$s2,syn2)) { 
                sfunc.head(syn2,"\\.",syn2)
                sprint(syn1,"%s",XO)
                if (strcmp(syn1,syn2)!=0) { // don't allow self connects
                    print "connecting ",XO," to ",syn2
                    XO.soma ncl.append(new NetCon(&v(.5), YO, thresh, gm, dl))
                  }
              }
          }
      }
  }
      
// run NQS.mo(1) first to set up PRIDv ... vectors

//** simple netconnect routines: netconn(), netgen()
proc netconn () { local pre,post,syn,pri,poi
    pre=$1 post=$2 
    if (numarg()==5) { syn=$3 pri=$4 poi=$5 } else { syn=0 pri=$3 poi=$4 }
    cells[pre].object(pri).conn(cells[post].object(poi).syns[syn])
  }

proc netgen () { ncl.append(new NetCon($o1, $o2)) }

//** syncopy() copies from one set of syns to another for colocalization
proc syncopy () { 
    if (numarg()==0) { printf("syncopy(to_type,[]): copy from type, post/type, pre/post/type\n") return }
    sprint(temp_string_,"XO.precell.soma ncl.append(new NetCon(&v(.5),XO.postcell.%s",$s1)
    if (numarg()==1) tmplist = cvode.netconlist("", "" , $s2)
    if (numarg()==2) tmplist = cvode.netconlist("", $s2, $s3)
    if (numarg()==3) tmplist = cvode.netconlist($s2, $s3, $s4)
    for ltr(XO,tmplist) execute(temp_string_)
  }

//** syn1to1(PRE,POST,SYN)
proc syn1to1 () { local pre,post,syn
    pre=$1 post=$2
    if (numarg()==3) syn=$3 else syn=0
    if (cells[pre].count !=cells[post].count) { 
        printf("\tERROR: 1-to-1 connectivity requires same # of %s (=%d) and %s (=%d).\n",\
               CTYP.object(pre).s,cells[pre].count,CTYP.object(post).s,cells[post].count) return }
    for ltr2(XO,YO,cells[pre],cells[post]) {
        printf("SRC: %s -> TRG: %s (%s)\n",XO,YO,YO.syns(syn))
        XO.conn(YO.syns[syn])
      }
  }

//* synconn() synapse linking -- NQS routines
//** synconn(preid,postid,pre#,post#,%div)
// eg synconn(PYRi,PYRi,AMPAi,pmat[PYR][PYR])
// provides % connectivity based on C/pre==%div==%conv==D/post
// S==C*post==D*pre %conv=S/(post*pre)=C/pre=D/post
objref convec,convec1,convec2  // vectors to count how much div is from each nrn
convec = new Vector(1e3)
convec1 = convec.c // a scratch vector
convec2 = convec.c // copy of convec to blot out self-connect and redundent connects

proc synconn () { local preid,posid,pdiv,con,div,ii,jj,prn,pon,targ,sz,styp1,styp2
    if (numarg()==0) { print "\tsynconn(preid,postid,prn,pon,pdiv)" return }
    preid=$1 posid=$2 prn=$3 pon=$4 pdiv=$5
    CODEv=sp.v[sp.fi("CODE")] PRv=sp.v[sp.fi("PR")] POv=sp.v[sp.fi("PO")]
    sz=PRv.size
    if (pdiv==1) {
        if (preid==posid) div=pon-1 else div=pon
        con=div
      } else {
        con=int(pdiv*prn+1) div=int(pdiv*pon)
      }
    if (isobj(CTYP,"List")) {
        printf("%s->%s:\tdiv=%d,conv=%d (%d syns)\n",CTYP.object(preid).s,CTYP.object(posid).s,div,con,prn*div)
      } else {
        printf("%d->%d:\tdiv=%d,conv=%d (%d syns)\n",preid,posid,div,con,prn*div)
      }
    if (prn*div==0) return
    sp.pad(sz+prn*div)
    if (pdiv==1) {
        convec.indgen(0,pon-1,1)
        for ii=0,prn-1 {
            if (preid==posid) {convec.indgen(0,pon-1,1) convec.remove(ii)}
            POv.copy(convec,sz+ii*div)
            PRv.fill(ii,sz+ii*div,sz+(ii+1)*div-1)
          }
      } else {
        convec.resize(pon) convec.fill(0) // counter for convergence
        for ii=0,prn-1 { // sources
            convec2.copy(convec) 
            if (preid==posid) convec2.x[ii]=1e10 // block self-connect
            for jj=1,div POv.set(sz+ii*div+jj-1,pickpost(pon,con)) // pick desired target
            PRv.fill(ii,sz+ii*div,sz+(ii+1)*div-1)
          }
      }
    CODEv.fill(mkcodf(preid,posid,0,0,0),sz,PRv.size-1)
  }

proc syncnn () { local preb,pree,posb,pose,pdiv,con,div,ii,jj,prn,pon,targ,sz,styp1,styp2
    if (numarg()==0) { print "\tsyncnn(preb,pree,posb,pose,pdiv)" return }
    preb=$1 pree=$2 posb=$3 pose=$4  pdiv=$5
    CODEv=sp.v[sp.fi("CODE")] PRv=sp.v[sp.fi("PR")] POv=sp.v[sp.fi("PO")]
    sz=PRv.size
    prn=pree-preb+1  pon=pose-posb+1
    if (pdiv==1) {
        if (preid==posid) div=pon-1 else div=pon
        con=div
      } else {
        con=int(pdiv*prn+1) div=int(pdiv*pon)
      }
    if (isobj(CTYP,"List")) {
        printf("%s->%s:\tdiv=%d,conv=%d (%d syns)\n",CTYP.object(preid).s,CTYP.object(posid).s,div,con,prn*div)
      } else {
        printf("%d->%d:\tdiv=%d,conv=%d (%d syns)\n",preid,posid,div,con,prn*div)
      }
    if (prn*div==0) return
    sp.pad(sz+prn*div)
    if (pdiv==1) {
        convec.indgen(0,pon-1,1)
        for ii=0,prn-1 {
            if (preid==posid) {convec.indgen(0,pon-1,1) convec.remove(ii)}
            POv.copy(convec,sz+ii*div)
            PRv.fill(ii,sz+ii*div,sz+(ii+1)*div-1)
          }
      } else {
        convec.resize(pon) convec.fill(0) // counter for convergence
        for ii=0,prn-1 { // sources
            convec2.copy(convec) 
            if (preid==posid) convec2.x[ii]=1e10 // block self-connect
            for jj=1,div POv.set(sz+ii*div+jj-1,pickpost(pon,con)) // pick desired target
            PRv.fill(ii,sz+ii*div,sz+(ii+1)*div-1)
          }
      }
    PRv.add(preb) POv.add(posb)
    CODEv.fill(mkcodf(preid,posid,0,0,0),sz,PRv.size-1)
  }

//** synconn2() uses elimrepeats() and shuffle methods
proc synconn2 () { local preid,posid,pdiv,con,div,ii,jj,prn,pon
    if (numarg()==0) { print "\tsynconn2(preid,postid,prn,pon,pdiv)" return }
    preid=$2 posid=$3 prn=$4 pon=$5 pdiv=$6
    $o1.clear()
    PRv=$o1.v[$o1.fi("PR")] POv=$o1.v[$o1.fi("PO")]
    con=int(pdiv*prn+1) div=int(pdiv*pon)
    if (prn*div==0) return
    printf("%s->%s:\tdiv=%d,conv=%d (%d syns)\n",CTYP.object(preid).s,CTYP.object(posid).s,div,con,prn*div)
    if (pdiv==1) {
        $o1.pad(prn*div)
        convec.indgen(0,pon-1,1)
        for ii=0,prn-1 {
            POv.copy(convec,ii*div)
            PRv.fill(ii,ii*div,(ii+1)*div-1)
          }
      } else {
        $o1.pad(1.5*prn*div)
        rdm.discunif(0,prn-1)  PRv.setrand(rdm)
        rdm.discunif(0,pon-1)  POv.setrand(rdm)
        $o1.elimrepeats("PR","PO")
        $o1.shuffle()
        $o1.pad(prn*div)
      }
    $o1.fill("CODE",1,preid) $o1.fill("CODE",2,posid)
  }

//** synconn3() doesn't worry about eliminating repeats
proc synconn3 () { local preid,posid,pdiv,con,div,ii,jj,prn,pon
    if (numarg()==0) { print "\tsynconn2(preid,postid,prn,pon,pdiv)" return }
    preid=$2 posid=$3 prn=$4 pon=$5 pdiv=$6
    $o1.clear()
    PRv=$o1.v[$o1.fi("PR")] POv=$o1.v[$o1.fi("PO")]
    con=int(pdiv*prn+1) div=int(pdiv*pon)
    if (prn*div==0) return
    printf("%s->%s:\tdiv=%d,conv=%d (%d syns)\n",CTYP.object(preid).s,CTYP.object(posid).s,div,con,prn*div)
    $o1.pad(prn*div)
    rdm.discunif(0,prn-1)  PRv.setrand(rdm)
    rdm.discunif(0,pon-1)  POv.setrand(rdm)
    $o1.fill("CODE",1,preid) $o1.fill("CODE",2,posid)
  }

//*** pickpost() tries to reduce divergence variance
// pickpost(postlist,maxcon,YO)
// maxcon == -1 means to ignore convergence
// MUST do convec.resize() and convec.fill(0) before using
func pickpost () { local ran, maxcon, maxpo, min, indx
    maxcon = $2  // max convergence to be allowed
    maxpo = $1   // number of postsyn choices
    min = convec2.min  // convec should start all 0's
    if (min >= maxcon) { // all full up
        printf("Pickpost full WARNING: %d %d\n",min,maxcon) vlk(convec2) }
    convec1.indvwhere(convec2,"==",min)  // look for all the smallest to fill up first
    inx = convec1.x[rdm.discunif(0,convec1.size-1)]
    convec.x[inx]+=1
    convec2.x[inx]=1e10 // block from reconnecting here
    return inx
  }

//** smap()
// excitatory cells project to AMPA and inhibitory cells to GABA
// assumes PRIDv ... defined by sp.mo(1)
objref pro,poo // pre and post pointers
func smap () { local ct,sy,conv,prdx,podx,prx,pox,delx,w0x,w1x localobj nc,ty
    ty=new Union()
    ct=cp.fi("PRID") sy=cp.fi("STYP")
    sp.resize("NC")
    sp.odec("NC")
    sp.pad()
    sp.mo(1)
    for ii=0,PRv.size-1 {
        uncodf(CODEv.x[ii],&prdx,&podx) prx=PRv.x[ii] pox=POv.x[ii]
        delx=DELv.x[ii] w0x=WT0v.x[ii] w1x=WT1v.x[ii]
        pro=c[prdx].object(prx) poo=c[podx].object(pox)
        NCv.x[ii]=sp.fcdo.append(nc=smap1(prdx))-1
        for kk=0,nc.wcnt-1 nc.weight[kk]=0
        x=cp.fetch(ct,prdx,sy)
        syntyp(x,ty)
        nc.weight[ty.x]=w0x
        if (ty.x[1]>-1) nc.weight[ty.x[1]]=w1x
        nc.delay=delx
      }
    return ii
  }

//*** smap1(SYN#) poo has postsyn and pro has pre
obfunc smap1 () { localobj si
    if (poo.fflag) { YO=poo 
      } else {
        YO=poo.po[$1]
        if (isobj(YO,"List")) {
            snsr($1,poo)
            YO=YO.object(YO.count-1)
          }
      }
    if (pro.fflag) {            si=new NetCon(pro,    YO)
      } else {           pro.soma si=new NetCon(&v(0.5),YO) }
    return si
  }

//*** snsr() handles situation where multiple PPs must be hung onto postsyn objref
proc snsr () {
    printf("PROBLEM: replace snsr() which uses an execute\n")
    if (isobj($o2.po[$1],"List")) {
        sprint(tstr,"%s.soma %s.po[%d].append(new %s(0.5))",$o2,$o2,$1,STYP.object($1).s)
      } else {
        sprint(tstr,"%s.soma %s.po[%d] = new %s(0.5)",$o2,$o2,$1,STYP.object($1).s)
      }
    execute(tstr)
  }

//** umbrella(preid,postid,max,width[,shift])
// set lateral projections from pre to post out to width
// sets direct connection (jj==ii) iff preid!=posid
proc umbrella () { local ii,jj,preid,posid,width,sh,max,sz,styp1,styp2
    preid=$1 posid=$2 max=$3 width=$4 
    if (numarg()>=5) sh=$5 else sh=0
    sz=PRv.size styp1=styp2=-1
    if (width) { 
        for ii=0,max-1 for jj=ii-width+sh,ii+width+sh {
            if (jj>=0 && jj<max && (preid!=posid || jj!=ii)) {
                PRv.append(ii) POv.append(jj) 
                PRIDv.append(preid) POIDv.append(posid)
              }
          }
      } else { // just within column connections
        for ii=0,max-1 { PRv.append(ii) POv.append(ii) PRIDv.append(preid) POIDv.append(posid) }
      }
    sp.pad()
    // WID0v.fill(styp1,sz,PRv.size-1)
    // WID1v.fill(styp2,sz,PRv.size-1)
  }

//** umbflow(preid,postid,max,width[,shift])
// like umbrella but does 'flow' boundary conditions -- reflects back on sides
proc umbflow () { local ii,jj,ja,preid,posid,width,sh,max,sz,styp1,styp2
    preid=$1 posid=$2 max=$3 width=$4 
    if (numarg()>=5) sh=$5 else sh=0
    sz=PRv.size styp1=styp2=-1
    if (width) { 
        for ii=0,max-1 for jj=ii-width+sh,ii+width+sh {
            if (preid!=posid || jj!=ii) { ja=jj
                if (jj<0) ja=-jj
                if (jj>max-1) ja=2*max-jj-2
                PRv.append(ja) POv.append(ii) 
                PRIDv.append(preid) POIDv.append(posid)
              }
          }
      } else { // just within column connections
        for ii=0,max-1 { PRv.append(ii) POv.append(ii) PRIDv.append(preid) POIDv.append(posid) }
      }
    sp.pad()
    // WID0v.fill(styp1,sz,PRv.size-1)
    // WID1v.fill(styp2,sz,PRv.size-1)
  }

//** nqdiv(PRID,POID,PR,PO0[,PO1,...]) 
// nqdiv(PRID,POID,PR,POBEG,..,POEND)
proc nqdiv () { local i,beg,end
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        print "nqdiv(PRID,POID,PR,PO0[,PO1,...])\nnqdiv(PRID,POID,PR,POBEG,\"..\",POEND)" return }
    if (numarg()==6 && argtype(5)==2) {
        beg=$4 end=$6
        for i=beg,end sp.append("CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2,"PR",$3,"PO",i)
      } else for i=4,numarg() sp.append("CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2,"PR",$3,"PO",$i)
    sp.pad()
  }

//** nqconv(POID,PRID,PO,PR0[,PR1,...]) 
// nqconv(POID,PRID,PO,PRBEG,..,PREND)
proc nqconv () { local i,beg,end
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        print "nqconv(POID,PRID,PO,PR0[,PR1,...])\nnqconv(POID,PRID,PO,PRBEG,\"..\",PREND)" return }
    if (numarg()==6 && argtype(5)==2) {
        beg=$4 end=$6
        for i=beg,end sp.append("PRID",$2,"POID",$1,"PR",i,"PO",$3)
      } else for i=4,numarg() sp.append("PRID",$2,"POID",$1,"PR",$i,"PO",$3)
    sp.pad()
  }

//** proc nq1to1(PRID,POID,num)
proc nq1to1 () { umbrella($1,$2,$3,0) }

//* direct weight setting routines
//** scale gmax
proc synscgmax () {
    for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("" , "", $s1)) { XO.weight *= $2 }
  }
//** set/get gmax
proc synsetgmax () {
    if (numarg()==0) { print "synsetgmax(pre,post,type,wt)"
      } else if (numarg()==2) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("" , "", $s1)) XO.weight=$2
      } else if (numarg()==3) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("" , $s1, $s2)) XO.weight=$3
      } else if (numarg()==4) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1 , $s2, $s3)) XO.weight=$4
      } else { print "ERROR: too many args" }
    if (i1==0) printf("WARNING: nothing set in synsetgmax(%s ...)\n",$s1)
  }

// synnormgmax() -- like synsetgmax except normalizes the wt by convergence
proc synnormgmax () {
    for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1 , $s2, $s3)) {
        XO.weight=$4/cvode.netconlist($s1,XO.postcell,$s3).count
      }
  }

proc syngetgmax () {
    if (numarg()==1) {
        if (strcmp($s1,"help")==0) { printf("type,post/type,pre/post/type\n") } else {
            for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("" , "", $s1)) printf("%g ",XO.weight) }
      } else if (numarg()==2) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("" , $s1, $s2)) printf("%g ",XO.weight)
      } else if (numarg()==3) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1 , $s2, $s3)) printf("%g ",XO.weight)
      } else for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("","","")) printf("%g ",XO.weight)
    print ""
  }
 
//** set/get delay
proc synsetdel () {
    if (numarg()==2) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("" , "", $s1)) XO.delay=$2
      } else if (numarg()==3) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("" , $s1, $s2)) XO.delay=$3
      } else if (numarg()==4) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1 , $s2, $s3)) XO.delay=$4
      } else { print "ERROR: too many args" }
    if (i1==0) printf("WARNING: nothing set in synsetdel(%s ...)\n",$s1)
  }

proc syngetdel () {
    if (numarg()==1) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("" , "", $s1)) printf("%g ",XO.delay)
      } else if (numarg()==2) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("" , $s1, $s2)) printf("%g ",XO.delay)
      } else if (numarg()==3) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1 , $s2, $s3)) printf("%g ",XO.delay)
      } else for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("","","")) printf("%g ",XO.delay)
    print ""
  }
 
//** set/get thresh
proc synsetthr () {
    if (numarg()==1) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("" , "", "")) XO.threshold=$1
      } else if (numarg()==2) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1 , "", "")) XO.threshold=$2
      } else if (numarg()==3) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1, "", $s2)) XO.threshold=$3
      } else if (numarg()==4) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1 , $s2, $s3)) XO.threshold=$4
      } else { print "ERROR: too many args" }
    if (i1==0) printf("WARNING: nothing set in synsetthr(%s ...)\n",$s1)
  }

proc syngetthr () {
    if (numarg()==1) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1 , "", "")) printf("%g ",XO.threshold)
      } else if (numarg()==2) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1, "", $s2)) printf("%g ",XO.threshold)
      } else if (numarg()==3) {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1 , $s2, $s3)) printf("%g ",XO.threshold)
      } else for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("","","")) printf("%g ",XO.threshold)
    print ""
  }
 
//** synremove: remove post, pre/post, pre/post/type; synshow
proc synremove () {
    if (numarg()==0) { printf("synremove: remove post, pre/post, pre/post/type\n") return }
    if (numarg()==1) tmplist = cvode.netconlist("", $s1 , "")
    if (numarg()==2) tmplist = cvode.netconlist("", $s1, $s2)
    if (numarg()==3) tmplist = cvode.netconlist($s1 , $s2, $s3)
    if (tmplist.count>0) for ltr(XO,tmplist) ncl.remove(ncl.index(XO))
    tmplist = nil // need to remove these references too
    if (numarg()==1) tmplist = cvode.netconlist("", $s1 , "")
    if (numarg()==2) tmplist = cvode.netconlist("", $s1, $s2)
    if (numarg()==3) tmplist = cvode.netconlist($s1 , $s2, $s3)
    if (tmplist.count>0) for ltr(XO,tmplist) printf("ERROR: %s removed from ncl but still exists\n",XO)
    tmplist = nil
  }
  
proc synshow () { 
    sprint(temp_string_,"x=XO.%s",$s2)
    for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("" , "", $s1)) { execute(temp_string_) printf("%g ",x) }
    print ""
  }

//* weight setting routines using NQS
//** stwt(PREID,POSTID,WT0[,WT1,norm])
// stwtnorm() causes dividing by individual convergence values
proc stwt () { local w0,w1
    if (sp.select(-1,"CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2) ==0) {
        printf("WARNING NO CONNECTS FROM %d TO %d\n",$1,$2) return }
    w0=$3
    if (numarg()>=5) {  w0=$3/$5 w1=$4/$5 } else if (numarg()>=4) { w1=$4 }
    if (numarg()>=4) sp.fillin("WT0",w0,"WT1",w1) else sp.fillin("WT0",w0)
  }

//** strwt(PREID,POSTID,WT0,WT1,psdev[,norm])
proc strwt () { local w0,w1,psdev
    cnt=sp.select("CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2)
    if (cnt==0) {printf("WARNING NO CONNECTS FROM %d TO %d\n",$1,$2) return }
    if (numarg()>=6) {  w0=$3/$6 w1=$4/$6 } else {  w0=$3 w1=$4 }
    psdev=$5
    rdm.lognormal(w0,psdev*psdev*w0*w0)
    sp.out.v[sp.fi("WT0")].setrand(rdm)
    if (w1!=0) {
        rdm.lognormal(w1,psdev*psdev*w1*w1)
        sp.out.v[sp.fi("WT1")].setrand(rdm)
      }
    sp.delect()
  }

//** strwt2(NQS,WT0,WT1,psdev[,norm])
proc strwt2 () { local w0,w1,psdev
    if (numarg()>=5) {  w0=$2/$5 w1=$3/$5 } else {  w0=$2 w1=$3 }
    psdev=$4
    rdm.lognormal(w0,psdev*psdev*w0*w0)
    $o1.v[$o1.fi("WT0")].setrand(rdm)
    if (w1!=0) {
        rdm.lognormal(w1,psdev*psdev*w1*w1)
        $o1.v[$o1.fi("WT1")].setrand(rdm)
      }
  }

//** strdel(PREID,POSTID,del,psdev)
proc strdel () { local del0,psdev
    if (numarg()==4) {
        cnt=sp.select("CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2)
        if (cnt==0) {printf("WARNING NO CONNECTS FROM %d TO %d\n",$1,$2) return }
        del0=$3 psdev=$4
        rdm.lognormal(del0,psdev*psdev*del0*del0)
        sp.out.v[sp.fi("DEL")].setrand(rdm)
        sp.delect()
      } else { del0=$2 psdev=$3
        rdm.lognormal(del0,psdev*psdev*del0*del0)
        $o1.v[sp.fi("DEL")].setrand(rdm)
      }
  }

//** clrwt(PRID,POID,%clr)
proc clrwt () { local n
    n=round($3*sp.select("CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2))
    sp.out.v[sp.fi("WT0")].fill(0,0,n)
    sp.delect()
  }

//** chksp() confirm correspondance between sp and ncl -- defunct if using multiple ncl
proc chksp () { local prid,poid,pr,po
    for ltr(XO,ncl,&x) {
        prid=sp.v[0].x[x] poid=sp.v[1].x[x] pr=sp.v[2].x[x] po=sp.v[3].x[x] 
        if (XO.pre.id!=pr || XO.pre.type!=prid ||  XO.syn.id!=po || XO.syn.type!=poid) {
            printf("%d %d %d %d %d %d %d %d\n",XO.pre.id,pr,XO.pre.type,prid,XO.syn.id,po,XO.syn.type,poid)  }}
  }

//** swtmap() -- redund code to permit it to run relatively fast
// no longer overloaded to set delay, delmap() or to clr clrwts()
proc swtmap () { local ii,ct,sy,conv,prx,pox,delx,w0x,w1x localobj nc,ty
    ty=new Union()
    ct=cp.fi("PRID") sy=cp.fi("STYP")
    if (PRv.size!=$o1.count) { 
        printf("swtmap ERR: size discrepency: %d vs %d\n",PRv.size,$o1.count)
        return }
    for ii=0,PRv.size-1 {
        prdx=PRIDv.x[ii] podx=POIDv.x[ii] prx=PRv.x[ii] pox=POv.x[ii]
        delx=DELv.x[ii] w0x=WT0v.x[ii] w1x=WT1v.x[ii]
        nc=$o1.object(ii)
        poo=nc.syn
        x=cp.fetch(ct,prdx,sy)
        syntyp(x,ty)
        nc.weight[ty.x]=w0x
        if (ty.x[1]>-1) nc.weight[ty.x[1]]=w1x
        nc.delay=delx
      }
  }

//** wmul(PRID,POID,SYNID,MUL) multiplies set of syns by a factor
// resets from weights stored in sp
for ii=0,CTYPi-1 for jj=0,CTYPi-1 for kk=0,STYPi-1 wd0[ii][jj][kk]=1
proc wmul () { local ii,pr1,po1,sy1,w1,wd,sy2
    pr1=$1 po1=$2 sy1=$3 w1=$4
    if (wd0[pr1][po1][sy1]==0) {
        if (w1!=0) printf("\nWARNING: %s->%s(%s) set to 0 can't reset\n",\
                          CTYP.o(pr1).s,CTYP.o(po1).s,STYP.o(sy1).s)
        return
      }
    wd=w1/wd0[pr1][po1][sy1]
    if (wd!=1) {
        XO=ncl[pr1][po1][0]
        for ii=0,XO.count-1 XO.o(ii).weight[sy1]*=wd
        wd0[pr1][po1][sy1]=w1
      } else printf(".")
  } 

//** wset(PRID,POID,SYNID,WT) resets weights to gaussian dist similar to strwt()
// uses sp to determine how many weights are needed
proc wset () { local num,prx,pox,sox,wet,a,err,psdev localobj v1
    prx=$1 pox=$2 sox=$3 wet=$4 
    if (numarg()==5) psdev=$5*$5 else psdev=0
    err=0 a=allocvecs(v1)
    if (cp.fetch("PRID",prx,"STYP")==EX && !(sox==AM || sox==NM)) err=1
    if (cp.fetch("PRID",prx,"STYP")==IX && !(sox==GA || sox==GB)) err=1
    if (err) { printf("cell/syn discrepancy: %d -> %d\n",prx,sox) return }
    if (Incol==2) num=sp.select(-1,"CODE",EQU1,prx,"CODE",EQU2,pox) else {
        num=sp.select(-1,"CODE",EQU1,prx,"CODE",EQU2,pox,"CODE",EQU3,Incol)
      }
    v1.resize(num)
    if (psdev) { 
        rdm.normal(wet,psdev*wet*wet) 
        v1.setrand(rdm)
      } else v1.fill(wet)
    vwtmap(v1,sp,sox)
    dealloc(a)
  }

//** wbim(PRID,POID,SYNID,PSDEV,%A,WTA,%B,WTB,...) bimodal weight setting routines
// uses sp to determine how many weights are needed
proc wbim () { local fsz,i,prx,pox,sox,wet,a,err,psdev,pcw,ptot localobj v1,v2
    prx=$1 pox=$2 sox=$3 psdev=$4*$4 pcw=$5 wet=$6 ptot=0
    err=0 a=allocvecs(v1,v2)
    if (cp.fetch("PRID",prx,"STYP")==EX && !(sox==AM || sox==NM)) err=1
    if (cp.fetch("PRID",prx,"STYP")==IX && !(sox==GA || sox==GB)) err=1
    if (err) { printf("cell/syn discrepancy: %d -> %d\n",prx,sox) return }
    fsz=sp.select(-1,"CODE",EQU1,prx,"CODE",EQU2,pox)
    for i=5,numarg() {
        pcw=$i i+=1 wet=$i // 
        if (pcw*fsz != int(pcw*fsz)){
            printf("wbim WARNING: %d->%d non-int %gx%g=%g\n",prx,sox,pcw,fsz,pcw*fsz) }
        v2.resize(int(pcw*fsz))
        rdm.normal(wet,psdev*wet*wet) 
        v2.setrand(rdm)
        v1.append(v2)
        ptot+=pcw // keep track of percent filled
      }
    if (ptot!=1) printf("wbim WARNING: %d->%d only %g filled\n",prx,pox,ptot)
    if (v1.size!=fsz) {
        printf("wbim WARNING: %d->%d size error %d->%d\n",prx,sox,v1.size,fsz)
        v1.resize(fsz) }
    vwtmap(v1,sp,sox)
    dealloc(a)
  }

//** vwtmap(VEC,NQS) -- copy weights from a vector onto ncl
//   vwtmap(NQS,VEC) -- copy weights from ncl into vector
func vwtmap () { local wix
    if (numarg()==3) wix=$3 else wix=0
    if (isojt($o2,sp)) { // copy from vector to sp.fcdo weights 
        if ($o1.size!=$o2.ind.size){
            printf("vwtmap ERR: size discrepency: %d vs %d\n",$o1.size,$o2.ind.size)
            return 0}
        for ii=0,$o1.size-1 $o2.fcdo.o[$o2.ind.x[ii]].weight[wix]=$o1.x[ii]
        return $o1.size
      } else { // copy from ncl weights to vector
        if ($o1.ind.size!=$o2.size){printf("vwtmap WARNING: resizing vec\n") $o2.resize($o1.ind.size)}
        for ii=0,$o2.size-1 $o2.x[ii]=$o1.o[$o1.ind.x[ii]].weight[wix]
        return $o2.size
      }
  }

//** wtstat(WIX) -- check id of weights directly from the ncs
// assume that have already been selected in sp.out
proc wtstat () { local wix,a,sz,fnc localobj v1
    a=allocvecs(v1)
    if (!eqojt(sp.cob,sp.out)) print "WARNING: no sp.select() done"
    sz=sp.size(1) fnc=sp.fi("NC")
    v1.resize(sz) v1.resize(0)
    if (numarg()==1) wix=$1 else wix=0
    // for sp.qt(XO,"NC") v1.append(XO.weight[wix]) // 5x slower
    for ii=0,sz-1 v1.append(sp.fcdo.o(sp.out.v[fnc].x[ii]).weight[wix])
    stat(v1)
    dealloc(a)
  }

// need to set delays 
proc delmap () { local ii,deli,nc0,nc1
    nc0=$o1.fi("NC0") nc1=$o1.fi("NC1","NOERR") deli=$o1.fi("DEL")
    for ii=0,$o1.v.size-1 {
        ncl.object($o1.v[nc0].x[ii]).delay=$o1.v[deli].x[ii]
        if (nc1!=-1) if ($o1.v[nc1].x[ii]!=-1) {
            ncl.object($o1.v[nc1].x[ii]).delay=$o1.v[deli].x[ii] }
      }
  }

// clrwtmap
proc clrwts () { local ii,jj,nc0,wt0,deli,nc1,wt1,typ,sy2,wid0,wid1,clr
    nc0=$o1.fi("NC0") wt0=$o1.fi("WT0") deli=$o1.fi("DEL") 
    wid0=$o1.fi("WID0") typ=$o1.fi("TYPE")
    nc1=$o1.fi("NC1","NOERR") wt1=$o1.fi("WT1","NOERR") wid1=$o1.fi("WID1","NOERR")
    tobj=ncl.object($o1.v[nc0].x[ii])
    for ii=0,$o1.v.size-1 { 
        tobj=ncl.object($o1.v[nc0].x[ii])
        for jj=0,tobj.wcnt-1 tobj.weight[jj]=0 // clear
        tobj.delay=1 tobj.threshold=0 
        if (nc1!=-1) if ($o1.v[nc1].x[ii]!=-1) for jj=0,tobj.wcnt-1 tobj.weight[jj]=0 // clear
      }
  }

// swtchk(sp,"WT0","NC0") compare weights to sp weights
func swtchk () { local ii,jj,nc0,wt0,n
    nc0=$o1.fi($s3) wt0=$o1.fi($s2)  n=0
    for ii=0,$o1.v.size-1 { 
        if ($o1.v[nc0].x[ii]==-1) continue
        tobj=ncl.object($o1.v[nc0].x[ii])
        if ($o1.v[wt0].x[ii]==tobj.weight) n+=1 else {
            printf("Mismatch %d: %g %g\n",ii,$o1.v[wt0].x[ii],tobj.weight) }
      }
    tobj=nil
    return n/ii
  }

// synchk() look for internal consistency
proc synchk () { 
    for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("","","")) if (isassigned(XO.postcell) && XO.weight<0) {
        printf("Error for %s with wt %g\n",XO.syn,XO.weight)
      }
  }

//** getwt() useful in eg sp.spr("<NC0>.c.apply('getwt')")
func getwt () { return NetCon[$1].weight }

spnormflag = 0 // set this flag to normalize weights by number of projections
//** actumb(PRID,POID,WIDTH) -- clears umbrella and then set sp.ind to chosen umbrella
proc actumb () { local width,flag,divisor
    width=$3
    if (width==-1) flag=1 else flag=0
    sp.select(-1,"CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2) 
    if (! flag) { // width=-1 is flag for full connection
        if (sp.fi("WT1")!=-1) sp.fillin("WT0",0,"WT1",0) else sp.fillin("WT0",0)
        sp.select(-1,"CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2,"DIST","()",-width,width)
      }
    if (! spnormflag) { // just set the values
        if (sp.fi("WT1")!=-1 && numarg()==5) sp.fillin("WT0",$4,"WT1",$5) else sp.fillin("WT0",$4)
      } else { // need to calculate convergence for individual cells here
      }
  }

//** inline(PRID,POID,WT) sets the in-column weights
proc inline () { local a
    sp.select(-1,"CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2,"PR",EQV,"PO")
    if (numarg()==4) sp.fillin("WT0",$3,"WT1",$4) else sp.fillin("WT0",$3)
  }

// stwtnorm(PREID,POSTID,WT0[,WT1,CONVVEC])
func stwtnorm () { local cv,a,b,ret
    a=b=allocvecs(2) b+=1
    if (sp.select("CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2)==0) {
        printf("WARNING NO CONNECTS FROM %d TO %d\n",$1,$2) return 0 }
    sp.uniq("PO") // only retains unique values of PO => cv>0
    mso[a].copy(sp.out.v[sp.fi("PO")])
    for vtr(&x,mso[a]) {
        cv=sp.select(-1,"CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2,"PO",x) // do select without copy to out
        mso[b].append(cv) 
        if (cv>0) {
            if (numarg()==4) sp.fillin("WT0",$3/cv,"WT1",$4/cv) else sp.fillin("WT0",$3/cv)
          }
      }
    ret=mso[b].mean // mean convergence
    if (numarg()==4) if (argtype(4)==1) $o4.copy(mso[b])
    if (numarg()==5) if (argtype(5)==1) $o5.copy(mso[b])
    dealloc(a)
    return ret
  }

// wtnorm(PREID,POSTID) -- normalize the values according to convergence
func wtnorm () { local cv,a,b,ret,wt0,wt1
    wt0=sp.fi("WT0") wt1=sp.fi("WT1") 
    if (sp.select(-1,"CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2)==0) {
        printf("WARNING NO CONNECTS FROM %d TO %d\n",$1,$2) return }
    a=b=allocvecs(2) b+=1
    sp.uniq("PO") // only retains unique values of PO => cv>0
    mso[a].copy(sp.out.v[sp.fi("PO")])
    for vtr(&x,mso[a]) {
        cv=sp.select("CODE",EQU1,$1,"CODE",EQU2,$2,"PO",x)
        mso[b].append(cv) 
        if (cv>0) {
            sp.out.v[wt0].div(cv)
            if (wt1>-1) sp.out.v[wt1].div(cv)
            sp.delect()
          }
      }
    ret=mso[b].mean // mean convergence
    dealloc(a)
    return ret
  }



proc setdist () { sp.spr("DIST","<PR>.c.sub(<PO>).apply('abs')") }

proc stwtvar() { local a,idr
    if (numarg()==5) idr=1 else idr=0
    a=allocvecs(1)
    mso[a].resize(sp.ind.size)
    rdm.uniform($3*(1-$4),$3*(1+$4))
    mso[a].setrand(rdm)
    if (spnormflag) mso[a].div(sp.ind.size)
    sp.wt[idr].indset(sp.ind,mso[a])
    dealloc(a)
  }

//** snc() -- set the actual netcons to the params in sp
DEL=DELD=1
proc snc () { local ii
    for ii=0,sp.size-1 {
        nc[sp.nc.x[ii]].threshold=0
        nc[sp.nc.x[ii]].weight=sp.wt.x[ii]
        nc[sp.nc.x[ii]].delay=DEL+DELD*sp.dist.x[ii]
        if (sp.nc[1].x[ii]>-1) {
            nc[sp.nc[1].x[ii]].weight=sp.wt[1].x[ii]
            nc[sp.nc[1].x[ii]].delay=DEL+DELD*sp.dist.x[ii]
          }
      }
  }
//** snci() -- take a vec of indices (eg sp.ind) as arg
proc snci () { local ii,jj
    for jj=0,$o1.size-1 {
        ii=$o1.x[jj]
        nc[sp.nc.x[ii]].weight=sp.wt.x[ii]
        nc[sp.nc.x[ii]].delay=DEL+DELD*sp.dist.x[ii]
        if (sp.nc[1].x[ii]>-1) {
            nc[sp.nc[1].x[ii]].weight=sp.wt[1].x[ii]
            nc[sp.nc[1].x[ii]].delay=DEL+DELD*sp.dist.x[ii]
          }
      }
  }

//* informational procs
//** proc print_pp_location(PP), from doc/html/refman/nocmodl.html
proc print_pp_location() { local x //arg1 must be a point process
     x = $o1.get_loc()
     sectionname(section)
     printf("%s located at %s(%g)\n", $o1, section, x)
     pop_section()
  }
//** pp_loc(PP,LOC,SCRATCH) returns true if point process PP is located in LOC (regexp match)
func pp_loc () { local x //arg1 must be a point process
     x = 0
     $o1.get_loc()
     if (numarg()==3) { sectionname($s3) }
     ifsec $s2 { x = 1 }
     pop_section()
     return x
  }
 

//* ndivo, ncono, sdivo, scono: objects; ndivs, ncons, sdivs, scons: strings
//** for use with INTF
iterator divr () { local ii
    for ii=0,ncl.count-1 {
        XO=ncl.object(ii)
        if (object_id(sfunc.obj(XO.pre.p))==object_id(cells[$1].object($2))) {
            iterator_statement
          }
      }
  }

iterator conr () { local ii
    for ii=0,ncl.count-1 {
        XO=ncl.object(ii)
        if (object_id(sfunc.obj(XO.syn.p))==object_id(cells[$1].object($2))) {
            iterator_statement
          }
      }
  }

//** iterators
// eg for syt("ns[0]","ns[1]") print XO,YO,nco
iterator syt () { local num,err
    err=0
    canobj($o1,"XO") canobj($o2,"YO") // canobj -- canonical object
    if ((num=cvode.netconlist(XO,"",YO).count)!=1) { 
        printf("syt() ERROR num==%d (%s,%s)\n",num,XO,YO) err=1 }
    if (!err) { 
        nco=cvode.netconlist(XO,"",YO).object(0)
        iterator_statement
      }
    XO=nil YO=nil nco=nil
  }

// nca makes list backwards -- syn, then postcell, then precell
iterator nca () { local ii
    tmplist.remove_all
    if (numarg()==0) { cvode.netconlist("", "", "",tmplist)}
    if (numarg()==1) { cvode.netconlist("", "",   $s1,tmplist)}
    if (numarg()==2) { cvode.netconlist("",  $s2, $s1,tmplist)}
    if (numarg()==3) { cvode.netconlist($s3, $s2, $s1,tmplist)}
    for ii=0,tmplist.count-1 {
        XO=tmplist.object(ii)
        iterator_statement
      }
  }

func wtvec () {
    revec(vec)
    for nca($s1) vec.append(XO.weight)
    vlk(vec)
    return vec.size
  }

func dlyvec () {
    revec(vec)
    for nca($s1) vec.append(XO.delay)
    vlk(vec)
    return vec.size
  }

iterator prtr () {  local ii
    tmplist.remove_all
    for ii=0,cvode.netconlist("", $s1, "").count-1 { 
        nco=cvode.netconlist("", $s1, "").object(ii)
        iterator_statement 
      }
  }
iterator potr () {  local ii
    for ii=0,cvode.netconlist($s1,"","").count-1 {
        nco=cvode.netconlist($s1,"","").object(ii)
        iterator_statement 
      }
  }
iterator sytr () {  local ii
    for ii=0,cvode.netconlist("","",$s1).count-1 { 
        nco=cvode.netconlist("","",$s1).object(ii)
        iterator_statement 
      }
  }

proc sdivo () {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($o1, "", "")) prsxo() }
func ndivo () { return cvode.netconlist($o1, "", "").count }
func ncono () { return cvode.netconlist("", $o1, "").count }
proc scono () {for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("", $o1, "")) prsxo() }
func ndivs () { 
    if (numarg()==1) return cvode.netconlist($s1, "", "").count else {
                       return cvode.netconlist("" , "", "").count }
  }
func ncons () { return cvode.netconlist("", $s1, "").count }
proc sdivs () { for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1, "", "")) prsxo() }
proc scons () { 
    if (numarg()==0) for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("", "", ""))  prsxo()
    if (numarg()==1) for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("", $s1, ""))  prsxo()
    if (numarg()==2) for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist("", $s1, $s2)) prsxo()
    if (numarg()==3) for ltr(XO,cvode.netconlist($s1, $s2,$s3)) prsxo()
  }
 
// print pre,post,syntype,threshold,weight,delay
proc prsxo () {
    if (isobj(XO.precell,"NULLobject")) {
        printf("%s:%s->%s (%s) (t%g,w%g,d%g)\n",XO,XO.pre,XO.postcell,XO.syn,XO.threshold,XO.weight,XO.delay)
      } else {
        printf("%s:%s->%s (%s) (t%g,w%g,d%g)\n",XO,XO.precell,XO.postcell,XO.syn,XO.threshold,XO.weight,XO.delay)
      }
  }

//*  avwtsp(), actwsc(), avwt() to get proper weight values
obfunc sysel () { local pr,po,sy,co,vb,num
    if (numarg()==1) sy=$1 else { // already selected
        pr=$1 po=$2 sy=$3 co=$4
        num=sp.select("CODE",EQU1,pr,"CODE",EQU2,po,"CODE",EQU3,co)
        if (num==0) { vec0.resize(0) 
            return vec0} // kludge to get an error returned
      }
    if ((pr==IN && sy==GA) || sy==AM) return sp.getcol("WT0",0) else return sp.getcol("WT1",0)
  }

//** avwtsp(PR,PO,COL) looks at NQS db to determine weights -- 7x faster than avwt() below
//   avwtsp(sp) if do select before checking this
obfunc avwtsp () {  local a,s1,s2,pr,po,co,wd localobj sp0,v1,o,vr
    pr=$1 po=$2 co=$3 sp0=sp o=new Union()
    a=allocvecs(v1)
    if (name_declared("netstem")==4) {
        sprint(tstr,"%s%sS%02d.spnqs",netstem,CTYP.o(po).s,scale)
        if (! strm(tstr,sp0.file)) { printf("Reading %s (was %s)\n",tstr,sp0.file)
            sp0.rd(tstr)
          }
      }
    if (pr==IN) {s1=GA s2=GB} else {s1=AM s2=NM}
    if (numarg()==4) sp0=$o4.cob else {
        sp0.verbose=0
        vr=sysel(pr,po,s1,co)
        if (vr.size==0 && verbose) {printf("%s->%s EMPTY\n",CTYP.o(pr).s,CTYP.o(po).s) return sp0}}
    sp0.verbose=0
    wd=ncq.ay(pr,po,s1,co).x
    vr.mul(wd)
    stat(vr,v1) // 0size,1max,2min,3mean,4sdev
    o.x=v1.x[3]
    printf("%s->%s %s %s: max: %g; min: %g; mean: %g; sdev: %g\n",\
           CTYP.o(pr).s,CTYP.o(po).s,STYP.o(s1).s,INCOL.o(co).s,\
           v1.x[1],v1.x[2],v1.x[3],v1.x[4])
    wd=ncq.ay(pr,po,s2,co).x
    vr=sysel(s2)  vr.mul(wd)  stat(vr,v1)
    o.x[1]=v1.x[3]
    printf("%s->%s %s %s: max: %g; min: %g; mean: %g; sdev: %g\n",\
           CTYP.o(pr).s,CTYP.o(po).s,STYP.o(s2).s,INCOL.o(co).s,\
           v1.x[1],v1.x[2],v1.x[3],v1.x[4])
    sp0.verbose=1
    dealloc(a)
    return o
  }

//** actwsc(PR,PO,SY,COCODE,COL,[,tMIN,tMAX])
func actwsc () { local ret,f1,a,wd,we,pr,po,min,max,u,x,y,sy,co,col,prspks,th,conv,diff localobj v1,v2,vr,q,p
    if (numarg()==0) {
        printf(" actwsc(PR,PO,SY,COCODE,COL,[,tMIN,tMAX])\n") return 0 }
    pr=$1 po=$2 sy=$3 co=$4 col=$5
    // min,max: just look at activity during this period
    if (numarg()>5) {min=$6 max=$7} else {min=0 max=tstop}
    if (min==max) f1=0 else f1=1
    a=allocvecs(v1,v2) q=new NQS() q.verbose=0 p=printlist
    if (f1) {
        // find name for raster plot should be eg 'SU'
        for ltr(XO,printlist) if (strc(XO.name,CTYP.o(pr).s)) {x=i1 break} 
        for ixt(pr,col) v2.append(ixi) // get the values for this col
        q.resize("time",p.o(x).tvec,"ind",p.o(x).vec)
        u=q.select("time","[]",min,max,"ind","[]",v2.min,v2.max) // u=number of spikes in period
        min=q.applf(".min","time") max=q.applf(".max","time") 
        q.out.v.sort()  y=q.out.v.uniq() // y= uniq spikers
        if (max-min<10) diff=10 else diff=max-min
        // prspks = y/diff/numc[pr]*10 // number of spikes in 1 cell spike per 10ms
        prspks = y/diff/numc[pr]*ncols*10 // normalize by no. of cols
        x=prspks*(conv=cp.fetch("PRID",pr,"POID",po,"CONV")) // incoming spks over 10ms
      }
    sp.verbose=0  vr=sysel(pr,po,sy,co) sp.verbose=1
    if (vr.size==0) {dealloc(a) return -1}
    vrsz(ce,v1,"O")
    for ixt(po) v1.append(XO.VTH-XO.RMP)
    stat(v1,v2) th=v2.x[3] // threhold stats
    wd=ncq.ay(pr,po,sy,co).x // current scaling factor
    we=4 // 4 cells must fire at about same time to get thresh-level drive
    if (f1) {
        printf("%s:%d,%d spks/%.2fms ~ %.2f spks/10ms (%d/%d)\n",\
               CTYP.o(pr).s,u,y,max-min,prspks,x,conv)
        printf("Thresh: %.2f+/-%.2f PSP: %.2f+/-%.2f\n",th,v2.x[4],vr.mean,vr.stdev)
        printf("\tFor 1/%d continuous activation: ",we)
        // wd *= threshold/spks_in/<PSP>/weighting // wd is scaling_factor
        printf("\nwmul(%s,%s,%s,%s,%g)\n",\
               CTYP.o(pr).t,CTYP.o(po).t,STYP.o(sy).t,INCOL.o(co).t,\
               th/x/vr.mean/we*wd)
        ret=th/x/vr.mean/we*wd
      } else {
        printf("%s->%s %s,%s: %g\n",\
               CTYP.o(pr).s,CTYP.o(po).s,STYP.o(sy).s,INCOL.o(co).s,\
               vr.mean*wd/th*100) // percent of threshold
        ret=vr.mean*wd/th*100
      }
    dealloc(a)
    return ret
  }

//** avwt() goes through ncl list to sum weights
proc avwt () {  local pr,po,sy,co localobj nc,o
    pr=$1 po=$2 sy=$3 co=$4
    o=ncq.ay(pr,po,sy,co)
    vrsz(o.o.count,ind,"O")
    for ltr(nc,o.o) ind.append(nc.weight[sy])
    ind.mul(o.x) // mutiply by scale factor
    if (ind.mean!=0) {
        printf("%s%s %s: ",CTYP.o(pr).s,CTYP.o(po).s,STYP.o(sy).s) 
        stat(ind)
      }
  }

//* grvec addendum -- new_printlist_
//** new_printlist_nc(obj,id[,NAME]) records spikes from obj to vitem in printlist
// with NAME creates a new vitem
warn_flag=1
obfunc new_printlist_nc () { local id,thresh,yoset localobj xo,yo
    id=$2 thresh=-20 yoset=0
    if (!isojt(ncl,tmplist)) ncl=new List()
    if (numarg()>=3) {
        if (argtype(3)==2) { 
            printlist.append(yo=new vitem($s3,0))
            yoset=1
          } else if (argtype(3)==0) { thresh=$3
          } else printf("new_printlist_nc arg 3 should be name or thresh\n")
      }
    if (numarg()>=4) thresh=$4
    if (!yoset) if (printlist.count==0) { 
        printlist.append(yo=new vitem("SPKS",0))
      } else { 
        yo=printlist.object(printlist.count-1) // continue with the last one
      }
    xo=cvode.netconlist($o1, "", "")
    if (xo.count==0) {
        if (! warn_flag) printf(".") else { 
            warn_flag=0 // only warn first time
            printf("WARNING (new_printlist_nc) creating NetCon for %s ",$o1) }
        if ($o1.fflag) {  xo=new NetCon($o1, nil)
          } else { $o1.soma xo=new NetCon(&v(x), nil) }
        xo.threshold=thresh
        ncl.append(xo)
      } else {
        xo=xo.object(0)
        if (xo.threshold!=thresh && isassigned(xo.precell)) {
            printf("Warning: new_printlist_nc resetting thresh for %s\n",xo)
            xo.threshold=thresh
          }
      }
    xo.record(yo.tvec,yo.vec,id)
    return yo
  }

//** proc new_printlist_nc2(VITEM,CELL,ID#) -- don't bother looking for an existing synapse
obfunc new_printlist_nc2 () { local id,thresh,yoset localobj xo
    id=$3 thresh=-20 yoset=0
    if ($o2.fflag) {  xo=new NetCon($o2, nil)
      } else { $o2.soma xo=new NetCon(&v(x), nil) }
    xo.threshold=thresh
    ncl.append(xo)
    xo.record($o1.tvec,$o1.vec,id)
    return xo
  }

//** fipre(NETCON) find a presynaptic index for a netcon
func fipre () { local nu
    if (isassigned($o1.pre)) { // a point-process
        return objnum($o1.pre)
      } else {
        if ($o1.preloc==-1) {
            printf("fipre() ERR: %s\n",$o1) err() }
        sscanf(secname(),"%*[^[][%d]",&x) // find number of the cell
        // eg grvecstr="PYR2 sINT sTC  sRE" // use locations in this string as id
        if (sfunc.len(grvecstr)==0) {
            return x
          } else {
            sscanf(secname(),"%[^[]",tstr)
            nu=sfunc.substr(grvecstr,tstr)/5
            return nu*50+x
          }
        pop_section()
      }
  }

//** fspks (index,vec) put spike times for index in vec
// fspks (index,vec,num)  use printlist.object(num).vec
// fspks (index,vec,spkvec,tvec)
proc fspks () { local a,b,ix
    a=b=allocvecs(2) b+=1
    if (numarg()==2) { ix=$1 XO=printlist.object(0).vec YO=printlist.object(0).tvec }
    if (numarg()==3) { ix=$1 XO=printlist.object($3).vec YO=printlist.object($3).tvec }
    if (numarg()==4) { ix=$1 XO=$o3 YO=$o4 }
    revec($o2)
    mso[a].indvwhere(XO,"==",ix)
    $o2.index(YO,mso[a])
    dealloc(a)
  }

// fspks1(index,vec)
proc fspks1 () { local a,b,ix
    if (numarg()==2) { ix=$1 XO=printlist.object($1).vec YO=printlist.object($1).tvec }
    if (numarg()==4) { ix=$1 XO=$o3 YO=$o4 }
    $o2.resize(XO.size)
    $o2.xing(XO,YO,thresh) // times
  }

//** spktimes(plist#,cell#)  prints out spike times from a tvec/ivec printlist item
// spktimes(tvec,vec,cell#)
func spktimes () { local sz,wh,a,i localobj va,vb,tv,vv,o
    a=allocvecs(va,vb)
    i=0 // i serves as flag for saving to a vector
    if (numarg()==4) {
        tv=$o1 vv=$o2 wh=$3 i=4
      } else if (numarg()==3) {
        if (argtype(1)==1) {
            tv=$o1 vv=$o2 wh=$3
          } else {
            o=printlist.object($1) wh=$2 vv=o.vec tv=o.tvec
            i=3
          }
      } else {
        if (numarg()==2) {
            o=printlist.object($1) wh=$2
          } else if (numarg()==1) {
            o=printlist.object(0)  wh=$1
          } else wh=-1
        vv=o.vec tv=o.tvec
      }
    sz=vv.size
    if (wh==-1) { vlk(tv,vv) 
      } else {
        va.indvwhere(vv,"==",wh)
        vb.index(tv,va)
        sz=vb.size
        if (i) $oi.copy(vb) else vlk(vb)
      }
    dealloc(a)
    return sz
  }

//** ceqi() cvode.event_queue_info(3,...)
proc ceqi () { local flag,ii
    flag=$1
    tmplist.remove_all revec(ind,vec)
    printf("\n\n\t**** t=%g ****\n\n",t)
    if (flag==3) {
        cvode.event_queue_info(3, ind, vec, tmplist)
        for ltr(XO,tmplist,100) printf("t=%g flag=%d nc=%s\n",ind.x[i1],vec.x[i1],XO)
      } else if (flag==2) {
        cvode.event_queue_info(2, ind, tmplist)
        for ltr(XO,tmplist,100) { printf("t=%g %s->%s:",ind.x[i1],XO.pre,XO.syn)
            for ii=0,XO.wcnt-1 printf("%g ",XO.weight[ii])
            print ""
          }
      } else if (flag==0) {
        for ltr(XO,ncl,10) { printf("%s->%s:",XO.pre,XO.syn)
            for ii=0,XO.wcnt-1 printf("%g ",XO.weight[ii])
            print ""
          }
      }
  }

//** new_printlist_ac(obj,name[,NAME,num]) 
// adds params from an artificial cell with built-in vec dumping
obfunc new_printlist_ac () { local i,max,num,svloc,sz localobj lo
    npacsz=1.2
    vdt = vdt_INTF
    lo = new Union()
    if (numarg()>=4) num=$4
    if (numarg()==4) { sprint(lo.s,"%s%d.%s",$s3,$4,$s2) 
      } else {           sprint(lo.s,"%s.%s",$o1,$s2)  }
    sz=npacsz*tstop/vdt
    vite = new vitem(lo.s,sz)
    vite.o=$o1
    if ($o1.recflag==0) {  // record tvec
        vite.tvec=new Vector(sz)
        $o1.initrec("time",vite.tvec)
      } else {
        for ltr(YO,printlist) if (eqobj($o1,YO.o)) vite.tvec=YO.tvec
        if (!isassigned(vite.tvec)) printf("ERR INTF %s not found in printlist\n",$o1)
      }
    vite.tvflag=1
    $o1.initrec($s2,vite.vec)
    printlist.append(vite)
    return vite
  }

objref pfih
psgchk = 1
proc psend () { local tt
    for ltr(XO,printlist) {
        if (strm(XO.var,"[()][()]$")) {
            revec(XO.vec,XO.tvec)
            for (tt=psgchk;tt<=tstop;tt+=psgchk) {
                sprint(tstr,"%s.append(%s)",XO.vec,XO.var)
                cvode.event(tt,tstr)
                sprint(tstr,"%s.append(t)",XO.tvec)
                cvode.event(tt,tstr)
              }
          }
      }
  }

// eg new_printlist_fc("intf.M1()")
// obsolete since intf.mod no longer defines M1(),M2(),...
obfunc new_printlist_fc () {
    if (! isassigned(pfih)) { pfih = new FInitializeHandler("psend()") }
    if (! strm($s1,"\\(\\)$")){print "Should be func eg intf.M1()" return }
    XO = new vitem($s1,0)
    printlist.append(XO)
    return XO
  }
  

//* misc and commentary
// con=absolute convergence number, div=absolute div number
// con = %con * pre
// div * pre = con * post = S (total synapses)
// %div = div/post = S/(pre*post) = con/pre = %con
// div = %con * post
// maxdiv = int((1 + var) * div)
 
//** vari returns randomly chosen $1+/-$2, $2 is a percent
func frani () { return int(rdm.uniform($1,$2+1)) }
func uvari () { return $1 - $1*$2 + (rdm.uniform(0,1) * 2 * $1*$2) }
func gvari () { return $1 - (rdm.normal(0,1) * $1*$2) }

//** clearsyns() 
proc clearsyns () { 
    for ltr(XO,ncl) XO.active(0)
    ncl.remove_all 
    for ltr(XO,new List("NetCon")) printf("**** CLEARSYN WARNING %s STILL EXISTS ****\n",XO)
  }

// findstr() look thru list for a string and return the index
func findstr () { local flag
    flag = -1 // failure
    for ltr(XO,$o2) {
        if (strcmp($s1,XO.s) == 0) flag=i1
      }
    return flag
  }

//** syntyp() reads syntyps out of cp directory
proc syntyp () { local x 
    x=$1
    if (x==EX) {$o2.x=AM $o2.x[1]=NM  // excit
      } else if (x==IX) {$o2.x=GA $o2.x[1]=GB // inhib
      } else $o2.x[1]=-1
  }

//** excitp(PRE) -> T if cell is excitatory
func excitp () { 
    if ($1==SU || $1==DP || $1==TC) return 1
    if ($1==RE || $1==IN) return 0
    printf("ID not classified in excitp\n")
    return -1
  }

//* Saving and reading
//** svnet() rdnet()
proc svnet () { local ii
    ii=0
    if (numarg()==1) filename=$s1 else {
        sprint(filename,"data/%s%c.net",datestr,97+ii)
        while (tmpfile.ropen(filename)) sprint(filename,"data/%s%c.net",datestr,97+ii+=1)
        printf("nqsnet output to %s\n",filename)
      }
    XO=usefiles("nqs.hoc","syncode.hoc","nqsnet.hoc","labels.hoc")
    cp.comment=XO.s
    sp.comment=XO.s
    cp.sv(filename)
    sp.sv(filename,1)
    tmpfile.close()
  }

proc rdnet () {
    filename=$s1
    if (!isobj(cp,"NQS")) {cp=new NQS() sp=new NQS()}
    printf("reading network file %s\n",filename)
    cp.rd(filename)
    sp.rd() // continue reading
    tmpfile.close()
  }

//** svstate() rdstate() rerun()
proc svstate () {
    if (! isobj(svs,"SaveState")) svs=new SaveState()
    svs.save
    tmpfile.wopen($s1)
    svs.fwrite(tmpfile)
  }

proc rdstate () {
    if (! isobj(svs,"SaveState")) svs=new SaveState()
    tmpfile.ropen($s1)
    svs.fread(tmpfile)
    svs.restore
  }

proc initrr () { printf("WARNING: initrr() -- init for rerun() -- not defined\n") }

proc rerun () { local tstp,told
    tstp=tstop
    if (numarg()>0) rdstate($s1) else svs.restore
    if (numarg()==1) if (argtype(1)==0) tstp=$1
    if (numarg()>1) tstp=$2
    told=t
    initrr()
    if (t!=told) {
        printf("ERROR: initrr() appears to have reset t (finitialize()?) (%d->%d)\n",told,t) 
        return
      }
    sprint(tstr,"cvode.solve(%g)",t+tstp)
    time(tstr)
    finish()
  }

// mkvspks(NUMCELLS,NUMGROUPS,INVL1,SPREAD,[APPEND])
// produces ivspks index vector and vspks time vector for inserting activations
// groups are not stable -- they are reconstituted at each spiking time
// NUMCELLS   indices will be drawn from 0..NUMCELLS-1 
// NUMGROUPS  will give the separate groupings for simultaneous activation across a group
//            there will be NUMCELLS/NUMGROUPS cells in each group
// INVL1      is the average interval in ms between the inputs
// SPREAD     is the +/- SPREAD/2 sloppiness in this interval 
// APPEND     is a flag saying to add on to existing ivspks/vspks vectors
proc mkvspks () { local gcnt,numc,numg,inv1,inv2,a,ii,j,apflg localobj iv,tv
    numc=$1 numg=$2 inv1=$3 inv2=$4 apflg=0
    if (numarg()>=5) if ($5) apflg=1 // 5th arg is append flag
    if (!apflg) revec(ivspks,vspks)
    gcnt = int(numc/numg) // number of cells in each group
    a=allocvecs(iv,tv)
    for ({ii=20 j=0};ii<tstop-20;{ii+=inv1 j+=1e-8}) {
        iv.indgen(0,numc-1,1) // assume that start from intf#0
        shuffle(iv)
        iv.resize(gcnt) // now have a set of cells that need to spike at
        iv.add(j) // add a little bit to ensure that sortindex below preserves forward time
        tv.resize(gcnt)
        rdm.uniform(-inv2/2,inv2/2)
        tv.setrand(rdm)
        tv.add(ii)
        ivspks.append(iv) vspks.append(tv)
        if (j>=1-1e-8) printf("mkvspks ERR: j>=1\n") // should never happen
      }
    ivspks.sortindex(iv)
    tv.index(vspks,iv)  vspks.copy(tv)
    tv.index(ivspks,iv) ivspks.copy(tv)
    ivspks.rnd()
    wvspks.resize(ivspks.size)
    dealloc(a)
  }

obfunc netconlist () { 
    if (numarg()==1) {
        if (argtype(1)==1) return cvode.netconlist("","",$o1)
        if (argtype(1)==2) return cvode.netconlist("",$s2,"")
      }
    return cvode.netconlist("","","") 
  }

//* mkncq() -- this may not be useful since will slow down smap() still more
proc smap () { } // stub
proc mkncq () { local pr,po,sy,co localobj o
    if (!isassigned(ncq)) {
        ncq=new NQS("PRID","POID","SYN","INCOL","SCALE","NCL")
        ncq.odec("NCL")
        ncq.useslist("PRID",CTYP) ncq.useslist("POID",CTYP) 
        ncq.useslist("SYN",STYP)  ncq.useslist("INCOL",INCOL) 
      }
    ncq.clear()
    sp.out.mo(1) // for smap
    // no syn specificity for ARTCELLs -- assume no NM w/out AM, no GB w/out GA
    for case(&pr,DP,SU,IN) for case(&po,DP,SU,IN) for case(&co,INC,RIT,LFT) {
        if (sp.select("CODE",EQU1,pr,"CODE",EQU2,po,"CODE",EQU3,co) == 0) {
            // printf("%s->%s (%s) EMPTY\n",CTYP.o(pr).s,CTYP.o(po).s,INCOL.o(co).s)
          } else {
            if (pr==IN) sy=GA else sy=AM
            o=ncl[pr][po][co]
            ncq.append(pr,po,sy  ,co,1,o) // AM,GA
            ncq.append(pr,po,sy+1,co,1,o) // NM,GB
            smap(pr,po,sy,co,o)
          }
      }
  }

proc smap () { local prdx,w0x,w1x,pr,po,sy,co localobj o
    pr=$1 po=$2 sy=$3 co=$4 o=$o5
    for ii=0,PRv.size-1 { // need prior sp.out.mo(1)
        w0x=WT0v.x[ii] w1x=WT1v.x[ii] 
        nc=new NetCon(ce.o(PRv.x[ii]),ce.o(POv.x[ii]),-10,DELv.x[ii],0)
        o.append(nc)
        for kk=0,nc.wcnt-1 nc.weight[kk]=0
        if (pr==IN) { 
            nc.weight[GA]=w0x
            if (w1x>0) nc.weight[GB]=w1x
          } else {
            nc.weight[AM]=w0x
            if (w1x>0) nc.weight[NM]=w1x
          }
      }
  }

proc smap () { printf("NOW using dedicated smap() routines in network.hoc") }
// END /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/syncode.hoc
//================================================================
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/decnqs.hoc
// =Id=  decnqs.hoc,v 1.25 2008/10/21 16:19:15 samn Exp 

objref nq[5]

//** prl2nqs(NQS[,min,max,nointerp]) -- transfer printlist to NQS
proc rename () {}
// eg proc rename () { sprint($s1,"P%d",objnum($s1)) }
proc prl2nqs () { local tstep localobj st
    st=new String2()
    if (!isassigned($o1)) $o1=new NQS() else $o1.resize(0)
    if (numarg()>=2) min=$2 else min=0
    if (numarg()>=3) max=$3 else max=printlist.count-1
    if (numarg()>=4) interp=$4 else interp=0 // no interp when looking at spk times
    if (interp) $o1.resize(max-min+2)
    if (interp) {
        tstep=0.1 // 0.1 ms step size for interpolation
        $o1.s[0].s="time"
        $o1.v[0].indgen(0,printlist.object(0).tvec.max,tstep)
        for ii=min,max {
            XO=printlist.object(ii)
            $o1.s[ii+1-min].s = XO.var
            rename($o1.s[ii+1-min].s)
            $o1.v[ii+1-min].resize($o1.v.size)
            $o1.v[ii+1-min].interpolate($o1.v[0],XO.tvec,XO.vec)
          }
      } else {
        for ii=min,max {
            XO=printlist.object(ii)
            st.s=XO.name
            sprint(st.t,"%s-time",XO.name)
            rename(st.s) rename(st.t)
            $o1.resize(st.s,st.t)
            $o1.setcols(XO.vec,XO.tvec)
          }
      }
  }

//** pvp2nqs(NQS) -- transfer grvec data file to NQS
proc pvp2nqs () { local tstep,tv1,v1
    if (! read_vfile(1,$s1)) { printf("Can't open %s\n",$s1) return }
    if (numarg()>=3) min=$3 else min=0
    if (numarg()>=4) max=$4 else max=panobj.llist.count-1
    if (numarg()>=5) interp=$5 // no interp when looking at spk times
    if (interp) $o2.resize(max-min+2) else $o2.resize(2*(max-min+1))
    if (interp) {
        tv1=v1=allocvecs(2)  v1+=1
        tstep=0.1 // 0.1 ms step size for interpolation
        $o2.s[0].s="time"
        for ii=min,max {
            XO=panobj.llist.object(ii)
            $o2.s[ii+1-min].s = XO.name
            rename($o2.s[ii-min+1].s)
            panobj.tmpfile.seek(XO.loc)
            mso[tv1].vread(panobj.tmpfile)
            mso[v1].vread(panobj.tmpfile) // or use rv_readvec
            if (ii-min==0) $o2.v[0].indgen(0,mso[tv1].max,tstep)
            $o2.v[ii+1-min].resize($o2.v.size)
            $o2.v[ii+1-min].interpolate($o2.v[0],mso[tv1],mso[v1])
          }
        dealloc(tv1)
      } else for ii=min,max {
        XO=panobj.llist.object(ii)
        $o2.s[2*(ii-min)].s = XO.name
        rename($o2.s[2*(ii-min)].s)
        sprint($o2.s[2*(ii-min)].s,"%s-time",$o2.s[2*(ii-min)].s)
        $o2.s[2*(ii-min)+1].s = XO.name
        rename($o2.s[2*(ii-min)+1].s)
        panobj.tmpfile.seek(XO.loc)
        $o2.v[2*(ii-min)].vread(panobj.tmpfile)
        $o2.v[2*(ii-min)+1].vread(panobj.tmpfile)
      }
  }

//** veclist2nqs(nqs[,STR1,STR2,...])
proc veclist2nqs () { local flag,i
    if (numarg()==0) {printf("veclist2nqs(nqs[,STR1,STR2,...])\n") return}
    $o1.resize(veclist.count)
    if (numarg()==1+$o1.m) flag=1 else flag=0
    for ltr(XO,veclist) {
        $o1.v[i1].copy(XO)
        if (flag) {i=i1+2 $o1.s[i1].s=$si} else {sprint(tstr,"v%d",i1) $o1.s[i1].s=tstr}
      }
    $o1.cpout()
  }

// fudup(vec[,nq,#CUTS,LOGCUT,MIN]) -- use updown() to find spikes
// LOC(0) PEAK(1) WIDTH(2) BASE(3) HEIGHT(4) START(5) SLICES(6) SHARP(7) INDEX(8) FILE(9)
// other options
pos_fudup=1 // set to 1 to move whole curve up above 0
maxp_fudup=0.95 // draw top sample at 95% of max 
minp_fudup=0.05 // draw bottom sample at 5% of max
over_fudup=1    // turn over and try again if nothing found
allover_fudup=0 // turn over and add these locs (not debugged)
verbose_fudup=0 // give messages, can also turn on DEBUG_VECST for messages from updown()
obfunc fudup () { local a,ii,npts,logflag,min,x,sz localobj bq,cq,v1,v2,v3,bb,tl
    if (verbose_fudup) printf("MAXTIME appears to be %g (dt=%g)\n",$o1.size*dt,dt)
    npts=10 // n sample locations
    tl=new List()
    bq=new NQS("LOC","PEAK","WIDTH","BASE","HEIGHT","START","SLICES","SHARP","INDEX","FILE") 
    if (numarg()>1) cq=$o2 else cq=new NQS()
    if (cq.m!=10) { cq.resize(0) 
        cq.resize("LOC","PEAK","WIDTH","BASE","HEIGHT","START","SLICES","SHARP","INDEX","FILE") }
    if (numarg()>2) npts=$3
    if (numarg()>3) logflag=$4 else logflag=0
    if (numarg()>4) {
        if (npts!=$o5.size) printf("Correcting npts from %d to %d\n",npts,npts=$o5.size)
        if ($o5.ismono(1)) $o5.reverse
        if (! $o5.ismono(-1)) {printf("fudup: Arg 5 (%s) must be monotonic\n",$o5) return}
      }
    bq.listvecs(bb)
    bq.pad(5000)
    a=allocvecs(npts+3,2e4)
    v1=mso[a+0] v2=mso[a+1] v3=mso[a+2]
    for ii=0,npts-1 tl.append(mso[ii+a+3])
    v1.copy($o1)
    if (pos_fudup) {
        min=v1.min
        v1.sub(min) // make it uniformly positive
      } else min=0
    if (numarg()>4) v2.copy($o5) else {
        v2.indgen(2,2+npts-1,1)   // sampling at npts points, start at 2 to avoid log(1)=0
        if (logflag) v2.log() // log sampling
        v2.scale(-maxp_fudup*v1.max,-minp_fudup*v1.max) v2.mul(-1)
      }
    v1.updown(v2,tl,bb)
    if (pos_fudup) { bq.v[1].add(min) bq.v[3].add(min) }
    cq.append(bq)
    sz=bq.size(1)
    if (allover_fudup) { // do it upside down as well
        v1.mul(-1) // v2 will be upside-down
        if (pos_fudup) {min=v1.min v1.sub(min)}
        if (0) {  // can't see a rationale to recalc sampling points
            v2.indgen(2,2+npts-1,1)   // sampling at npts points
            if (logflag) v2.log() // log sampling
            v2.scale(-0.95*v1.max,-0.05*v1.max) v2.mul(-1)
          }
        v1.updown(v2,tl,bb)
        bq.v[8].add(sz) bq.v[4].mul(-1) // turn HEIGHT upside down
        cq.append(bq)
      } else if (over_fudup && sz==0) { // turn it over an try again
        print "fudup() checking upside-down"
        v1.mul(-1) // v2 will be upside-down
        v1.updown(v2,tl,bb)
      } 
    for case(&x,0,2,5) cq.v[x].mul(dt)
    nqsdel(bq)
    dealloc(a)
    return cq
  }

//** listsort(LIST[,START,REV]) sorts list of strings numerically
// optional start gives a regexp to start at
proc listsort () { local x,rev localobj nq,st,xo
    if (numarg()==0) { 
        print "listsort(LIST[,RXP,REV]) numerically, optional RXP starts after there" return}
    if (numarg()==3) if ($3) rev=-1 else rev=0
    nq=new NQS("STR","NUM") nq.strdec("STR")
    st=new String()
    for ltr(xo,$o1) {
        if (numarg()>=2) sfunc.tail(xo.s,$s2,st.s) else st.s=xo.s
        if (sscanf(st.s,"%g",&x)!=1) print "listsort ERR: num not found in ",st.s
        nq.append(xo.s,x)
      } 
    nq.sort("NUM",rev)
    $o1.remove_all
    for nq.qt(st.s,"STR") $o1.append(new String(st.s))
  }

// stat(VEC) print stats for the vector
// stat(VEC1,VEC2) append stats of VEC1 on VEC2
// stat(VEC1,NQS) append stats of VEC1 on NQS (create if necessary)
proc stat () { local sz
    sz=$o1.size
    if (sz<1) {printf("decnqs::stat() WARN: %s size %d\n",$o1,$o1.size) return}
    if (numarg()==1 && sz>1) {
        printf("Sz:%d\tmax=%g; min=%g; mean=%g; stdev=%g\n",$o1.size,$o1.max,$o1.min,$o1.mean,$o1.stdev)
      } else {
        if (!isassigned($o2)) { $o2=new NQS("SIZE","MAX","MIN","MEAN","STDEV")
          } else if (isobj($o2,"NQS")) { 
            if ($o2.m!=5) {$o2.resize(0) $o2.resize("SIZE","MAX","MIN","MEAN","STDEV")}
          } else if (isobj($o2,"Vector")) revec($o2)
        if (sz>2) {$o2.append($o1.size,$o1.max,$o1.min,$o1.mean,$o1.stdev) // .append for Vector or NQS
          } else   $o2.append($o1.size,$o1.max,$o1.min,$o1.min,0) // no sdev
      }
  }

//* fil2nqs(FILE,NQS) reads lines of file and places all numbers in NQS
func fil2nqs () { local a,n localobj v1
    $o2.clear
    a=allocvecs(v1)
    tmpfile.ropen($s1)
    for (n=1;tmpfile.gets(tstr)!=-1;n+=1) {
        if (n%1e3==0) printf("%d ",n)
        parsenums(tstr,v1)
        if (v1.size!=$o2.m) {
            printf("Wrong size at line %d (%d)  ",n,v1.size)  vlk(v1)
            return
          }
        $o2.append(v1)
      }
    dealloc(a)
    return $o2.size(1)
  }

//** plnqs(file,NQS) reads output of txt2num.pl
// format ascii 'rows cols' then binary contents
proc plnqs () { local a,rows,cols localobj v1,v2
    a=allocvecs(v1,v2)
    tmpfile.ropen($s1)
    tmpfile.gets(tstr)
    sscanf(tstr,"%d %d",&rows,&cols)
    printf("%s: %d rows x %d cols\n",$s1,rows,cols)
    v1.fread(tmpfile,rows*cols) // could now use .transpose
    v2.indgen(0,rows*cols,cols)
    $o2.resize(cols,rows)
    for ii=0,cols-1 {
        v2.add(ii)
        $o2.v[ii].index(v1,v2)
      }
    dealloc(a)
  }
    
// DEST=maxem(SRC,MIN,WIDTH) -- keep looking for maxima till get down to min
obfunc maxem () { local a,min,wid,ii,ix,beg,end localobj v1,aq
    a=allocvecs(v1)
    aq=new NQS("max","loc") aq.clear(v1.size/2)
    v1.copy($o1)
    min=$2 wid=$3
    while(v1.max>min) {
       aq.append(v1.max,ix=v1.max_ind)
       beg=ix-wid if (beg<0) beg=0
       end=ix+wid if (end>=v1.size) end=v1.size-1
       for ii=beg,end v1.x[ii]=-1e9
      }
    dealloc(a)
    return aq
  }

// nqo=percl(nq,"COLA", ..) generates NQS of percentile values (10..90) for these cols
// nqo=percl(nq,min,max,step,"COLA", ..) -- eg percl(nq,50,70,5,"COLA","COLB")
obfunc percl () {  local i,ii,a,p localobj v1,v2,v3,aq,xo
    a=allocvecs(v1,v2,v3)
    aq=new NQS(numarg())
    if (argtype(2)==0) {
        v3.indgen($2,$3,$4) 
        aq.resize(aq.size(1)-3)
        i=5 j=4 // start at arg i and aq col #j
      } else {
        v3.indgen(10,90,10)
        i=2 j=1
      }
    aq.setcol(0,"PERCL",v3)
    for (;i<=numarg();i+=1) {
        $o1.getcol($si,v1)
        v1.sort()
        v2.resize(0)
        for vtr(&ii,v3) {ii/=100 v2.append(v1.x[round(ii*v1.size)])}
        aq.setcol(i-j,$si,v2)
      }
    dealloc(a)
    return aq
  }

// pqunq(NQS) returns columns of sorted nique values corresponding to the arg
// NB: does not produce a rectangular array
obfunc pqunq () { local a localobj v1,v2,aq
    aq=new NQS()
    a=allocvecs(v1,v2,1e5)
    aq.sethdrs($o1)
    aq.resize(-2) 
    for ii=0,aq.m-1 {
        $o1.getcol(ii,v1)
        v1.sort 
        v2.redundout(v1)
        aq.v[ii].copy(v2)
      }
    dealloc(a)
    return aq
  }

//** aa=seqind(ind) -- find beginning and end of sequential indices with 
obfunc seqind () { local a,n,skip,ii,x,last localobj vi,oq
    vi=$o1
    if (numarg()>=2) skip=$2+1 else skip=1
    if (numarg()>=3) oq=$o3
    if (!isassigned(oq)) {oq=new NQS() if (numarg()>=3) $o3=oq}
    if (oq.m!=3) { oq.resize(0) oq.resize("beg","end","diff") }
    oq.clear()
    n=last=0
    for ii=1,vi.size(1)-1 {
        if (vi.x[ii]-vi.x[ii-1]>skip) {
            if (n>0) oq.append(vi.x[last],vi.x[ii-1],0)
            last=ii
            n=0
          } else n+=1
      }
    if (n>0) oq.append(vi.x[last],vi.x[ii-1],0)
    oq.pad()
    oq.calc("<diff>.copy(<end>.c.sub(<beg>))")
    return oq
  }

//** list_transpose
proc list_transpose () { localobj aq,mat,xo,inlist,outlist
    aq=new NQS() inlist=$o1 outlist=$o2
    if (!isojt(outlist,inlist)) {outlist=new List() $o2=outlist}
    for ltr(xo,inlist) aq.resize("",xo)
    mat=aq.tomat(1) // transpose
    aq.frmat(mat)
    outlist.remove_all
    aq.listvecs(outlist)
    delnqs(aq)
  }

//* Sam's additions -- moved from nqs_utils.hoc
//get row of Vectors
//$o1 = nqs
//$2 = row number
//$s3 - $snumarg() - name of cols to get values for
//returns list with associated Vectors
obfunc getobjrow(){ local i,rowid localobj nq,vt,ls
    nq=$o1 rowid=$2
    ls=new List()
    vt=new Vector()
    for(i=3;i<=numarg();i+=1){
        nq.get($si,rowid,vt)
        ls.append(vt)
      }
    return ls
  }

//get column of objects as Vector using oform
//$o1 = nqs
//$s2 = col name
//$3=iff==1 return list of Vectors in column, else return vector of oform of each row in column
obfunc getobjcol(){ local idx,getl localobj nq,vt,vt2,ls
    nq=$o1
    if(numarg()>2) getl=$3 else getl=0
    if(getl){
        ls=new List()
        vt=new Vector()
        for idx=0,nq.size-1{
            nq.get($s2,idx,vt)
            ls.append(vt)
          }
        return ls
      } else {
        vt=new Vector(nq.size)
        vt.resize(0)
        vt2=new Vector()
        for idx=0,nq.size-1{
            nq.get($s2,idx,vt2)
            vt.append(oform(vt2))
          }
        return vt
      }
  }

//get correlation between 2 columns of an NQS
//$o1=nqs
//$s2=column name
//$s3=column name
//$4=pearson correlation iff == 1 (default), otherwise spearman
func nqcor(){ local pc localobj nq1,v1,v2
    if(numarg()>3) pc=$4 else pc=1
    nq1=$o1
    v1=nq1.getcol($s2)  v2=nq1.getcol($s3)
    if (pc) return v1.pcorrel(v2) else return v1.scorrel(v2)
  }

//func nqgrslice(){ local startidx,endidx localobj nq,vtmp
  //  nq=$o1 startidx=$2 endidx=$3
  //  vtmp=new Vector($3-$2+1)
  //  gg(
  //}

func MIN(){ if($1<$2)return $1 else return $2 }

//get correlation matrix/nqs of all columns to all columns
//$o1 = NQS
//$2 = num columns 0 - NQS.m
//$3 = start row/index
//$4 = end row/index
//$5 = index increment
//$6 = window size , iff <= 0, do full columns against each other
obfunc nqcolcor(){ local startidx,endidx,inct,wint,c1,c2,ncol localobj vhr,vhl,nqc,nqf
   if(numarg()<1){
       printf("nqcolcor usage: \n\t$o1 = NQS\
                               \n\t$2 = num columns 0 - NQS.m\
                               \n\t$3 = start row/index\
                               \n\t$4 = end row/index\
                               \n\t$5 = index increment\
                               \n\t$6 = window size , iff <= 0, do full columns against each other\n")
       return nil
     }
   nqf=$o1
   if(numarg()>1) ncol=$2 else ncol=nqf.m
   if(numarg()>2) startidx=$3 else startidx=0
   if(numarg()>3) endidx=$4 else endidx=nqf.size
   if(numarg()>4) inct=$5 else inct=50*2//50ms
   if(numarg()>5) wint=$6 else wint=100*2//50ms
  
   vhr=new Vector(wint) vhl=new Vector(wint)
  
   if(wint<=0){ //full column cross-correlation
       nqc=new NQS("ID0","ID1","cor") 
       for c1=0,ncol-1{
           for c2=c1+1,ncol-1{
               nqc.append(c1,c2,nqf.v[c1].pcorrel(nqf.v[c2]))
             }
         }
     } else { //cross correlation using slices of column
       nqc=new NQS("ID0","ID1","start","end","cor") 
       for c1=0,ncol-1{
           for c2=c1+1,ncol-1{
               for(startidx=0;startidx<endidx;startidx+=inct){
                   vhl.copy(nqf.v[c1],startidx,MIN(startidx+wint,endidx-1))
                   vhr.copy(nqf.v[c2],startidx,MIN(startidx+wint,endidx-1))
                   nqc.append(c1,c2,startidx,startidx+wint,vhl.pcorrel(vhr))
                 }
             }
         }
     }
  
   return nqc
  }

 
//read wmf ascii file (just skips header and calls rdcol)
//$s1 = wmf file path
//$2 = # of columns
// obfunc rdwmf(){ local idx,jdx,hdrlines localobj nq,myf,myftmp,strf,str,strtmp,lcols
  // myf=new File() myftmp=new File() strf=new StringFunctions() str=new String() lcols=new List()
  // strtmp=new String() hdrlines=6
  // myf.ropen($s1)
  // if(!myf.is_open()){
    //  printf("rdwmf ERRA: couldn't open wmf file %s for read\n",$s1)
    //  return nil
    // }
  // for idx=0,hdrlines-1{
    //  if(myf.gets(str.s)==-1){
      //    printf("rdwmf ERRB: corrupt header\n")
      //    return nil
      //  } else if(idx==2){
      //    jdx=strf.tail(str.s,"",strtmp.s)            
      //  }
    // }
  // myf.close()
  // return nq
  // }

//draw regression line
//$o1 = nqs, $s2 = column 1, $s3 = column 2
// or
//$o1 = Vector 1 , $o2 = Vector 2
//returns vo
obfunc drawregline(){ local x0,y0,x1,y1,gvtmp,r localobj vo,nq,v1,v2,vx,vy,str
    vo=new Vector(5)
    if(numarg()==3){
        nq = $o1
        v1=new Vector()  v2=new Vector()
        nq.getcol($s2,v1)
        nq.getcol($s3,v2)
      } else {
        v1=$o1 v2=$o2
      }
    v1.vstats(v2,vo)
    x0 = v2.min
    y0 = x0*vo.x(0)+vo.x(1)
    x1 = v2.max
    y1 = x1*vo.x(0)+vo.x(1)
    vx=new Vector(2)
    vx.x(0)=x0
    vx.x(1)=x1
    vy=new Vector(2)
    vy.x(0)=y0
    vy.x(1)=y1
    gvtmp=gvmarkflag
    gvmarkflag=0
    gg(vy,vx)
    gvmarkflag=gvtmp
    str=new String()
    r=v1.pcorrel(v2)
    if(name_declared("rpval_stats")){
        sprint(str.s,"r = %.2f, p = %g, N = %d",r,rpval_stats(v1.size,r),v1.size)
        g.label(0,0,str.s)
      }
    return vo
  }

//* return row $2 of nqs $o1 
obfunc nqrow () { local row,col localobj vout,nq
    nq=$o1
    row=$2
    vout=new Vector(nq.m)
    for col=0,nq.m-1 vout.x(col)=nq.v[col].x(row)
    return vout
  }

//* find row $o2 (vector) in $o1 (nqs) and return index
//  if not there return -1
func nqfindrow () { local idx,jdx,sz localobj nq,vf,vrow
    nq=$o1  vf=$o2
    sz=nq.size(-1)
    for idx=0,sz-1 {
        vrow = nqrow(nq,idx)
        if(vrow.eq(vf)) return idx
      }
    return -1
  }

//* nquniq(NQS) -- return a new NQS with unique rows in $o1
obfunc nquniq () { local sz,idx,outrow,jdx localobj nqin,nqout,vrow
    nqin=$o1
    nqout=new NQS()
    for idx=0,nqin.m-1{
        nqout.resize(nqin.s[idx].s)
        nqout.v[nqout.m-1].resize(nqin.v[idx].size)
      }
    sz=nqin.size(-1)
    jdx=0
    outrow=0
    for idx=0,sz-1{
        vrow=nqrow(nqin,idx)
        if(nqfindrow(nqout,vrow)==-1){
            for jdx=0,nqin.m-1 nqout.v[jdx].x(outrow) = vrow.x(jdx)
            outrow += 1
          }
      }
    for idx=0,nqout.m-1 nqout.v[idx].resize(outrow)
    return nqout
  }
// END /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/decnqs.hoc
//================================================================
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/stats.hoc
// =Id=  stats.hoc,v 1.2 2008/10/29 04:41:41 samn Exp  


//based on code from:
//http://pdos.csail.mit.edu/grid/sim/capacity-ns.tgz/capacity-sim/new-ns/
//hoc template that allows sampling from a pareto power law distribution 
//specified with objref rd
//rd = new rdmpareto($1=avg,$2=shape,[$3=seed])
//then picking values with .pick , or assigning to a vec with assignv(vec)
begintemplate rdmpareto
public avg,shape,rd,seed,pick,paretoc,pareto5,assignv,reset,pareto4,pareto3
double avg[1],shape[1],seed[1]
objref rd
proc init () {
    avg=$1 shape=$2
    if(numarg()>2)seed=$3 else seed=1234
    rd=new Random()
    rd.ACG(seed)
  }
proc reset () {
    rd.ACG(seed)
  }
func paretoc () { local scale,shape,U
    scale=$1 shape=$2 U = rd.uniform(0,1)
    return scale * (1.0/ U^(1/shape) )
  }
func pareto5 () { local avg,shape
    avg=$1 shape=$2
    return paretoc( avg * (shape -1)/shape, shape)
  }
func pareto4 () { local alpha,u
    alpha=$2
    u = 1 - rd.uniform(0,1)
    return $1 + 1 / u^(1/alpha)
  }
func pareto3 () { local x,z,b,a
    b = avg // 1 //min value
    a = shape // 10
    x = rd.uniform(0,1)
    z = x^-1/a
    return 1 + b * z
  }
func pick () {
    return pareto5(avg,shape)
  }
func assignv () { local i localobj vi
    vi=$o1 
    for i=0,vi.size-1 vi.x(i)=pick()
  }
endtemplate rdmpareto
// END /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/stats.hoc
//================================================================
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/drline.hoc
// =Id=  drline.hoc,v 1.21 2008/12/05 03:22:08 billl Exp 

// load_file("drline.hoc")

// click and drag left button to draw lines on top of a figure interactively
// select graph to draw on with setdrl(Graph[])
// set color with clr, line width with lne
// select 'Draw curve' for continuous drawing
// select 'Arrow' to place an arrow pointing according to direction of drag

drlflush=1 //whether to flush line drawings each drline call

//* drline(x0,y0,x1,y1,OPT graph or color) 
proc drline () { local color,line
    if (numarg()==0) { print "drline(x0,y0,x1,y1[,g,col,line])"
        return }
    if (numarg()>4) { 
        if (argtype(5)==0) { color=$5 
                               if (numarg()>5) line=$6
          } else {             graphItem = $o5 
                               if (numarg()>5) color=$6
                               if (numarg()>6) line=$7      }}
    graphItem.beginline(color,line)
    graphItem.line($1,$2)
    graphItem.line($3,$4)
    if(drlflush) graphItem.flush()
  }

//* set to drawlines on top of fig
proc setdrl () {
    g=$o1 // select this graph for further drawing
    xpanel("")
    $o1.menu_tool("Draw line","drl")
    $o1.menu_tool("Draw curve","drc")
    $o1.menu_tool("Label","drw")
    $o1.menu_tool("Arrow","dra")
    $o1.menu_tool("Circle","drci")
    $o1.menu_tool("Rectangle","drr")
    xvalue("Color","clr",1,"",1)
    xvalue("Line","lne",1,"",1)
    xbutton("Erase","g.erase_all()")
    xpanel()
    $o1.exec_menu("Draw line")
  }

//* draw line interactively on top of fig
// interesting that this should work at all since x0,y0 local but still preserving their
// values across multiple calls
proc drl ()  { local x0,y0,type,x,y,keystate
    type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4
    if (type==2) {x0=x y0=y}
    if (type==3) drline(x0,y0,x,y,clr,lne)
  }

//* draw circle interactively on top of fig
// drci(2,0,0,0) drci(3,1,0,0)
proc drci ()  { local a,x0,y0,type,x,y,keystate,ii,rad localobj xv,yv
    type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4
    if (type==2) {x0=x y0=y}
    if (type==3) { rad=sqrt((x-x0)^2+(y-y0)^2) 
        a=allocvecs(xv,yv) vrsz(360,xv,yv)
        print "Circle: ",x0,y0,rad
        yv.circ(xv,x0,y0,rad)
        yv.line(g,xv,clr,lne)
        dealloc(a)
      }
  }

//* draw retangle interactively on top of fig
proc drr ()  { local x0,y0,type,x,y,keystate
    type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4
    if (type==2) {x0=x y0=y}
    if (type==3) { drline(x0,y0,x0,y,clr,lne)
        drline(x,y0,x,y,clr,lne) drline(x,y,x0,y,clr,lne) drline(x,y0,x0,y0,clr,lne) }
  }

//* draw arrow interactively on top of fig
proc dra ()  { local x0,y0,xsz,ysz,type,x,y,keystate,rot
    type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4
    xsz=0.1*(g.size(2)-g.size(1)) // 10% of size
    ysz=0.1*(g.size(4)-g.size(3))
    if (type==2) {x0=x y0=y}
    if (type==3) {
        if (y==y0) {
            if (x>x0) rot=-90 else rot=90
          } else {
            rot=-atan((x-x0)/(y-y0))/2/PI*360
            if ((y-y0)<=0) rot+=180
          }
        g.glyph(arrow(),x,y,xsz,ysz,rot)
      }
  }

//* draw curve interactively on top of fig
proc drc ()  { local x0,y0,type,x,y,keystate
    type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4
    if (type==2) { x0=x y0=y
      } else if (type==1) {
        drline(x0,y0,x,y,clr,lne)
        x0=x y0=y
      } else if (type==3) drline(x0,y0,x,y,clr,lne)
  }

//* write label
proc drw ()  { local x0,y0,type,x,y,keystate
    type=$1 x=$2 y=$3 keystate=$4
    if (type==2) { 
       string_dialog("Label: ",tstr) 
       g.label(x,y,tstr,1,1,0.5,0.5,clr)
      }
  }

obfunc arrow () { localobj o
    o=new Glyph()
    o.m(0,0)  o.l(0,1) o.s(1,4) // draw vertical line
    o.m(-0.1,0.3) o.l(0,1) o.s(1,4)
    o.l(0.1,0.3) o.s(1,4)
    return o
  }

//* hist(g,vec,min,max,bins)
{clr=1 hflg=1 ers=1 sym=1 pflg=0} // clr:color, hflg=1 draw lines; 2 draw boxes; 3 fill in; ers=erase; pflg=1 normalize hist by size of $o2, so will be probability instead of count
// style determined by hflg
// hflg==0 lines with dots
// hflg==0.x offset lines with dots
// hflg==1 outlines but not down to zero
// hflg==2 outlines with lines down to zero
// hflg==3 just dots
// hflg==3.x lines between dots
func hist () { local a,b,c,min,max,wid,bins,ii,jj,offset,x,y
    if (numarg()==0) { printf("hist(g,vec,min,max,bins)\n") return 0}
    if ($o2.size<2)  { printf("hist: $o2 too small\n",$o2) return -1}
    if ($o2.min==$o2.max)  { printf("hist: %s all one value: %g\n",$o2,$o2.min) return -1}
    if (numarg()==5) {min=$3 max=$4 bins=$5 
      } else if (numarg()==4) { min=0 max=$3 bins=$4 
      } else if (numarg()<=3) { 
        if ((min=0.95*$o2.min)<0) min=1.05*$o2.min
        if ((max=1.05*$o2.max)<0) max=0.95*$o2.max
        bins=100
        if (min>0) min*=0.9 else min*=1.1
        if (max>0) min*=1.1 else max*=0.9
        if (numarg()==3) bins=$3
      }
    wid=(max-min)/bins
    // print min,max,max-wid,wid
    a=b=c=allocvecs(3) b+=1 c+=2
    offset=0 x=-1
    if (ers) $o1.erase_all()
    mso[c].hist($o2,min,bins,wid) // c has values
    if(pflg) mso[c].div(mso[c].sum) // normalize to sum to 1
    mso[a].resize(2*mso[c].size())
    mso[a].indgen(0.5) 
    mso[a].apply("int") 
    mso[b].index(mso[c], mso[a]) 
    mso[a].mul(wid) mso[a].add(min)
    mso[b].rotate(1)
    mso[b].x[0] = 0 
    mso[b].append(mso[b].x[mso[b].size-1],0)
    mso[a].append(max,max)
    if (hflg==1 || hflg==2) { 
        mso[b].line($o1, mso[a],clr,4)
        if (hflg==2) for vtr(&x,mso[a]) drline(x,0,x,mso[b].x[i1],$o1,clr,4)
      } else if (int(hflg)==0 || hflg>=3) { 
        if (hflg%1!=0) offset=hflg*wid // use eg -0.5+ii/8 to move back to integer
        mso[a].indgen(min,max-wid,wid)
        mso[a].add(wid/2+offset)
        // print mso[a].min,mso[a].max
        // mso[c].mark($o1,mso[a],"O",6,clr,2) // this will place points where 0 count
        for jj=0,mso[a].size-1 if (mso[c].x[jj]!=0) {
            if (hflg!=3 && hflg%1!=0) drline(mso[a].x[jj],0,mso[a].x[jj],mso[c].x[jj],$o1,clr,4)
            if (hflg==4) {
                if (x!=-1) drline(x,y,mso[a].x[jj],mso[c].x[jj],$o1,clr,4)
                x=mso[a].x[jj] y=mso[c].x[jj]
              }
            $o1.mark(mso[a].x[jj],mso[c].x[jj],sg(sym).t,10,clr,2) // don't place points with 0 count
          }
      }
    $o1.flush()
    $o1.size(min,max,0,mso[b].max)
    dealloc(a)
    return 1
  }

proc smgs () { local a,b,c,min,max,wid,bins,ii,jj,offset,x,y localobj v1
    if ($o2.size<2)  { printf("smgs: $o2 too small\n",$o2) return -1}
    if ($o2.min==$o2.max)  { printf("smgs: %s all one value: %g\n",$o2,$o2.min) return -1}
    if (numarg()==5) {min=$3 max=$4 bins=$5 
      } else if (numarg()==4) { min=0 max=$3 bins=$4 
      } else if (numarg()<=3) { 
        if ((min=0.95*$o2.min)<0) min=1.05*$o2.min
        if ((max=1.05*$o2.max)<0) max=0.95*$o2.max
        bins=100
        if (min>0) min*=0.9 else min*=1.1
        if (max>0) min*=1.1 else max*=0.9
        if (numarg()==3) bins=$3
      }
    wid=(max-min)/bins
    // print min,max,max-wid,wid
    a=b=c=allocvecs(3,1e4) b+=1 c+=2
    offset=0 x=-1
    if (ers) $o1.erase_all()
    mso[a].indgen(min,max,wid)
    if (0) {
        mso[c].smgs($o2,min,max,wid,wid*wid/4) // c has values
        mso[c].line($o1, mso[a],clr,4)
      } else {
        v1=$o2.sumgauss(min,max,wid,wid/2) // c has values
        v1.line($o1, mso[a],clr,4)
      }
  }
// END /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/drline.hoc
//================================================================
//================================================================
if (! VECST_INSTALLED) install_vecst()
if (! INSTALLED_stats) install_stats()

//================================================================
// INSERTED nqsnet.hoc
// =Id=  nqsnet.hoc,v 1.3 2008/04/07 17:28:07 billl Exp 

// xopen("nqsnet.hoc")
//* declarations
//      pre-id  post-id  pre#  post#   distance weight  syn-id   nc ptr  wt1 (eg AMPA+NMDA)
objref nq[2],sq[CTYPi][CTYPi],cp
obfunc mkcp0 () { localobj lo
    lo = new NQS("PRID","POID","STYP","PIJ","DIV","CONV","NSYN","NPRE")
    lo.useslist("PRID",CTYP) lo.useslist("POID",CTYP) lo.useslist("STYP",STYP)
    return lo
  }

// CODE: PRID,POID,INCOL,COL1,COL2
obfunc mksp () { localobj lo
    lo=new NQS("CODE","PR","PO","DEL","WT0","WT1") // CODE==PRID(1),POID(2),COLA(3),COLB(4)
    lo.coddec("CODE")
    // lo.useslist("PRID",CTYP) lo.useslist("POID",CTYP) 
    return lo
  }
sp=mksp()

//* Numbers and connectivity params
// %con (con/pre) = %div (div/post)
ncols=1
DEAD_DIV_INTF=0
jcn=1
cmode=0      // cmode=0 dont control conv hist, cmode=1 control conv hist - with equal inputs
             // to all cells, cmode=2 control conv hist with specified convstdev
convstdev=2  //std-dev of convergence hists for cmode=1
pfctr = 1    //scaling factor for pmat (connectivity densities)
             //if pfctr!=1 scalepmat is called, dpfctrs takes precedence
dpfctrs = 2  //dynamically modify pfctr so that the pij densities

if (!name_declared("dstr")) {   //not declared, so not batch mode
    batch_flag=0
    scale=2
    killp=0
    prup=0
  } else batch_flag=1

if(dpfctrs!=0) { //dynamic scaling of pfctrs
    pfctr=dpfctrs/scale
  }

double numc[CTYPi],ix[CTYPi]
for ii=0,CTYPi-1 numc[ii]=0
numc[SM]=0
proc setnumc() { numc[DP]=$1 numc[SU]=$2 numc[IN]=$3 }
mesg="All values >0 please"
// xgetargs(1,"Set simulation size","setnumc","# Drivers(D): ","# Expressors(E): ","# Inhibitory(I): ","200,2000,500")
{numc[DP]=200 numc[SU]=2000 numc[IN]=500} // just set it up for now
{ ix[DP]=0         ixe[DP]=ix[DP]+numc[DP]-1}
{ ix[SU]=ixe[DP]+1 ixe[SU]=ix[SU]+numc[SU]-1}
{ ix[IN]=ixe[SU]+1 ixe[IN]=ix[IN]+numc[IN]-1}

proc ae () { local ii,n localobj xo,o
    n=allcells=icells=ecells=0
    for ii=0,CTYPi-1 {ix[ii]=0 ixe[ii]=-1}
    for ltr(xo,CTYP,&ii) {
        if (numc[ii]!=0) { 
            ix[ii]=n ixe[ii]=n+numc[ii]-1 n=ixe[ii]+1 
            allcells+=numc[ii]
            if (ice(ii)) icells+=numc[ii] else ecells+=numc[ii]
          }
      }
  }
ae()
printf("total # of cells = %d\n",allcells)

//pmat is fraction of cells connecting from one type to the other 
//divided by total # of possible connections o(n^2)
double pmat[CTYPi][CTYPi],delm[CTYPi][CTYPi],deld[CTYPi][CTYPi]

pmat[DP][DP] =  0.01
pmat[DP][SU] =  0.01
pmat[DP][IN] =  0.01
pmat[SU][DP] =  0.005
pmat[SU][SU] =  0.005
pmat[SU][IN] =  0.01
pmat[IN][DP] =  0.01
pmat[IN][SU] =  0.1 
pmat[IN][IN] =  0.01

//multiply each val in pmat by $1
proc scalepmat(){ local from,to,fctr
    fctr=$1
    printf("scalepmat WARNING: scaling pmat by %.2f\n",fctr)
    for case(&from,DP,SU,IN,SM){
        for case(&to,DP,SU,IN,SM){
            pmat[from][to] *= fctr
          }
      }
  }

proc kilc () { local x,pc
    pc=1-$1
    for case(&x,SU,DP,IN) {
        for ixt(x) if (ixj>numc[x]*pc) XO.flag("dead",1) else XO.flag("dead",0)
      }
  }

proc pruc () { local x,pc
    pc=$1
    for case(&x,SU,DP,IN) for ixt(x) XO.prune(pc)
  }

//scale pmat by pfctr
if(pfctr!=1) scalepmat(pfctr)

wid=1
if (1) {snum=0 for case(&x,IN,SU,DP) for case(&y,IN,SU,DP) snum+=int(pmat[x][y]*numc[x]*numc[y]+1)}

//* weight params
//** delay
{delm[SU][DP] =  2.0   deld[SU][DP] =  0.2 }
{delm[SU][SU] =  3.0   deld[SU][SU] =  0.2 }
{delm[SU][IN] =  1.0   deld[SU][IN] =  0.05}

{delm[DP][SU] =  1.8   deld[DP][SU] =  0.02}
{delm[DP][DP] =  2.0   deld[DP][DP] =  0.02}
{delm[DP][IN] =  1.5   deld[DP][IN] =  0.02}

{delm[IN][SU] =  1.0   deld[IN][SU] =  0.05}
{delm[IN][DP] =  2.0   deld[IN][DP] =  0.05}
{delm[IN][IN] =  2.2   deld[IN][IN] =  0.05}

{delm[SM][SU] =  2.0   deld[SM][SU] =  0.2 }
{delm[SM][DP] =  2.0   deld[SM][DP] =  0.2 }
{delm[SM][IN] =  2.0   deld[SM][IN] =  0.2 }

//** strengths
double wmat[CTYPi][CTYPi][STYPi]
called_swmat=0
double thresh[CTYPi]
thresh[DP]=18
thresh[SU]=16
thresh[IN]=20
wscale=1

//this proc is used in params.hoc after creating the cells
//looks like it sets weights between different cell types
//and their associated synapses
double freq[CTYPi],swcnum[CTYPi]
//$1 = reduction factor
//$2 = flag whether to use postsynaptic frequency
//$3 = experimental version, default off
proc swmat () { local tauga,tauam,taunm,usepostf,redfct,pr,po,sy,syi,invl,tausy,\
                 i,j,pe,pi,necon,nicon,taue,taui,nce,nci localobj poo,vtmp
  
    called_swmat=1
  
    if(numarg()>0) redfct=$1 else redfct=1e3 //original val = 1e3
    if(numarg()>1) usepostf=$2 else usepostf=0
  
    freq[SU]=4 freq[DP]=4 freq[IN]=4 // desired firing frequency Hz
  
    //init weights to 0
    for pr=0,CTYPi-1 for po=0,CTYPi-1 for sy=0,STYPi-1 wmat[pr][po][sy]=0
  
    //set postsynaptic thresh values based on anvg of VTH - RMP
    //for that cell type. this thresh value seems to only be
    //used in setting wmat here
    if(0) for case(&po,SU,DP,IN) {
        {vtmp = new Vector(ixe[po]-ix[po]+1) j=0}
        for i=ix[po],ixe[po] {
            poo = ce.o(i)
            vtmp.x(j) = poo.VTH - poo.RMP
            j+=1
          }
        thresh[po] = vtmp.mean
      }
  
    for case(&pr,SU,DP,IN) for case(&po,SU,DP,IN) {
        if (pr==IN) {
            syi=GA
          } else { 
            syi=AM
          }
        for sy=syi,syi+1 {
            sprint(tstr,"x=intf.tau%s",STYP.o(sy).s) execute(tstr) invl=x
            poo=ce.o(ix[po])
            sprint(tstr,"x=%s.tau%s",poo,STYP.o(sy).s) execute(tstr)
            tausy=x
            wmat[pr][po][sy]=thresh[po]/pmat[pr][po]/numc[pr]/freq[pr]*redfct/tausy
            if(usepostf) wmat[pr][po][sy] *= freq[po]
            if (sy==GB) wmat[pr][po][sy]=0 // **** set all GABAB weights to zero
          }
      }
    for case(&x,SU) {  sy=AM
        swcnum[x]=thresh[po]/wmat[x][x][sy]/pmat[x][x]
        printf("~%ld simultaneous %s cells to start\n",swcnum[x],CTYP.o(x).s)
      }
  }

// if (0) {
  // wmat[DP][DP][AM]=0.02/wscale
  // wmat[DP][DP][NM]=0.002/wscale
  // wmat[DP][SU][AM]=0.02/wscale
  // wmat[DP][SU][NM]=0.002/wscale
  // wmat[DP][IN][AM]=0.01/wscale
  // wmat[DP][IN][NM]=0.005/wscale
  // wmat[IN][DP][GA]=0.2/wscale
  // wmat[IN][DP][GB]=0.0/wscale
  // wmat[SU][SU][AM]=0.02/wscale
  // wmat[SU][SU][NM]=0.002/wscale
  // wmat[SU][DP][AM]=0.02/wscale
  // wmat[SU][DP][NM]=0.02/wscale
  // wmat[SU][IN][AM]=0.01/wscale
  // wmat[SU][IN][NM]=0.005/wscale
  // wmat[IN][SU][GA]=0.2/wscale
  // wmat[IN][SU][GB]=0.0/wscale
  // wmat[IN][IN][GA]=0.5/wscale
  // wmat[IN][IN][GB]=0.0/wscale
  // wmat[SM][SU][AM]=0.  // not using these for now
  // wmat[SM][DP][AM]=0.
  // wmat[SM][IN][AM]=0.
  // }

//* routines
//** styp() sets synapse type based on presynaptic cell
func styp () { local pr,po
    pr=$1 po=$2
    if (pr==IN && po==IN) { return GA 
      } else if (pr==IN) { return IX
      } else if (pr==SU || pr==DP) { return EX
      } else if (pr==SM) { return AM
      } else printf("styp ERR %s->%s not classified",CTYP.object(pr).s,CTYP.object(po).s)
  }

proc mkcp () { local ii,jj,n,cn,cnum
    cp=mkcp0()   // new NQS("PRID","POID","STYP","PIJ","DIV","CONV","NSYN","NPRE")
    cp.tog("DB")
    cp.zvec()
    for ii=0,CTYPi-1 for jj=0,CTYPi-1 if (pmat[ii][jj]!=0 && numc[ii]!=0 && numc[jj]!=0) {
        cp.append(ii,jj,styp(ii,jj),pmat[ii][jj],pmat[ii][jj]*numc[jj],pmat[ii][jj]*numc[ii],pmat[ii][jj]*numc[ii]*numc[jj],numc[ii])
      }
  } 

//** ellfld() place the cells inside an ellipse
// r for an ellipse = a*b/sqrt((a*sin(theta))^2 + (b*cos(theta))^2)
proc ellfld () { local a,b,ii,jj,p,seed localobj xv,yv,xo
    seed=239023229
    a=1 b=2
    p=allocvecs(xv,yv) vrsz(allcells*10,xv,yv)
    xv.setrnd(4,2*a,seed) yv.setrnd(4,2*b) xv.sub(a) yv.sub(b)
    jj=0
    for vtr2(&x,&y,xv,yv,&ii) {
        if (a*x^2+b*y^2<1) { ce.o(jj).xloc=x ce.o(jj).yloc=y jj+=1 }
        if (jj==ce.count) break
      }
    print ii,jj
    if (jj!=ce.count) print "Not filled"
    dealloc(p)
  }
// END nqsnet.hoc
//================================================================
//================================================================
// INSERTED network.hoc
// =Id=  network.hoc,v 1.3 2008/06/26 19:12:07 billl Exp 

//* Numbers and connectivity params
// %con (con/pre) = %div (div/post)
objref ce,np[2],ncp,intf
ce=new List()
for ii=0,1 np[ii]=new List()
ncp=np[1]

//* read .net file
strdef netfile
{sp = new NQS() cp = new NQS()}
mkcp()

//* CREATE CELLS
// %con (con/pre) = %div (div/post)
n=ty=id=0
proc creatns () { local ii,ty,n,m
    ce.remove_all
    cp.tog("DB") cp.mo(1)
    m=-1
    for ii=1,CTYPi-1 { numc[ii]=0 ix[ii]=ixe[ii]=-1 }
    for vtr(&ty,uniq(cp.find("PRID"))) {
        n=cp.fetch("PRID",ty,"NPRE")    
        if (n==0) continue
        numc[ty]=n
        ix[ty]=m+1
        print ty,m,ix[ty]
        for ii=0,n-1 {
            // if (ty==SM) tstr="NStim" else tstr="INTF"
            // sprint(tstr,"ce.append(new %s(%d,%d))",tstr,m+1,ty) execute(tstr)
            ce.append(new INTF(m+1,ty,ice(ty)))
            m+=1
          }
        ixe[ty]=m
      }
    intf=ce.object(ix[SU]) // use for global calls
    ncells=m+1
    ellfld()
  }

double div[CTYPi][CTYPi],delord[CTYPi][CTYPi]
// for random divergence, dels and weights
proc setdivs () { local ii,jj,prety,posty localobj oq
    oq=new NQS("posty","del")
    for case(&prety,SU,DP,IN) for case(&posty,SU,DP,IN) {
        div[prety][posty]=cp.fetch("PRID",prety,"POID",posty,"DIV") 
        delord[prety][posty]=-1
      }
    for case(&prety,SU,DP,IN) {
        oq.clear()
        for case(&posty,SU,DP,IN) oq.append(posty,delm[prety][posty])
        oq.sort("del") jj=-1
        for oq.qt(&ii,"posty") delord[prety][jj+=1]=ii
      }
    nqsdel(oq)
  }

setdivs()
scrsz=10*cp.applf(".max","DIV")
printf("scrsz=%g\n",scrsz)
double scr[scrsz]

//* rjinet() creates NetCons based on random seeds used for INTF
// note that FOFFSET should correspond to value in INTF.mod
// and cty[] order must correspond to poty loop
// output is '.' indicators during netcon setup and ',' during weight setting
proc rjinet () { local x,y,ii,jj,a,del,sead,prty,poty,dv,dvt,idty,FOFFSET\
                  localobj v1,v2,opr,opo,nc
    if(!called_swma){
        printf("*** rjinet Warning: using wmat before calling swmat!!\n")
      }
    a=allocvecs(v1,v2)
    FOFFSET=100
    ncl.remove_all
    for ltr(opr,ce,&y) {
        if (y%10000==0) printf(".")
        prty=opr.type   dvt=0
        for case(&poty,DP,SU,IN) { // corresponds to cty[] set in jitcondiv()
            dvt+=int(div[prty][poty])
          }
        sead=opr.id*1e6
        for case(&poty,DP,SU,IN) { // corresponds to cty[] set in jitcondiv()
            dv=int(div[prty][poty])
            if (dv>0) {
                sead+=dv
                vrsz(dv,v1,v2)
                v1.setrnd(5,ixe[poty]-ix[poty]+1,sead) // flag 5 provides integers
                sead+=dv // compensate the augmentation that takes place internally with seed
                v1.add(ix[poty])
        
                v2.setrnd(4,2*deld[prty][poty],sead) // flag 4 provides doubles
                sead+=dv // compensate the augmentation that takes place internally with seed
                for (j=0;j<dv;j+=1) {
                    v2.x[j]+=(delm[prty][poty]-deld[prty][poty]) // +/- DELD
                    if (v2.x[j]<0) v2.x[j]=-v2.x[j]
                  }
                for vtr2(&x,&jj,v1,v2) ncl.append(new NetCon(opr,ce.o(x),0,jj,0))
              }
          }
      }
    v2.resize(2) print ""
    for ltr(nc,ncl,&y) {
        prty=nc.pre.type poty=nc.syn.type
        if (y%1e5==0) printf(",")
        for ii=0,nc.wcnt-1 nc.weight[ii]=0 // clear weights
        idty=FOFFSET+nc.pre.id+0.1*prty+0.01
        mc4seed_stats(idty,nc.syn.id,seedstep_INTF)
        v2.setrnd(4,1) // 0 to 1
        if (prty==IN) sy=GA else sy=AM
        for ({ii=sy jj=0};ii<=sy+1;{ii+=1 jj+=1}) { // scale appropriately; 
            nc.weight[ii]=0.4*(v2.x[jj]+2)*wmat[prty][poty][ii]*wd0[prty][poty][ii]
          }
      }
    dealloc(a)
  }


func ceil(){
    if(int($1)==$1) return $1
    return int($1)+1
  }

func floor(){
    return int($1)
  }

//# of input cons from one type to another
//assuming each input cell gets equal # of inputs
func numcons(){ local from,to
    from=$1
    to=$2
    return ((numc[from]*div[from][to])/numc[to])
  }


//* setdvi() directly sets intf internal connectivity using intf.setdvi()
// cty[] order must correspond to poty loop
//$1 = convergence histogram mode, 0=default,1=force all cells to have equal # of inputs
//2=control std-dev of conv hist with $2 (will be centered at mean of numcons(prty,poty))
objref vht[IN+1][IN+1]
proc setdvi () { local x,y,ii,jj,a,del,sead,prty,poty,dv,dvt,idty,cmode,cstdev,cvar,tot,nc,avgc\
                  localobj v1,v2,vidx,vdel,opr,opo,rdm,st
    if(numarg()>0)cmode=$1 else cmode=0
    if(numarg()>1)cstdev=$2 else cstdev=0
    if(cmode!=0){
        rdm = new Random()
        rdm.MCellRan4(123456789101112)
        if(cmode==1){
            //initialize max # of inputs to a cell, when cmode==1 , this # is equal for all cells
            for case(&prty,DP,SU,IN){
                for case(&poty,DP,SU,IN){
                    vht[prty][poty]=new Vector(allcells)
                    val = ceil(numcons(prty,poty))
                    for ii=ix[poty],ixe[poty]{
                        vht[prty][poty].x(ii) = val
                      }
                  }
              }
          } else {
            cvar=cstdev^2
            st=new String()
            for case(&prty,DP,SU,IN){
                for case(&poty,DP,SU,IN){
                    vht[prty][poty]=new Vector(allcells)
                    avgc=nc=ceil(numcons(prty,poty)) //# conns if all cells get equal inputs
                    tot=nc*numc[poty]           //total # of connections
                    sprint(st.s,"prty=%d posty=%d nc=%d avgc=%d tot=%d",prty,poty,nc,avgc,tot)
                    printf("%s\n",st.s)
                    //range is still centered on mean=numcons(prty,poty) <-- only if not using uniform, fixit
                    for ii=ix[poty],ixe[poty]{
                        nc=int(rdm.normal(avgc,cvar))//pick random # of inputs in range
                        if(nc<=0)continue
                        if(tot-nc>=0){ //enough inputs?
                            vht[prty][poty].x(ii)=nc
                            tot-=nc
                          } else { //not enough inputs
                            vht[prty][poty].x(ii)=tot
                            tot=0
                            printf("used all\n")
                            break
                          }
                      }
                    //make sure all inputs are used up fully
                    //by adding 1 input to a random cell
                    while(tot!=0){
                        ii=int(rdm.uniform(ix[poty],ixe[poty]+1))
                        if(ii>ixe[poty])ii=ixe[poty]
                        vht[prty][poty].x(ii)+=1
                        tot-=1
                        if(tot<0)tot=0
                      }
                    printf("\tsum=%d\n",vht[prty][poty].sum)
                  }
              }
          }
      }
  
    a=allocvecs(v1,v2,vidx,vdel)
    vrsz(1e4,vidx,vdel)
    for ltr(opr,ce,&y) {
        vrsz(0,vidx,vdel)
        if(y%100==0)printf(".")
        prty=opr.type   dvt=0
        for case(&poty,DP,SU,IN) { // corresponds to cty[] set in jitcondiv()
            dvt+=int(div[prty][poty])
          }
        sead=opr.DVIDSeed()
        for case(&poty,DP,SU,IN) { // corresponds to cty[] set in jitcondiv()
            dv=int(div[prty][poty])
            if (dv>0) {
                sead+=dv
                vrsz(dv,v1,v2)
                v1.setrnd(5,ixe[poty]-ix[poty]+1,sead) // flag 5 provides integers
                sead+=dv // compensate the augmentation that takes place internally with seed
                v1.add(ix[poty])
        
                if(cmode!=0){
                    //this loop ensures each cell gets initial value of vht[prty][poty] inputs
                    for ii=0,v1.size-1{
                        idx=v1.x(ii)
                        while(vht[prty][poty].x(idx)<=0){
                            idx = int(rdm.uniform(ix[poty],ixe[poty]+1))
                            if(idx>ixe[poty])idx=ixe[poty]
                          }
                        vht[prty][poty].x(idx)-=1
                        v1.x(ii)=idx
                      }
                  }
        
                v2.setrnd(4,2*deld[prty][poty],sead) // flag 4 provides doubles
                sead+=dv // compensate the augmentation that takes place internally with seed
                for (j=0;j<dv;j+=1) {
                    v2.x[j]+=(delm[prty][poty]-deld[prty][poty]) // +/- DELD
                    if (v2.x[j]<0) v2.x[j]=-v2.x[j]
                  }
                vidx.append(v1) vdel.append(v2)
              }
          }
        opr.setdvi(vidx,vdel)
      }
    dealloc(a)
  }

creatns() // create cells
kilc(killp) // kill certain percent of the cells
intf.jitcondiv() //sets up pointers for use by jitcon

if (jcn){
    setdvi(cmode,convstdev)
    for ltr(ce){ XO.pgset() XO.flag("jcn",jcn) }
    pruc(prup)
  }
// END network.hoc
//================================================================
//================================================================
// INSERTED params.hoc
/* =Id=  params.hoc,v 1.4 2009/01/06 17:26:52 billl Exp  */


//* batch params
SPONTINVL=100
BURINVL=200
SPONTBACK=5
BURSZ=4
BURP=0.01
DPP=0.1 // percent DP cells
jrsvn_INTF=1e3
jrsvd_INTF=2e4

//* Declarations
objref p,jspks,wvspks0,fih,nstim
{jspks=new Vector(1e3) wvspks0=jspks.c}
vseed_stats(223481)
rdm.MCellRan4(seed_stats)

//* general params
tstop = 1e9 //1s
v_init=1000 // so keep v's as set randomly

//* ARTC params
mg_INTF=1.6
EAM_INTF=100 // these are deviations above RMP
ENM_INTF=50
EGA_INTF=-30
AMdec_INTF=0.5

// pscal(RAND,min,max,SCALE)
if(ce!=nil) ind.resize(ce.count*4) // use for randomizing params
func pscal () { local x
    x=popvec(ind)
    if (x==1e9) {ind.resize(ind.buffer_size) ind.setrnd(4) x=popvec(ind)}
    if (numarg()==3) return $3*($1+x*($2-$1)) else return $1+x*($2-$1) 
  }

SCAHP=SCTH=1
proc setDP () {
    mc4seed_stats(33020319)
    ind.resize(ind.buffer_size)
    ind.setrnd(4)
    for ixt(DP) {
        XO.ahpwt=1.0
        // XO.ahpwt=pscal(0.3,0.5,1)
        XO.tauahp=400
        // XO.tauahp=pscal(200,350)
        XO.RMP=-70
        // XO.VTH=XO.RMP+16.5
        XO.VTH=XO.RMP+pscal(thresh[DP]-2,thresh[DP]+2,1)
        XO.Vblock=-10
        if (0) if (ixj<int(1.0*numc[DP])) { // get rid of bursting
            XO.nbur = int(pscal(2,5))
            XO.tbur = pscal(2,4)
          }
        XO.refrac=pscal(8,11)
        XO.tauGA=80 
        XO.tauGB=100
        XO.VGBdel=50
        XO.rebound=0.0
      }
  }

proc setSU () { local ii
    mc4seed_stats(913233)
    ind.resize(ind.buffer_size)
    ind.setrnd(4)
    for ii=ix[SU],ixe[SU] { XO=ce.o(ii)
        XO.ahpwt=1.0
        // XO.ahpwt=pscal(0.5,4.0,SCAHP)
        XO.tauahp=400
        // XO.tauahp=pscal(250,650)
        XO.RMP=-70
        // XO.VTH=XO.RMP+16.5
        XO.VTH=XO.RMP+pscal(thresh[SU]-2,thresh[SU]+2,SCTH)
        XO.refrac=6.5
        // XO.refrac=pscal(4,7)
        XO.Vblock=-30
        XO.tauGA=70
        XO.tauGB=100
        XO.VGBdel=50
        XO.rebound=0.0
      }
  }

proc setIN () {
    mc4seed_stats(88831423)
    ind.resize(ind.buffer_size)
    ind.setrand(rdm)
    for ixt(IN) {
        XO.ahpwt=0.5
        XO.refrac=3
        XO.tauahp=50
        XO.Vblock=-10
        XO.VTH=XO.RMP+pscal(thresh[IN]-2,thresh[IN]+2,SCTH)
      }
  }
{setSU() setDP() setIN()}

//* stim - not used currently, stim is done in sgrcells
objref ncs
ncs=new List()
proc stimSU () { local ii,set,dur localobj xo,v1
    ncs.remove_all
    nstim=new NStim(0,SM) // single shock stim at t=40
    nstim.number=1
    nstim.start=10
    nstim.interval=1e9
    // sample(v1,ix[SU],ixe[SU],0.1*numc[SU]) // 10% of SUs -- unique values - not using
    set=swcnum*1.2
    dur=10
    vrsz(2*set,ind) rdm.uniform(0,dur) ind.setrand(rdm) // randomize time of activation
    ind.fill(0) // NO randomization
    for case (&ii,SU) for ixt(ii) { 
        if (ixj>=set) break // use first 20 cells
        ncs.append(new NetCon(nstim,XO,0,ind.x[i1*set+ixj],30))
      }
  }

// burpSU() not now being called
proc burpSU () {
    sample(vec,numc[SU]-1,BURP*numc[SU])
    for ixt(SU) { XO.invlset(0)
        if (ixj>=vec.size) break
        x=vec.x[ixj]
        XO.invl=BURINVL
        XO.invlset(1)
        XO.WINV=35
        XO.nbur=BURSZ
      }
  }

objref vq //<-- nqs for stim cell ids,times,weights

sgrdur = 5 //duration of stim
sgrpp = 50 // percent to be stim'ed
stimcc=SU
sgrpsz = numc[SU] / 2.0 //# of SU cells to stim
sgrdur = 5 //duration of stim
//$1 = random # seed
objref sgrseeds
sgrseeds = new Vector()
sgrseeds.append(13406987,60849730,48670438,24906870,10968372,48986799,67340986,57098670,\
  12034670,30249867,24897094,43498679,50934876,20934876,20398476,87340968,72309870,38746029,\
  98432709,47068921)
sgrseedidx = 0
proc sgrcells () { local sgrseed,ii,a localobj v1,vtmp
    if (numarg()==1) { 
        sgrseed=$1 flag=0 // just set it up
      } else { 
        sgrdur=$1 sgrpp=$2 stimcc=$3 sgrseeds.x(sgrseedidx+=1%sgrseeds.size)
        flag=1 // set params then stimulate
      }
    vseed_stats(sgrseed)
    a=allocvecs(v1)
    if (intf.vinflag) intf.clrvspks()
    if (isassigned(vq)) delnqs(vq)
    if (isobj(vq,"NQS")) vq.clear else vq=new NQS("ind","time","wt")
    if (sgrpp>100) {sgrpp=100 print "WARNING sgrppp>100: ",stimcc,sgrpp,numc[stimcc]}
    sgrpsz=int(sgrpp*numc[stimcc]/100)
    v1.indgen(ix[stimcc],ix[stimcc]+sgrpsz-1,1)
    for ii=0,1-1 vq.v.append(v1) // change iterate to permit each cell mult inputs
    vq.pad()
    rdm.uniform(0,sgrdur) // at some random time between 0 and sgrdur
    vq.v[1].setrand(rdm) 
    vq.v[2].fill(-1) // guarantee spiking
    vq.sort("time") vq.sort("ind")
    intf.initvspks(vq.v,vq.v[1],vq.v[2]) // single global call
    dealloc(a)
  }

rdm.uniform(0,0.3)
jspks.setrand(rdm)
// in[0].initjitter(jspks) // global
proc wmul () { wd0[$1][$2][$3]=$4 }
proc rewt1 () { 
    wmul(SU,SU,AM,0.05) 
    wmul(SU,SU,NM,0.05)
    wmul(SU,DP,AM,0.3)
    wmul(SU,DP,NM,0.2)
    wmul(SU,IN,AM,0.01)
    wmul(SU,IN,NM,0.2)
    wmul(DP,SU,AM,0.1)
    wmul(DP,SU,NM,0.05)
    wmul(DP,DP,AM,0.1)
    wmul(DP,DP,NM,0.2)
    wmul(DP,IN,AM,0.1)
    wmul(DP,IN,NM,0.1)
    wmul(IN,SU,GA,0.01)
    wmul(IN,SU,GB,0.0)
    wmul(IN,DP,GA,0.01)
    wmul(IN,DP,GB,0.0)
    wmul(IN,IN,GA,0.01)
    wmul(IN,IN,GB,0.0)
  }
rewt1()
proc rewt () {} // nothing needs to be done since copy directly into wd0[][][]

sgrcells(sgrseeds.x(sgrseedidx))
swmat(1e3,0)
if (!jcn) rjinet() //means no jitcon
// END params.hoc
//================================================================
//================================================================
// INSERTED run.hoc
// =Id=  run.hoc,v 1.4 2009/01/06 17:35:10 billl Exp  

objref wf1,wf2,wrec
 // {wf1=new File() wf2=new File()}
// wrec = new NQS("time","ID","SYN","WT")
// wrec.zvec(2e7) // make big enough?

method("local") // why was this being used?
method("global")
cvode.atol(1e-3) 
cvode.condition_order(1) // irrelevant to acells?
// decimate
// return input vector $o1 with 1/$2 percent of points
// 10 would give 10% of points, 100 would give 1%
obfunc decimate () { localobj vout
    vout=new Vector()
    vout.copy($o1,0,0,$o1.size-1,1,$2)
    return vout
  }

do_decimate = 0 //turn on for long runs to more easily display output in graphs

// decimate input vectors $o1 with 1/10th the # of points
// rv2 is part of grvec.hoc, as a stub, so it can be
// customized to do something to vector before graphing it
proc rv2 () {  local i
    if(!do_decimate) return
    for i=1,numarg(){
    //    $oi = decimate($oi,10)
        vrsz(0,vec)
        vec.copy($oi,0,0,$oi.size-1,1,10) $oi.copy(vec)
      }
  }


proc a () { local sh,sv
    if (!isobj(aa,"Graph")) aa=g else g=aa
    if (aa.view_count==0) aa=g
    sv=gnum gnum=ojtnum(g)
    graphItem=g
    sh=0 grv_.super=1 g.erase_all
    grv_.gveraseflag=0  grv_.gvmarkflag=grv_.super=1 // gnum=0
    gv(0,1+sh,2) // gv(1,3+sh,2) gv(2,2+sh,2)
    grv_.gvmarkflag=grv_.super=0
    gnum=sv
  }
proc b () { rewt() time() a() }

proc init () { 
    initMisc1()
    vseed_stats(392426)
    finitialize() 
    cvode.re_init()
  }

proc initrr () {  // for doing a rerun
    rewt()
    intf.global_init()
    NStim[0].global_init()
    vseed_stats(392426)
  }

proc setMemb () {}

proc initMisc1 () { 
    intf.global_init()
  }

objref ww // global ww for post processing
{wwht_INTF=1 wwwid_INTF=100}
proc wrecon () { localobj tl,vit
    tl=new List()
    // Fields for SU only, SU but no spikes
    for scase(XO,"FSU") {
        printlist.append(vit=new vitem(XO.s,tstop/vdt_INTF,vdt_INTF))
        tl.append(vit.vec)
      }
    for ltr(tl) XO.resize(tstop/vdt_INTF+10)
    intf.initwrec(tl) // done once globally
    for ii=ix[SU],ixe[SU] ce.o(ii).wrc(0)
  }

// wrecon()

proc wrecoff () {
    for ixt(SU) XO.wrec(0)
    for ixt(DP) XO.wrec(0)
    for ixt(IN) XO.wrec(0)
  }

func finishMisc () { local ii
    for ltr(XO,printlist) if (isassigned(XO.o)) if (XO.o.fflag) XO.o.fini
    intf.global_fini
    // intf.spkstats2(2)
    print "TMAX: ",tmax_INTF
    return 1
  }

//** snapsv() save after printlist items min-max to fixed dt
proc snapsv () { local a,vdt,min,max localobj v1,o
    grv_.bst(3,3)
    vdt=0.2 
    a=allocvecs(v1)
    v1.resize(tstop/vdt)
    for ltr(o,printlist) { 
        if (o.code!=3) continue
        v1.snap(o.vec,o.tvec,vdt)
        o.vec.copy(v1)
        o.pstep=vdt
        o.tvflag=0
      }
    if (numarg()==0) grv_.pvall()
    dealloc(a)
  }

proc exeruncall () { for ltr(XO,printlist) if (XO.code==3) XO.tvflag=1 }
proc pvout2 () { snapsv(1) }

objref p
//printlist=new List()
if(printlist==nil)printlist=new List()
p=printlist
proc prlclr () { 
    for ltr(XO,printlist) {
        if (isassigned(XO.o)) if (XO.o.fflag) XO.o.recclr
      }
    //  for ltr(XO,ce) XO.wrc(-1)
    if(ce!=nil) for ii=0,ce.count-1 ce.o(ii).wrc(-1)
    intf.wwfree(0)
    printlist.remove_all
  }

//$1 = whether to record any cell voltages, default off
//$2 = whether to record spike times, default on
//$o3=extra cells to record. lv.o(0)=cell,lv.o(1)=param to record,etc.,optional
proc prl () { local a,x,jj,offst,y,recv,recs,max localobj vit,xo,lvextra
    if(numarg()>0) recv=$1 else recv=0
    if(numarg()>1) recs=$2 else recs=1
    if(numarg()>2) lvextra=$o3 else lvextra=nil
  
    if(ce==nil) ce=new List()
    offst=0
    prlclr()
  
    if(recs){
        if (intf.flag("jcn")) { // for use with jitcon()
            printlist.append((vite=new vitem("SPKS",2e7,1)))
            intf.jitrec(vite.vec,vite.tvec)
          } else {
            intf.jitrec() // clear jit recording
            for ltr(xo,ce,&y) {
                if (y==0) vit=new_printlist_nc(xo, xo.id, "SPKS") else {
                                    new_printlist_nc2(vit, xo, xo.id)        }
              }
          }
      }
    npacsz=20
    if (recv && ce.count>0) for case(&x,DP,SU,IN) {
        if (numc[x]>2) max=2 else max=numc[x]-1
        for jj=0,max {
            XO=ce.object(ix[x]+jj)
            XO.recclr
            new_printlist_ac(XO,"V",  CTYP.object(x).s,XO.id)
            // new_printlist_ac(XO,"VGB",  CTYP.object(x).s,XO.id)
            // new_printlist_ac(XO,"VGA",  CTYP.object(x).s,XO.id)
            // new_printlist_ac(XO,"AHP",  CTYP.object(x).s,XO.id)
            //      printlist.o(printlist.count-1).code=3 // use code 3 for snapping
            // XO=ce.object(ixe[x]-jj-1)
            // XO.recclr
            // new_printlist_ac(XO,"V",  CTYP.object(x).s,XO.id)
          }
      }
    if(lvextra!=nil){
        for(jj=0;jj<lvextra.count;jj+=2){
            XO = lvextra.o(jj)
            new_printlist_ac(XO,lvextra.o(jj+1).s,CTYP.object(ctyp(XO.id)).s,XO.id)
          }
      }
    wrecon()
  }

// prl(1,1)

obfunc md5 () { localobj aq
    batch_flag=1
    if (numarg()>0) tstr=$s1 else tstr="aa"
    aq=new NQS("t","i")   aq.scpflag=1 aq.setcols(p.o(0).tvec,p.o(0).vec)
    aq.sort("i") aq.sort("t") aq.listvecs()
    prveclist(tstr,aq.vl)
    sprint(tstr,"md5sum %s",tstr) system(tstr)
    batch_flag=0
    return aq
  }

// prl()

//* rub() -- multi-run with saving to veclist
// saves vspks(1), SM(2), SU(2), IN(2)
proc rub () { local ii localobj so
    so=new String()
    clrveclist()
    for ii=0,9 {
        sprint(so.s,"%d",ii)
        shuffle(vspks)
        savevec(vspks)
        time()
        savevec(p.object(0).vec,p.object(0).tvec)
        savevec(p.object(1).vec,p.object(1).tvec)
        savevec(p.object(2).vec,p.object(2).tvec)
      }
  }

// spri(#) puts up graph of just one class
// 0->SM 1->SU 2->IN
// map 0,1,2 onto 1,3,5 ii*2+1
proc spri () { local ii,a,jj
    a=allocvecs(1)  ge(0)
    for ii=0,9 { jj=7*ii+$1*2+1
        mso[a].copy(veclist.object(jj))
        mso[a].add(1.5*ii*(mso[a].max-mso[a].min)-mso[a].min)
        mso[a].mark(g,veclist.object(jj+1),"O",4,cg(ii))
      }
  }
// sprj(#) puts up SM,SU,IN for 1 run (cp a() above)
proc sprj () { local ii,jj
    jj=7*$1+1
    for ii=0,2 veclist.object(jj+ii*2).mark(g,veclist.object(jj+ii*2+1),"O",2,cg(ii))
  }
 
objref slicepictypes,fih2
slicepictypes=new Vector()
slicepictypes.append(0,1,2)

declare("showdemo",0,"slp",nil)
if (showdemo) { fih2 = new FInitializeHandler("demo()")
    continue_dialog("Arrange windows; then 'Start/Continue' to begin") }
proc demo () { local dgap,ii
    dgap=100
    for ii=1,6 {
        sprint(tstr,"demo%d()",ii)
        cvode.event(t+ii*dgap,tstr) 
      }
  }

proc demo1 () {
    if (boolean_dialog("Show activity in a couple of cells? (interactive: click on top pict)")) {
        elode(3,0.57,-0.19,0,slp,slp.o[1].o(0),0)
        elode(3,0.77,-0.19,0,slp,slp.o[1].o(0),0)
      }
  }

proc demo2 () {
    if (boolean_dialog("Show 'field' activity in area? (interactive: click/drag; see 'SPKCOUNT')")) {
        elode(2,-0.115016,-0.0810018,0,slp,slp.o[1].o(0),0)
        dragging=1
        elode(3,0.0506069,-0.320172,0,slp,slp.o[1].o(0),0)
      }
  }

proc demo3 () {
    if (boolean_dialog("Put in a couple ellipse 'field' indicators? (2nd pict)")) {
        elode(2,0.455463,0.164812,0,slp,slp.o[1].o(1),1)
        dragging=1
        elode(3,0.621086,-0.0467615,0,slp,slp.o[1].o(1),1)
        elode(2,-0.418658,0.128016,0,slp,slp.o[1].o(1),1)
        dragging=1
        elode(3,-0.170224,-0.13875,0,slp,slp.o[1].o(1),1)
      }
  }

proc demo4 () {
    if (boolean_dialog("Shock? (3rd button)")) shock()
  }

proc demo5 () {
    if (boolean_dialog("Put up weight param panel? (see buttons)")) wtpan()
  }

proc demo6 () {
    if (boolean_dialog("Clear electrodes? (bottom R pull down on top 2 slice pics)")) clrelode()
  }

// END run.hoc
//================================================================
//================================================================
// INSERTED /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/slice.hoc
//* =Id=  slice.hoc,v 1.156 2008/06/02 20:31:25 billl Exp 

if (name_declared("cwd")!=4) {
    pwd()
    printf("slice WARNING: cwd was not declared; now set to %s\n",cwd)
  }
declare("celdur",100,"flddur",2e3,"slicepictypes",new Vector()) // don't assign if exist
declare("splshmin",-90,"splshmax",0,"splshhsz",0.04,"slshowgr",1)
declared("grr2")
if (!name_declared("rer")) execute1("proc rer () {reset() shock() srun()}")
strdef simname,simlog,washstr
objref sprecl,snotes,wman,washflag,slicepickl,elo,elg,elit,slp
{slicepickl=new List() sprecl=new List() snotes=new File()}
split("Recording,Ellipses,CCD,Weights",slicepickl)
find_pwm()
if (! execute1("wman=WindowMenu[0]",0)) printf("slice.hoc ERR unable to set wman\n")
{celgn=0 washdur=300 washstep=1}
{SPKCNT=0 gapchk=10 deadstop=0 cpparn=SU grrnext=0 newwgrp=0} 
{gseedstep=seedstep_INTF gwvar=WVAR_INTF gseaddvioff=seaddvioff_INTF}
quiet_slice=1
method("global")
cvode.maxstep(1) // don't let it jump ahead if activity dies out
mesg=""

fih = new FInitializeHandler("send()")
proc send () { cvode.event(gapchk,"grr()") }
proc pvout2 () {} // make sure this isn't going to mess with my printlist output

//* utility functions
//** gettime() sets timestr
obfunc gettime () { local n,hr,min,sec,pm localobj st
    st=new String2()
    system("date +%g%b%d:%R:%S%Z",st.s)
    chop(st.s)
    return st
  }  

//** ellfld() place the cells inside an ellipse
// r for an ellipse = a*b/sqrt((a*sin(theta))^2 + (b*cos(theta))^2)
proc ellfld () { local a,b,ii,jj,p,seed localobj xv,yv,xo
    seed=239023229
    a=1 b=2
    p=allocvecs(xv,yv) vrsz(allcells*10,xv,yv)
    xv.setrnd(4,2*a,seed) yv.setrnd(4,2*b) xv.sub(a) yv.sub(b)
    jj=0
    for vtr2(&x,&y,xv,yv,&ii) {
        if (a*x^2+b*y^2<1) { ce.o(jj).xloc=x ce.o(jj).yloc=y jj+=1 }
        if (jj==ce.count) break
      }
    if (jj!=ce.count) print "Not filled"
    dealloc(p)
  }

//* panels
proc slicecontrol () { localobj st
    st=new String2()
    sprint(simlog,"%s%s",cwd,"/notes.txt")
    snotes.aopen(simlog)
    xpanel("Slice")
    xvarlabel(mesg)
    xbutton("Stop", "vsstop()")
    xbutton("Start/Continue","srun()")
    xbutton("Shock","shock()")
    xvalue("Graph cell","celgn",0,"sgg(celgn)",0)
    xvalue("Graph type","celgn",0,"sgg(sprecl.o(0),ix[celgn],ixe[celgn])",0)
    xbutton("Show slice","slicepic()")
    xcheckbox("Graphics on/off",&slshowgr)
    xbutton("Save","addnote()")
    xbutton("Wt params","wtpan()")
    xbutton("Stim params","stpan()")
    xvalue("Cell params","cpparn",0,"cpan()",0)
    xmenu("Other")
    xbutton("RER","rer()")
    xbutton("Reset","reset()")
    xbutton("Change slice","nspan()")
    xbutton("Move graphs","pwmwp()")
    // xvalue("Graph duration","celdur") 
    xmenu()
    xbutton("Help","helppan()")
    xpanel()
    if (wman.groups.count==0) wman.ses_gid(1,0,1,"Slice") else wman.ses_gid(0,0,1,"Slice")
  }

//** shock()
proc reset () { intf.resetall() }
proc shock () {
    if (vq==nil) sgrcells(sgrseeds.x[0])
    tshock=t
    sprint(mesg,"Shock:@t=%g,dur=%g,ncells=%d",t/1e3,sgrdur,sgrpsz) 
    print mesg
    snotes.printf("%s\n",mesg,t) 
    snotes.flush
    intf.shock(vq.v,vq.v[1],vq.v[2]) // a global call to entire network
  }

proc vsstop () { localobj xo
    stoprun=1 
    sprint(mesg,"User stop@%g s",t/1e3) 
    for ltr(xo,sprecl) xo.u=mesg
    if (!snotes.isopen) snotes.aopen(simlog)
    snotes.printf(mesg) snotes.printf("\n")
    vsflush()
  }

//** srun() -> continuerun
proc srun () { local newstart localobj xo,st
    if(numarg()>1) tstop=$2 else tstop=1e20
    stoprun=newstart=0 sprint(mesg,"%s restart @%g",simname,t/1e3)
    for ltr(xo,sprecl) xo.u=""
    if (t==0) newstart=1 else if (argtype(1)==0) if ($1==0) newstart=1
    if (newstart) {
        if(!snotes.isopen)snotes.aopen(simlog)
        st=new String2(gettime().s)
        sprint(simname,"SIM_%s",st.s)
        snotes.printf("* Sim start at %s ",st.s) 
        snotes.printf("(dvi/del seed=%g; wt seed=%g; wt var=%g)\n",\
                      seaddvioff_INTF,seedstep_INTF,WVAR_INTF)
        snotes.flush
        run() 
      } else {
        if (deadstop==1) deadstop=0
        snotes.aopen(simlog)
        if(numarg()>1)continueRun($2) else continueRun(1e+20)
      }
  }

//* graphics
//** sgg() throw up line graphs for cells and fields
// Union contains: obj: 0:vbox,1:g (or list of g's),2:yvec for plot,3:tvec for plot
//                 str: s:name,u:messages (xvarlabel)
//                 x:   0:flag,1:min,2:max,3:dur,4:update invl(wst),5:how many share this
// flags 1-single cell; 3-main field; 2,4-subfields;
obfunc sgg () { local flag,min,max,dur,wst,cnum,shared,i localobj oi,o,vb,it,osh,g
    shared=flag=0 cnum=-1 i=1
    elclr+=1 if (elclr>9) elclr=1
    if (argtype(i)==1) {oi=$oi i+=1}
    if (isobj(oi,"Union")) {
        shared=1 osh=oi 
        if (osh.get("share").x==-1) {printf("sgg() ERRA: can't share with a sharer %s\n",osh) return o}
        sprecl.append(o=new Union("vb",osh.get("vb"),"g",g=osh.get("g"),"share",-1))
        osh.set("share",osh.get("share").x+1) // how many are sharing this target
      } else {
        sprecl.append(o=new Union("vb",vb=new VBox()))
        o.set("share",0)
      }
    if (argtype(i)==0) cnum=$i else if (argtype(i)==1) oi=$oi // sgg(obj1,obj2) would overwrite
    i+=1
    if (cnum==allcells) { // SPKCOUNT
        flag=3 min=0 max=allcells-1 dur=flddur wst=gapchk
        o.s="SPKCOUNT"
      } else if (cnum>=0 && argtype(i)==-1) { // no further args
        it=INTF[cnum] flag=1 min=-90 max=50 dur=celdur wst=vdt_INTF
        sprint(o.s,"CELL%d (%s)",cnum,CTYP.o(it.type).s)
      } else if (cnum>=0 && argtype(i)==0) { // a field for these numbers
        flag=2 min=cnum max=$i dur=flddur wst=gapchk
        sprint(o.s,"Field%d:%d",min,max)
      } else if (isojt(oi,vec)) {
        flag=4 dur=flddur wst=gapchk o.set("clist",oi.c)
        sprint(o.s,"Field%d",oi.size)
      } else if (isojt(oi,intf)) {
        it=oi flag=1 min=-90 max=50 dur=celdur wst=vdt_INTF
        sprint(o.s,"CELL%d (%s)",ojtnum(it),CTYP.o(it.type).s)
      }
    o.set("min",min) o.set("max",max) o.set("dur",dur) o.set("wst",wst) o.set("flag",flag)
    o.set("ton",t)
    o.u="                Start"
    if (!shared) {
        sprint(o.t,"slqt(%s)",o) 
        vb.dismiss_action(o.t)
        vb.intercept(1)
        xpanel("") xvarlabel(o.u) xpanel()
        o.set("g",g=new Graph())
        vb.intercept(0)
        // vb.map(o.s,-1000,1000-sprecl.count,1000,100) // doesn't work well
        vb.map(o.s)
        o.u=o.s
      }
  //*** set up the recording vectors
    o.set("yvec",new Vector(dur/wst+1))
    o.set("xvec",o.og("yvec").c)
    o.get("xvec").indgen(wst)
    o.get("yvec").fill(0)
    o.get("yvec").plot(g,o.get("xvec"),elclr,brush)
    if (!shared && flag==1) g.size(0,dur,min,max) else g.size(0,dur,0,allcells)
    if (flag==1) {
        it.initrec("V",o.get("yvec"))
        it.flag("rec",2)
        o.set("intf",it)
      } // grr() will take care of flag=2,3
    if (!shared && newwgrp==0) {
        if (wman.groups.count==0) wman.ses_gid(1,0,1,"Slice") else wman.ses_gid(0,0,1,"Slice")
      }
    return o
  }

//** swrap() wrap a graphic in a vbox and associate with a Union
// just the vbox wrapper taken from sgg() -- could use in sgg()
obfunc swrap () { local flag,shared,i localobj oi,o,vb,it,osh,g
    flag=$1 shared=0 i=2
    if (argtype(i)==1) {oi=$oi i+=1}
    if (isobj(oi,"Union")) { // will share the graph
        shared=1 osh=oi   
        sprecl.append(o=new Union("vb",vb=osh.o,"gl",osh.get("gl")))
        o.set("share",-1) osh.inc("share",1) // how many are sharing this target
      } else {
        sprecl.append(o=new Union("vb",vb=new VBox()))
        o.set("share",1)
      }
    o.xs(5,"flag",flag)
    if (!shared) {
        sprint(o.t,"slqt(%s)",o) 
        vb.dismiss_action(o.t)
        vb.intercept(1)
        xpanel("") xvarlabel(o.u) xpanel() // leave room for more stuff -- ie don't map
        sprint(o.t,"%s.intercept(0) %s.map(%s.s)",vb,vb,o) // store mapper in o.t
      }
    return o
  }

//** slicepic() graph the cell locations
// slicepic has flag==5,o[1] is a list of graphs,o[2]/o[3] are x,y locations
// o[4] is a list of launched items, o[5] is vec of graph types
// types of figs given by jj (gi code in elode):
// 0: pick out individual cells for trace or groups for pop trace
// 1: draw the growing/shrinking ellipses for activity in a an area
// 2: color anim (PlotShape)
// 3: connectivity
obfunc slicepic () { local i,x,jj,hsz,gty,ii localobj g,l,o,xo,st,oxi,oyi,oxe,oye
    st=new String2() x=0
    if(numarg()>0) { 
        slicepictypes.resize(0)
        if (argtype(1)==1) { slicepictypes.copy($o1) 
          } else if (argtype(1)==0) { for i=1,numarg() slicepictypes.append($i)
          } else if (argtype(1)==2) {
            if (argtype(2)==-1) { o=new List() split($s1,o) 
                for ltr(xo,o) slicepictypes.append(assoc(xo.s,slicepickl))
                o=nil
              } else for i=1,numarg() slicepictypes.append(assoc($si,slicepickl))
          }
      } else if (slicepictypes.size==0) slicepictypes.append(0,1,2) // default Recording,Ellipses,CCD
    if (!name_declared("icells")) {printf("slice:slicepic(): Need to define icells\n") err()}
    for ltr(xo,sprecl) if (xo.get("flag").x==5) slqt(xo) // remove it
    if (x==ERR) return nil
    o=swrap(5) // flag 5 is picture of slice
    // 0:vbox, 1:graph list, 2:Ecell_x, 3:Ecell_y, 4:g activity list, 5:slicepictypes, 6:I_x, 7:I_y
    o.set("gl",l=new List(),"xe",xo=new Vector(ecells),"ye",xo.c,"gal",new List(),"gty",slicepictypes)
    o.set("xi",xo=new Vector(icells),"yi",xo.c) 
    x=ii=-1
    oxi=o.og("xi") oyi=o.og("yi") oxe=o.og("xe") oye=o.og("ye")
    for ltr(xo,ce) { 
        if (ice(xo)) {oxi.x[ii+=1]=xo.xloc oyi.x[ii]=xo.yloc // inhib and excit
          } else       {oxe.x[x+=1] =xo.xloc oye.x[x] =xo.yloc }}
    for vtr(&gty,o.og("gty"),&jj) { 
        sprint(st.t,"elode%d%d",ojtnum(o),jj) // graph number
        if (gty==2) { // make slice shape plot using .hinton
            g=splsh(o,nil)  
            g.menu_tool("Control",st.t)
            g.exec_menu("Control")
          } else { // all others use regular graphs with cell locations
            o.og("gl").append(g=new Graph(0)) 
            g.view(2) // 1:1 aspect ratio
            o.og("ye").mark(g,o.og("xe"),"O",4,2,2) // all red
            o.og("yi").mark(g,o.og("xi"),"O",4,3,2) // draw inhibs in blue
            g.exec_menu("View = plot")
            g.xaxis(3)
            g.menu_tool("Electrode",st.t)
            g.menu_tool("Clear electrodes","","clrelode()")
            g.exec_menu("Electrode")
          }
        // hack allows mouse call to append identity of calling object and graph and graph index
        sprint(st.s,"proc %s(){elode($1,$2,$3,$4,%s,%s,%d)}",st.t,o,g,gty)
        execute1(st.s)
      }
    o.s="Slice picture"
    execute(o.t)
    o.u="Click on cell to graph"
    wman.ses_gid(0,0,1,"Slice")
    return o
  }

//* elode() gets mouse activity (cf nqs.hoc_582:1712)
// keystate META-SHT-CTL eg SHT-CTL==3
// mud (mouse-up-down is 2 down, 1 drag, 3 up)
{elo=elg=elit=nil} // globals for elode
mud=elx0=ely0=keystate=elgty=grsbegx=grsbegy=dragging=gesture=gesz=elfi=ela=elret=elgi=elclr=0
proc elode () { local tol,lx0,ly0 localobj v1,v2
    if ((mud=$1)==1) { dragging=1 return } // don't delay returns on drag -- not redrawing
    // elgi is index of graphs from top to bottom; elgty gives the graphs function code
    elx0=$2 ely0=$3 keystate=$4 elo=$o5 elg=$o6 elgty=$7
    elfi=-1 ela=-1 elgi=elo.get("gl").index(elg) // find the index of the graph on the graph list
    gesture=0 // 1 is R, 2 is L, 3:up, 4:down
    tol=2e-2 // tolerance for closest one
    // printf("MUD: %g,%g,%g,%g,%s,%s,%d,%d\n",mud,elx0,ely0,keystate,elo,elg,elgty,dragging)
    if (mud==2) { // down press means set up a beginning location
        grsbegx=elx0 grsbegy=ely0 dragging=0
        return
      }
    //** CTL for right,left,up,down gestures
    if (mud==3) if (dragging) { // released after drag
        lx0=elx0-grsbegx ly0=ely0-grsbegy
        ela=allocvecs(v1) v1.resize(4)
        elg.size(&v1.x[0])
        if (abs(lx0)>abs(ly0)) { // LR gesture
            if (lx0>0) gesture=1 else gesture=2
            gesz=abs(lx0)/(v1.x[1]-v1.x[0]) // gesture size is in model coordinates
          } else {
            if (ly0>0) gesture=3 else gesture=4
            gesz=abs(ly0)/(v1.x[3]-v1.x[2])
          }
      } else { 
        elit=ce.o(elfi=intf.floc(elx0,ely0)) // find a unit
        sprint(elo.u,"Cell#%d Type %s (%g %g %g)",\
               elit.id,CTYP.o(elit.type).s,elit.xloc,elit.yloc,elit.Vm)
        if (keystate==7) return
      }
    if (elgty==0) elo0() else if (elgty==1) elo1() else if (elgty==2) elo2() else if (elgty==3)\
      elo3() else if (elgty==4) elo4() else if (elgty==5) elo5()
    if (mud==3) dragging=0
    if (ela!=-1) dealloc(ela)
  }

//** elo0() gets a pop or single cell for graphing
proc elo0 () { localobj xo,oc
    if (gesture) { 
        if (keystate) {
            if (gesture==1) clrelode(elgi)
            if (gesture==2) {
                clrelode(elgi) elg.erase_all
                sliceinfo(elo,elg,0) // draw sliceinfo() here
              }
            return
          } else { // activity in a population
            oc=setixcirc(grsbegx,grsbegy,elx0,ely0,elclr%9+1,elg,elo)
            elo.get("gal").append(xo=sgg(sprecl.o(0),oc.o(2)))
            // can link cx,cy (oc.o(0),oc.o(1)) to xo.o[5] etc if needed
          }
      } else if (elfi>-1) { // a unit found
        if (keystate==1) {
            elg.mark(elit.xloc,elit.yloc,"T",16,elclr%9+1,2)
            celgn=elit.type
            elo.get("gal").append(xo=sgg(sprecl.o(0),ix[celgn],ixe[celgn]))
          } else {
            elg.mark(elit.xloc,elit.yloc,"+",16,elclr%9+1,2)
            elo.get("gal").append(xo=sgg(elit))
          }
      }
    xo.set("agi",elgi) // agi: associated graph index
  }

//** elo1() graph with expanding ellipses
proc elo1 ()  { localobj oc,xo
    if (!gesture) return // no functionality for local click
    if (keystate) {
        if (gesture==1) { 
            clrelode(elgi)
          } else if (gesture==2) {
            clrelode(elgi) elg.erase_all
            sliceinfo(elo,elg,0) // draw sliceinfo() here
          }
      } else {
        elclr+=1 if (elclr>9) elclr=1
        oc=setixcirc(grsbegx,grsbegy,elx0,ely0,elclr,elg,elo) // will share the current graph
        // maintain order of x's: flag,share,elx0,ely0,rad,gap,elgi ;o's vb,elg,cx,cy,clist (0-4)
        sprecl.append(xo=new Union("flag",6,"share",-1,"x0",grsbegx,"y0",grsbegy,\
                                   "rad",oc.x,"gapchk",gapchk))
        xo.set("vb",elo,"g",elg,"cx",oc.o[0],"cy",oc.o[1],"clist",oc.o[2],"agi",elgi) 
        elo.get("gal").append(xo) // xo is being added to sprecl for redraw and gal for clearing
        // print "AA:",elg,xo.o[2],xo.o[3],xo.o[2].size,xo.o[3].size,rad  
        // stat(xo.get("cx")) stat(xo.get("cy"))
        xo.get("cy").plot(elg,xo.get("cx"),1,4) // 5 for dashed outline
      }
  }

//** elo2() Hinton plot
proc elo2 () {
    if (gesture) {
        if (gesture==1) {splsh(elo,elg,splshhsz*=(1+gesz))
          } else if (gesture==2) {splsh(elo,elg,splshhsz/=(1+gesz))
          } else {
            if (gesture==3) {
                if (keystate==1) elg.scale(splshmin,splshmax+=20*gesz)
                if (keystate==2) elg.scale(splshmin+=20*gesz,splshmax)
              } else if (gesture==4) {
                if (keystate==1) elg.scale(splshmin,splshmax-=20*gesz)
                if (keystate==2) elg.scale(splshmin-=20*gesz,splshmax)
              }
            sprint(mesg,"Scale: %g %g",splshmin,splshmax) elo.u=mesg print mesg
          }
      }
  }

//** elo3() shows connections; sliders for wt changes; only makes sense for layers
proc elo3 () { local clr,ii localobj oc,xo,yo,v1,v2 
    if (gesture==1 || gesture==2) { // left and right -- handle sliders
        oc=elo.get("gal")
        y=int(grsbegy*2+0.5)/2 // round to nearest 0.5
        for ltr(xo,oc) if (xo.get("flag").x==7 && xo.get("g")==elg) break
        if (xo==nil) {print "Sliders not found." return }
        if ((ii=vwh(xo.get("yl"),y))==-1) { // layer not found
            sprint(mesg,"No slider found at this layer level (%d)",7-y) elo.u=mesg print mesg return }
          // read is factor: full excursion doubles value
          if (gesture==1) rad=1+gesz else rad=1/(1+gesz)
          yo=xo.get("wtpan")
          yo.get("argv").x[ii]*=rad  // vlk(yo.get("argv"))
          xgetexec(yo) // make the changes happen
          clrelode(elgi,0) // don't remove the associated graphics ("gal")
          elit=xo.get("intf") clr=xo.get("clr").x
          elg.mark(0,elit.yloc,"+",20,clr,4) elg.mark(10,elit.yloc,"+",20,clr,4)
          for vtr2(&x,&y,xo.get("xl"),xo.get("yl"),&jj) {
              if (ii==jj) xo.get("xl").x[jj]=x=(elx0)%10
              elg.mark(x,y,"|",20,clr,4)
            }
      } else  if (gesture==3 || gesture==4) { sprint(elo.u,"Ignoring up/down gesture %d",gesture)
        return 
      } else if (elfi>-1) { // set up sliders or show connections
        elx0=elit.xloc ely0=elit.yloc
        oc=elo.get("gal") // clear g and get rid of weight panels
        for ltrb(xo,oc,&ii) if (xo.get("flag").x==7) {xgaqt(xo.get("wtpan")) oc.remove(ii) }
        clrelode(elgi) 
        //*** elo32 set up wt sliders; elo34 connects or stim
        if (keystate==2 || keystate==1) elo32() else elo34()
      }
  }

//*** elo32() SHT-mouse: setup divergence sliders 
proc elo32 () { localobj xo,v1,v2
    ty=elit.type
    xo=new Union("vbox",elo,"g",elg,"flag",7,"gty",elgty,"agi",elgi) // flag:7 is a slider
    xo.set("intf",elit,"type",ty,"xl",v1=new Vector(),"yl",v2=new Vector())
    elo.get("gal").append(xo)
    if (keystate==2) { xo.set("clr",clr=4) // green means convergence
        for stt(-1,ty) {
            elg.mark(5,y=ce.o(ix[ii]).yloc,"|",20,clr,4)
            v1.append(5) v2.append(y)
          }
        xo.set("wtpan",wtpan(-1,ty))
      } else {
        xo.set("clr",clr=(ice(ty)+2))
        for stt(ty) {
            elg.mark(5,y=ce.o(ix[jj]).yloc,"|",20,clr,4)
            v1.append(5) v2.append(y)
          }
        xo.set("wtpan",wtpan(ty))
      }
    elg.mark(0,elit.yloc,"+",20,clr,4) elg.mark(10,elit.yloc,"+",20,clr,4)
  } 

//*** elo34() CTL-mouse: just draw the connections
proc elo34 () { local x localobj v1,v2
    if (keystate==5 && vq!=nil) { // ALT-CTL stim
        for vq.qt(&x,"ind") { // mark the cells that are getting inputs
            elg.mark(ce.o(x).xloc,ce.o(x).yloc,"o",2,6,4)
          }
      } else if (keystate==4) { // ALT-divergence
        ela=allocvecs(v1,v2)
        elit.getdvi(v1,v2)
        if (ice(elit)) clr=3 else clr=2
        for vtr(&x,v1) drline(elx0,ely0,ce.o(x).xloc,ce.o(x).yloc,elg,clr,1)
      } else if (keystate==3) { // CTL-SHT convergence
        ela=allocvecs(v1)
        elit.getconv(v1)
        for vtr(&x,v1) drline(elx0,ely0,ce.o(x).xloc,ce.o(x).yloc,elg,4,1)
      }
  }

//** splsh() draws the plot shape // hsz should reflect approx distance between cells
obfunc splsh () { local hsz,min,max,i localobj o,g,oxe,oye,oxi,oyi,xo
    o=$o1 g=$o2   oxi=o.og("xi") oyi=o.og("yi") oxe=o.og("xe") oye=o.og("ye")
    if (argtype(3)==0) splshhsz=$3 if (argtype(4)==0) splshmin=$4 if (argtype(5)==0) splshmax=$5
    if (isassigned(g)) {
        if (!isobj(g,"PlotShape")) { printf("%s not PlotShape\n",g) err() }
        g.erase_all
        g.exec_menu("Control")
      } else o.get("gl").append(g=new PlotShape()) 
    g.scale(splshmin,splshmax) // don't really need to see the spikes well
    for ltr(xo,ce) g.hinton(&xo.Vm,xo.xloc,xo.yloc,splshhsz)
    g.size(oxe.min,oxe.max,oye.min,oye.max)
    return g
  }

//** setixcirc() determine and draw circle
obfunc setixcirc () { local ii,bx,by,x0,y0,x,clr,rad localobj cx,cy,cei,oc,g,o
    bx=$1 by=$2 x0=$3 y0=$4 clr=$5 g=$o6 o=$o7
    oc=new Union(cx=new Vector(),cy=cx.c,cei=cx.c)
    sprint(o.u,"Drag %g %g %g %g",x0,bx,y0,by) // no order(&bx,&x0)
    oc.x=rad=cy.circ(cx,bx,by,x0,y0,20) // just used to calculate radius
    // cy.line(g,cx,1,4) // draw the fixed circle
    intf.floc(bx,by,0,rad,cei)
    vrsz(cei,cx,cy)
    for vtr(&x,cei,&ii) {cx.x[ii]=ce.o(x).xloc cy.x[ii]=ce.o(x).yloc}
    cy.mark(g,cx,"+",6,clr,4)
    cy.circ(cx,bx,by,x0,y0,20) // call again to set cx,cy properly
    return oc
  }

//** clrelode() clears the electrodes
proc clrelode () { local gi,x,flag localobj xo,yo,l,to
    if (numarg()>0) gi=$1 else gi=-1 // gi==-1 is clear all
    if (numarg()>1) flag=$2 else flag=1 // flag is to handle the associated graphs
    for ltr(xo,sprecl) if (xo.get("flag").x==5) {
        l=xo.get("gal") // list of graph activities
        if (flag) for ltrb(yo,l,&x) if (gi==-1 || gi==yo.get("agi").x) { slqt(yo) l.remove(x) }
        l=xo.get("gl") // list of graphs
        for ltr(yo,l,&x) if (isobj(yo,"Graph")) {
            if (gi==-1 || gi==x) {
                yo.erase_all
                xo.og("ye").mark(yo,xo.og("xe"),"O",4,2,2) // all red            
                xo.og("yi").mark(yo,xo.og("xi"),"O",4,3,2) // draw inhibs in blue
                yo.exec_menu("Electrode")
              }
          }
        break // for now can only have 1 stamm-slice
      }
  }

//** sliceinfo()
proc sliceinfo () { local flag localobj o,g
    o=$o1 g=$o2 flag=$3
    o.x[9]=t // let's say x[9] is a scratch pad
    // what's supposed to go here?
  }

//** order(&x,&y) returns the values in order
proc order () { local tmp
    if ($&2<$&1) { tmp=$&2 $&2=$&1 $&1=tmp }
  }

//** addnote() puts up a save panel
// calls itself with various args just to be confusing
proc addnote () { local tt,xx,stopped,beg localobj o,vb,st,xo,f,po,yo
    stopped=stoprun stoprun=1 // stop either way
    st=new String2()
    o=new Union(vb=new VBox())
    sprint(st.s,"svp(o)",o) 
    vb.dismiss_action(st.s)
    vb.intercept(1)
    xpanel("") xlabel("Enter comment:") xpanel()
    o.s=comment
    o.o[2]=new TextEditor(o.s,1,80)  o.o[2].map
    xpanel("") xlabel("Filename Stem:") xpanel()
    sprint(filename,"%s/data/%s@%g",cwd,simname,t/1e3)
    o.o[1]=new TextEditor(filename,1,80) o.o[1].map
    xpanel("")
    x=0 y=tshock
    xvalue("Save from: ","y")
    xradiobutton("No save", "x=0", 1) // use global x as a flag here
    xradiobutton("Save to idraw", "x=1")
    xradiobutton("Save ascii vecs", "x=2")
    xradiobutton("Save binary vecs", "x=3")
    xradiobutton("Save grvec format", "x=4")
    xpanel()
    vb.intercept(0)
    if (vb.dialog("Save sim","Accept note","Cancel")) {
        // print "DONE",x,o.o[1].text
        snotes.aopen(simlog) // in case user has edited and saved the file
        snotes.printf("USER NOTE@t=%g:%s\n",t/1e3,o.o[2].text)
        if (x==0) { // save nothing
          } else {
            if (x==1) { // save idraw
                sprint(filename,"%s.id",o.o[1].text())
                save_idraw(filename,1,1)
              } else {
                if (x==2) { 
                    sprint(filename,"%s.asc",o.o[1].text()) 
                  } else if (x==3) {
                    sprint(filename,"%s.vec",o.o[1].text()) 
                  } else if (x==4) {
                    file_with_dot(o.o[1].text(),filename,"v")
                    tvec.resize(0) // don't want to save tvec despite cvode_status()==1.0
                    po=panobjl.o(0)
                    po.printlist.remove_all()
                  }
                if (x!=4) if (!tmpfile.wopen(filename)) {printf("can't open %s\n",filename) return}
                for ltr(xo,sprecl) if (xo.get("yvec")!=nil) {
                    if (x==2) { 
                        tmpfile.printf("%s:\n",xo.s)
                        for vtr2(&tt,&xx,xo.o[3],xo.o[2]) tmpfile.printf("%g %g\n",tt,xx) // tvec,vec
                      } else if (x==3) { 
                        wrvstr(xo.s)
                        xo.o[3].vwrite(tmpfile) xo.o[2].vwrite(tmpfile) 
                      } else if (x==4) { 
                        st.s=xo.s  repl_mstr(st.s," ","_")
                        if (y==0 || y<t-xo.get("dur").x) {
                            if (y!=0) printf("Vslice save WARN: selected t < beginning in %s\n",xo.s)
                            po.printlist.append(new vitem(st.s,xo.o[2],xo.o[3])) // name,vec,tvec
                          } else if (y>t) {
                            printf("Vslice save ERR: selected t0 (%d) > t (%d)\n",y,t)
                            return
                          } else {
                            beg=round(xo.o[2].size-(t-y)/xo.get("wst").x)
                            yo=xo.o[3].c(beg) yo.sub(yo.min)
                            po.printlist.append(new vitem(st.s,xo.o[2].c(beg),yo))
                          }
                      }
                  }
                tmpfile.close()
              }
            snotes.printf("Data written to %s\n",filename)
            if (x==4) {po.pvplist(filename,o.o[2].text) po.printlist.remove_all}
          }
      } 
    snotes.flush()
    if (!stopped) srun()
  }

//** vsflush() flush graphs
proc vsflush () { localobj xo,yo
    for ltr(xo,sprecl) {
        if ((yo=xo.get("intf"))!=nil) yo.fini
        if ((yo=xo.get("g"))!=nil) yo.flush
      }
    snotes.flush
  }

//** cgr() calls sgg()
proc cgr () { localobj o
    o=sgg(INTF[celgn])
  }
//** slqt() to umap a graph
func slqt () { local ii,si localobj o,xo
    o=$o1
    si=sprecl.index(o)
    if (si==-1) return 0 // this has already been removed
    if (o.get("share").x!=-1) { // 1 means sharing a graph -- don't remove
        if (o.get("flag").x==5) for ltr(xo,o.get("gal")) slqt(xo)
        if (o.get("flag").x==1) o.get("intf").flag("rec",0)
        o.get("vb").unmap() 
      } else { // without a trace
        // o.get().play_remove
      }
    sprecl.remove(si)
    return 1
  }

//** population graphic
proc grr () { local flag localobj xo,yo,zo
    cvode.event(grrnext=t+gapchk,"grr()")
    SPKCNT=intf.spkcnt()
    // printf("grr@%g %d",t/1e3,SPKCNT)
    if (deadstop==0 && (intf.qsz<5 || SPKCNT==0)) { // check for stoppage regardless of slshowgr
        stoprun=1
        deadstop=1
        sprint(mesg,"Slice stopped: no activity t=%g",t/1e3)
        snotes.printf("%s\n",mesg) vsflush()
        // printf("%d QUEUE ITEMS REMAINING:",intf.qsz()) cvode.print_event_queue()
        if (isassigned(washflag)) washcleanup(washflag)
      }
    if (slshowgr) for ltr(xo,sprecl) {
        flag=xo.get("flag").x
        if (flag==3) {
            xo.get("yvec").roton(SPKCNT)
          } else if (flag==2) { // a subfield
            SPKCNT=intf.spkcnt(xo.x[1],xo.x[2]) // min to max
            xo.get("yvec").roton(SPKCNT) 
          } else if (flag==4) { // a subfield
            SPKCNT=intf.spkcnt(xo.get("clist")) // indices
            xo.get("yvec").roton(SPKCNT)
          } else if (flag==6) { // a dynamic ellipse
            SPKCNT=intf.spkcnt(xo.o[4])/xo.o[4].size // normalize by max
            // rad=xo.o[3].circ(xo.o[2],xo.x[2],xo.x[3],xo.x[4]*SPKCNT*4)
            xo.o[3].circ(xo.o[2],xo.get("x0").x,xo.get("y0").x,xo.get("rad").x*SPKCNT*4)
          }
        if ((zo=xo.get("gl"))!=nil) { for ltr(yo,zo) yo.flush 
          } else if ((zo=xo.get("g"))!=nil){ zo.flush
          } else printf("slice.hoc INTERRA1\n")
      }
    intf.spkcnt(1) // clear
    grr2() // stub for doing extra stuff
    if (t%100==0) doNotify() else doEvents()
  }

//* mods for xgetargs
//** xlabwt() fix weight labels
func xlabwt () { local done localobj l,xo,yo,zo,vo,st,lf,lt,lp
    st=new String2() lp=new List()
    l=$o1.o[2]
    st.s="DP,SU,IN,AM,NM,GA,GB" st.t="D,E,I,AMPA,NMDA,GABAA,GABAB" // from st.s to st.t
    split(st.s,lf) split(st.t,lt) 
    for ltr(xo,l) {
        split(xo.t,lp,"[\]\[]+") 
        xo.t=""
        for ltr(yo,lp) {
            done=0
            if (!done) for ltr2(zo,vo,lf,lt) if (strc(yo.s,zo.s)) {yo.s=vo.s done=1}
          }
        strcat(xo.t,lp.o(1),"->",lp.o(2),":",lp.o(3))
        print xo.s,xo.t
      }
    return 0
  }

//** sldocpdel() document param changes
func sldocpdel () { local x,y,ii localobj o,xo,yo,st
    o=$o1 st=new String2()
    sprint(st.s,"%s @t=%g: ",o.s,t/1e3)
    for lvtr(xo,&y,o.o[2],o.o[1],&ii) { // parallel values
        x=o.o[3].x[ii] // y:new value, x:orig val, xo.s:user_label, xo.t:variable_name
        if (x!=y) { 
            sprint(st.s,"%s%s(%s):%g->%g; ",st.s,xo.t,xo.s,x,y)
            o.o[3].x[ii]=y // new base setting
          }
      }
    snotes.printf("%s\n",st.s)
    snotes.flush
    return 0
  }

//** wtbuttons()
washt=-1
func wtbuttons () {
    sprint(tstr,"washin(%s)",$o1)
    xvalue("Wash in/out","washdur",1,tstr)//when gets pressed calls washin which puts events on q
    return 0
  }

//** washin() 
proc washin () { local x,y,ii,flag,args,t0 localobj o,st,av,l,xo,orig,wst
    o=$o1 st=new String2()
    args=o.x flag=o.x[1] av=o.o[1] l=o.o[2] orig=o.o[3]
    if(numarg()>1)t0=$2 else if(washt>=0) t0=washt else t0=t
    sprint(st.s,"Washin changes over %g @t=%g: ",washdur,t0/1e3)
    o.x[3]=t0 // x[3] is t0 for washin
    wst=o.o[4]=o.o[3].c // o[4] will be wst
    wst.fill(0)
    for lvtr(xo,&y,l,av,&ii) { // parallel values
        x=orig.x[ii] // y:new value, x:orig val, xo.s:user_label, xo.t:variable_name
        if (x!=y) { 
            printf("x=%g y=%g n=%s\n",x,y,xo.s)
            sprint(st.s,"%s%s(%s):%g->%g; ",st.s,xo.t,xo.s,x,y)
            orig.x[ii]=y   // end point will become new orig
            av.x[ii]=x     // starting point 
            wst.x[ii]=(y-x)/washdur*washstep
          }
      }
    printf("%s\n",st.s)
    snotes.printf("%s\n",st.s)
    snotes.flush
    if (flag!=1) { printf("Washin problem %d\n",flag) return }
    sprint(o.u,"Washin from %g-%g",t0/1e3,(t0+washdur)/1e3)
    sprint(st.s,"washchk(%s)",o)
    cvode.event(t0+washstep,st.s) //put washchk on event q
    washstr=st.s
    washflag=o
  }

proc washchk () { local x,y,ii,stp,fini,args,t0 localobj o,st,av,l,xo,orig,wst
    //wst==wash steps, av==values of weights, orig==orig vals, 
    o=$o1 st=new String2("","")
    args=o.x fini=0 av=o.o[1] l=o.o[2] orig=o.o[3] wst=o.o[4] t0=o.x[3]
    if (wst.ismono(0)) return else { // terminate callbacks after finishing
        sprint(st.t,"washchk(%s)",o)      
        cvode.event(t+washstep,st.t) //put next weight step increment on q
      }
    // sprint(st.s,"Washin@t=%g: ",t/1e3)
    for lvtr(xo,&stp,l,wst,&ii) { // parallel values
        if (stp!=0) { // a step
            x=orig.x[ii] y=av.x[ii]
            if (abs(x-y)>abs(stp)) { 
                av.x[ii]+=wst.x[ii]  y=av.x[ii] // update current value
                if(!quiet_slice) printf("%g,",y)
                // sprint(st.s,"%s%s:%g; ",st.s,xo.t,y)
              } else {
                y=av.x[ii]=x
                sprint(st.s,"Washin fini@%g %s:%g; ",t/1e3,xo.t,y)
                sprint(o.u,"Washin complete:%g",t/1e3)
                mesg=o.u
                fini=1
              }
            sprint(o.v,"%s=%g",xo.s,av.x[ii])
            execute(o.v) //this actually sets the value
          }
      }
    sprint(o.v,"%s()",o.t) // no args passed to function
    execute(o.v)
    if (fini) {
        snotes.printf("%s\n",st.s) 
        snotes.flush 
        washflag=nil 
        o.o[4].fill(0)
      }
  }

//** called if sim terminates unexpectedly during washin
proc washcleanup () { local x,y,ii,stp,fini,args,t0 localobj o,st,av,l,xo,orig,wst
    o=$o1 st=new String2("","")
    sprint(st.s,"Washin unfinished@%g: ",t/1e3)
    args=o.x fini=0 av=o.o[1] l=o.o[2] orig=o.o[3] wst=o.o[4] t0=o.x[3]
    for lvtr(xo,&stp,l,wst,&ii) { // parallel values
        if (stp!=0) {
            y=av.x[ii]
            sprint(st.s,"%s%s:%g; ",st.s,xo.t,y)
            orig.x[ii]=y // this is where we'll start
          }
      }
    snotes.printf("%s\n",st.s) 
    snotes.flush 
    washflag=nil 
    o.o[4].fill(0)
  }

//** cellparams()
proc cellparams () { local cc,ii localobj st,l,xo,o
    cc=$1
    st=new String2() l=new List()
    st.s="tauAM,tauNM,tauGA,tauahp,ahpwt,RMP,VTH,Vblock,refrac"
    split(st.s,l)
    for ltr(xo,l) strcat(xo.s,"ce.o(",ix[cc],").",xo.t,0)
    sprint(st.s,"%s params",CTYP.o(cc).s)
    o=xgetargs(st.s,"recellp",l)
    o.x[6]=cc // x[0-5] reserved for xgetargs
  }

// recellp() used in place of xexec to set cell parameters
// func xgetexec2 () { recellp($o1) return 1 } // return 1 means return immediately
proc recellp () { local a,cc,ii,x localobj o,xo,del,orig,argv,st,l
    st=new String2() o=$o1 orig=o.o[3] argv=o.o[1] l=o.o[2]
    cc=o.x[6]
    del=argv.c.sub(orig) // new-orig values
    for lvtr(xo,&x,l,del) if (x!=0) {
        for ii=ix[cc],ixe[cc] {
            sprint(st.s,"ce.o(%d).%s+=%g",ii,xo.t,x)
            execute(st.s)
          }
      }
    orig.copy(argv)
  }

obfunc wtpan () { local prty,poty localobj st,o
    //first define functions used by xgetargs to help build the GUI
    prty=poty=-1
    if (numarg()>=1) prty=$1
    if (numarg()>=2) poty=$2
    st=new String2("")
    for stt(prty,poty) sprint(st.s,"%s,wd0[%s][%s][%s]",st.s,CTYP.o(ii).s,CTYP.o(jj).s,STYP.o(kk).s)
    lchop(st.s)
    o=xgetclrfunc(o)
    assoco("xgetlabl", o).t="xlabwt" //creates labels
    assoco("xgetexec2",o).t="sldocpdel"
    assoco("xgetbuttn",o).t="wtbuttons" //creates buttons
    o=xgetargs(o,"Change weights","rewt()",st.s)
    if (wman.groups.count==0) wman.ses_gid(1,0,1,"Slice") else wman.ses_gid(0,0,1,"Slice")
    return o
  }

func stbuttons () {
    if (name_declared("stim")==1) xbutton("Reset to stim()","stim()")
    xbutton("Clear stim","vq.clear")
    return 0
  }

proc stpan () { localobj o
    o=xgetclrfunc(o)
    assoco("xgetexec2",o).t="sldocpdel"
    assoco("xgetbuttn",o).t="stbuttons"
    o=xgetargs(o,"Stimulation","sgrcells","Duration","% of cells","Cell type","sgrdur,sgrpp,stimcc")
  }

strdef nsstr
proc nspan () { localobj st
    nsstr=""
    {gseedstep=seedstep_INTF gwvar=WVAR_INTF gseaddvioff=seaddvioff_INTF}
    xpanel("Slice init params")
    xlabel("Initialization parameters")
    xvalue("Wt seed step","gseedstep",1)
    xvalue("Wt variance","gwvar",1)
    xvalue("Div/delay seed","gseaddvioff",1)
    xbutton("Create slice","newslice()")
    xvarlabel(nsstr)
    xpanel() 
    if (wman.groups.count==0) wman.ses_gid(1,0,1,"Slice") else wman.ses_gid(0,0,1,"Slice")
  }

proc newslice(){ localobj st
    seedstep_INTF=gseedstep
    WVAR_INTF=gwvar
    if(seaddvioff_INTF!=gseaddvioff){
        seaddvioff_INTF=gseaddvioff
        setdvi()
      }
    t=0
    nsstr="New slice created."
    printf("New slice created.\n")
  }

proc cpan () { local cc
    if (numarg()>=1) cc=$1 else cc=cpparn
    execute1("func xgetlabl() { return 0 }")
    execute1("func xgetexec2 () { return 0 }") 
    execute1("func xgetbuttn() { return 0 }")
    cellparams(cc)
    if (wman.groups.count==0) wman.ses_gid(1,0,1,"Slice") else wman.ses_gid(0,0,1,"Slice")
  }

// pwmwp([XLOC,YLOC,XSTEP,YSTEP,"NAME"]) -- move a bunch of windows
proc pwmwp () { local ii,x,y,xst,yst,i localobj xo,st
    st=new String()
    if (numarg()>=2) {x=$1 y=$2 i=3} else {x=30 y=800}
    if (numarg()>=4) {xst=$3 yst=$4 i=5} else {xst=300 yst=50}
    if (argtype(i)==2) st.s=$si else st.s="Slice"
    x-=xst y-=yst
    for ii=2,pwm.count-1 if (isassigned(xo=pwm.group(ii))) if (strc(xo.name,st.s)) {
        pwm.window_place(ii,x+=xst,y+=yst)
      }
  }

// pwmrowc([XLOC,YLOC,XSTEP,YSTEP,"NAME"]) -- move a bunch of windows
proc pwmrowc () { local ii,x,y,xst,yst,i,row,col localobj xo,st
    st=new String() row=3 col=3
    if (numarg()>=2) {x=$1 y=$2 i=3} else {x=30 y=800}
    if (numarg()>=4) {xst=$3 yst=$4 i=5} else {xst=300 yst=50}
    if (argtype(i)==2) st.s=$si else st.s="Slice"
    x-=xst y-=yst
    for ii=2,pwm.count-1 if (isassigned(xo=pwm.group(ii))) if (strc(xo.name,st.s)) {
        jj=ii-2
        pwm.window_place(ii,x+xst*jj%row,y+yst*jj%col)
      }
  }

proc pwmclose () { localobj xo
    for (ii=pwm.count-1;ii>2;ii-=1) if (isassigned(xo=pwm.group(ii))) if (strc(xo.name,$s1)) {
        pwm.close(ii)
      }
  }

proc pwmhide () { localobj xo
    for (ii=pwm.count-1;ii>2;ii-=1) if (isassigned(xo=pwm.group(ii))) if (strc(xo.name,$s1)) {
        pwm.hide(ii)
      }
  }

//* help panel
proc helppan () {
    xpanel("Virtual Slice Help")
     xlabel("Description of commands/buttons:")   xlabel(" ")
     xlabel("Start/Continue - begin simulation")   xlabel(" ")
     xlabel("Stop - pause simulation")   xlabel(" ")
     xlabel("Shock - stimulate slice with electric shock")   xlabel(" ")
     xlabel("Graph cell - specify cell id in field and press button to draw")
     xlabel("  it's membrane voltage as simulation progresses. Horizontal")
     xlabel("  axis is in ms and vertical axis is in mV.")   xlabel(" ")
     xlabel("Graph type - specify cell population to show spike activity over")
     xlabel("  integration period as simulation progresses.")   xlabel(" ")
     xlabel("Show slice - show animation of activity in slice as simulation")
     xlabel("  progresses. In top two panels, red regions indicate excitatory cells")
     xlabel("  and blue regions indicate inhibitory cells.")
     xlabel("  Top most panel allows placing a virtual electrode to")
     xlabel("  record spiking activity of cells within region of slice selected ")
     xlabel("  by dragging with mouse. This region's activity will then be")
     xlabel("  drawn in the SPKCOUNT window in the highlighted color. ")
     xlabel("  Middle panel allows placement of virtual electrode to animate")
     xlabel("  activity in highlighted region as an ellipse, with vertical extent")
     xlabel("  correlating with amount of spiking activity in region.")
     xlabel("  Bottom panel shows spiking activity of slice as a whole with dark")
     xlabel("  bluish/purplish colors representing lower activity and brighter, ")
     xlabel("  yellowish/orangeish colors representing higher levels of activity.")
     xlabel("  Right-click in graphs for context-menu which allows removing electrodes.") 
     xlabel("Graphics on/off - for faster simulation speeds can turn graphics off or")
     xlabel("  close select windows (such as Show slice graphics).")
     xlabel(" ")
     xlabel("Save - save comments and/or graphics to file.")   xlabel(" ")
     xlabel("Wt params - modify synaptic weights")   
     xlabel("  including option to apply weight changes instantaneously or set")
     xlabel("  and use washin period over which weights change")xlabel(" ")
     xlabel("Cell params - modify intrinsic cell parameters")
     xlabel("  including synaptic time constants, resting membrane potential, spike")
     xlabel("  threshold voltage, blocking potential, and refractory period.")
     xlabel("  Enter number in Cell params field to specify which type of cells")
     xlabel("  to modify parameters for.")xlabel(" ")
     xlabel("Stim params - modify stimulus parameters")
     xlabel("  including duration, and type and % of cells to stimulate")xlabel(" ")
     xlabel("Change slice - modify seeds used to initialize slice and create new slice")xlabel(" ")
     xlabel("Move graphs - move windows for easy viewing.")xlabel(" ")
    xpanel()
  }

//* put up graphic and panel
//** helpers for wt change param panel
proc showgrs () {
    brush=2 elclr=0
    sgg(allcells) // put up whole field 
    slicecontrol()
    // wtpan()
    if (argtype(1)==0) pwmwp()
  }
// ellfld()
if (slshowgr) {
    showgrs()
    slp=slicepic()
    //  pwmwp()
    // {shock() srun()}
  }

// END /usr/site/nrniv/local/hoc/slice.hoc
//================================================================
// END batch.hoc
//================================================================

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