Spike-Timing-Based Computation in Sound Localization (Goodman and Brette 2010)

 Download zip file 
Help downloading and running models
Accession:126465
" ... In neuron models consisting of spectro-temporal filtering and spiking nonlinearity, we found that the binaural structure induced by spatialized sounds is mapped to synchrony patterns that depend on source location rather than on source signal. Location-specific synchrony patterns would then result in the activation of location-specific assemblies of postsynaptic neurons. We designed a spiking neuron model which exploited this principle to locate a variety of sound sources in a virtual acoustic environment using measured human head-related transfer functions. ..."
Reference:
1 . Goodman DF, Brette R (2010) Spike-timing-based computation in sound localization. PLoS Comput Biol 6:e1000993 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism:
Cell Type(s):
Channel(s):
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s):
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s):
Simulation Environment: Brian; Python;
Model Concept(s): Coincidence Detection; Synchronization;
Implementer(s): Goodman, Dan F. M. ;
  
This code implements the models from:

	Goodman DFM, Brette R, 2010 Spike-Timing-Based Computation in Sound
	Localization. PLoS Comput Biol 6(11): e1000993.
	doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000993

Code is not provided to generate all the data and the figures, but the three
basic models (approximate/ideal/allpairs) are shown.

Installation
------------

You will need to download and extract the IRCAM LISTEN database:

	http://recherche.ircam.fr/equipes/salles/listen/
	
The files should be extracted to a folder something like:

	F:\HRTF\IRCAM\IRC_1002
	etc.
	
You will need to change the file shared.py to give the location of this database
(see below).

In addition, you will need a copy of Python 2.5, 2.6 or 2.7 and the packages
numpy, scipy, matplotlib. You will also need the Brian neural network simulator
package, version 1.3 or above:

	http://www.briansimulator.org/

Guide to files
--------------
	
approximate_filtering_model.py
ideal_filtering_model.py

	The approximate and ideal filtering models.
	
all_pairs_model.py

	The learning model. The implementation of the model is included, but not
	code for generating the learned ITD/ILD pairs: this code is mostly just
        technical file management stuff, so it is not included for simplicity.
	
hrtf_analysis.py

	Generate best gain/delay pairs for the approximate filtering model, and
	find the normalisation factors for the ideal filtering model. Results are
	saved so only need to be generated once.
	
models.py

	The neural models used. Changing these equations and parameters can be used
	to easily switch to different models. Only the leaky integrate-and-fire
	model is given.
	
plot_count.py

	A function for plotting the outputs of the approximate/ideal filtering
	model, specialised for the IRCAM LISTEN database.
	
shared.py

	Various imports and variables that are shared across all of the models.
	You should change the ircam_locations variable in the get_ircam() function
	to reflect the location where you have saved the IRCAM data.

Goodman DF, Brette R (2010) Spike-timing-based computation in sound localization. PLoS Comput Biol 6:e1000993[PubMed]

References and models cited by this paper

References and models that cite this paper

Algazi VR, Avendano C, Duda RO (2001) Elevation localization and head-related transfer function analysis at low frequencies. J Acoust Soc Am 109:1110-22 [PubMed]

Asari H, Pearlmutter BA, Zador AM (2006) Sparse representations for the cocktail party problem. J Neurosci 26:7477-90 [PubMed]

Blauert J (1997) Spatial Hearing

Brand A, Behrend O, Marquardt T, McAlpine D, Grothe B (2002) Precise inhibition is essential for microsecond interaural time difference coding. Nature 417:543-7 [PubMed]

Breebaart J, van de Par S, Kohlrausch A (2001) Binaural processing model based on contralateral inhibition. I. Model structure. J Acoust Soc Am 110:1074-88

Brette R, Gerstner W (2005) Adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model as an effective description of neuronal activity. J Neurophysiol 94:3637-42 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model (Brette & Gerstner 2005) [Model]

Cant NB, Casseday JH (1986) Projections from the anteroventral cochlear nucleus to the lateral and medial superior olivary nuclei. J Comp Neurol 247:457-76 [PubMed]

Colburn HS (1973) Theory of binaural interaction based on auditory-nerve data. I. General strategy and preliminary results on interaural discrimination. J Acoust Soc Am 54:1458-70 [PubMed]

Culling JF, Summerfield Q (1995) Perceptual separation of concurrent speech sounds: absence of across-frequency grouping by common interaural delay. J Acoust Soc Am 98:785-97 [PubMed]

Durlach NI (1960) Note on the Equalization and Cancellation Theory of Binaural Masking Level Differences J Acoust Soc Am 32:1075-1076

Faller C, Merimaa J (2004) Source localization in complex listening situations: selection of binaural cues based on interaural coherence. J Acoust Soc Am 116:3075-89 [PubMed]

Fourcaud-Trocme N, Hansel D, van Vreeswijk C, Brunel N (2003) How spike generation mechanisms determine the neuronal response to fluctuating inputs. J Neurosci 23:11628-40 [PubMed]

Furukawa S, Xu L, Middlebrooks JC (2000) Coding of sound-source location by ensembles of cortical neurons. J Neurosci 20:1216-28 [PubMed]

Gaik W (1993) Combined evaluation of interaural time and intensity differences: psychoacoustic results and computer modeling. J Acoust Soc Am 94:98-110 [PubMed]

Glasberg BR, Moore BC (1990) Derivation of auditory filter shapes from notched-noise data. Hear Res 47:103-38 [PubMed]

Goodman DF, Brette R (2009) The brian simulator. Front Neurosci 3:192-7 [PubMed]

Harper NS, McAlpine D (2004) Optimal neural population coding of an auditory spatial cue. Nature 430:682-6 [PubMed]

Hefti BJ, Smith PH (2000) Anatomy, physiology, and synaptic responses of rat layer V auditory cortical cells and effects of intracellular GABA(A) blockade. J Neurophysiol 83:2626-38 [PubMed]

Hofman PM, Van Riswick JG, Van Opstal AJ (1998) Relearning sound localization with new ears. Nat Neurosci 1:417-21 [PubMed]

Hromadka T, Zador AM (2009) Representations in auditory cortex. Curr Opin Neurobiol 19:430-3 [PubMed]

Huetz C, Philibert B, Edeline JM (2009) A spike-timing code for discriminating conspecific vocalizations in the thalamocortical system of anesthetized and awake guinea pigs. J Neurosci 29:334-50 [PubMed]

Huggenberger S, Vater M, Deisz RA (2009) Interlaminar differences of intrinsic properties of pyramidal neurons in the auditory cortex of mice. Cereb Cortex 19:1008-18 [PubMed]

JEFFRESS LA (1948) A place theory of sound localization. J Comp Physiol Psychol 41:35-9 [PubMed]

Jolivet R, Schurmann F, Berger TK, Naud R, Gerstner W, Roth A (2008) The quantitative single-neuron modeling competition. Biol Cybern 99:417-26 [PubMed]

Joris P, Yin TC (2007) A matter of time: internal delays in binaural processing. Trends Neurosci 30:70-8 [PubMed]

Joris PX, Carney LH, Smith PH, Yin TC (1994) Enhancement of neural synchronization in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. I. Responses to tones at the characteristic frequency. J Neurophysiol 71:1022-36 [Journal] [PubMed]

Joris PX, Michelet P, Franken TP, McLaughlin M (2008) Variations on a Dexterous theme: peripheral time-intensity trading. Hear Res 238:49-57 [PubMed]

Joris PX, Smith PH, Yin TC (1998) Coincidence detection in the auditory system: 50 years after Jeffress. Neuron 21:1235-8 [PubMed]

Joris PX, Van de Sande B, Louage DH, van der Heijden M (2006) Binaural and cochlear disparities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:12917-22 [PubMed]

Kock WE (1950) Binaural Localization and Masking J Acoust Soc Am 22:801-804

Kuhn GF (1977) Model for the interaural time differences in the azimuthal plane J Acoust Soc Am 62:157-167

Lindemann W (1986) Extension of a binaural cross-correlation model by contralateral inhibition. I. Simulation of lateralization for stationary signals. J Acoust Soc Am 80:1608-22 [PubMed]

Litovsky RY, Colburn HS, Yost WA, Guzman SJ (1999) The precedence effect. J Acoust Soc Am 106:1633-54 [PubMed]

Liu J, Erwin H, Wermter S, Elsaid M (2008) A Biologically Inspired Spiking Neural Network for Sound Localisation by the Inferior Colliculus Artificial Neural Networks- ICANN 2008 :396-405

Lorenzi C, Berthommier F, Apoux F, Bacri N (1999) Effects of envelope expansion on speech recognition. Hear Res 136:131-8 [PubMed]

Lorenzi C, Gilbert G, Carn H, Garnier S, Moore BC (2006) Speech perception problems of the hearing impaired reflect inability to use temporal fine structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:18866-9 [PubMed]

Macdonald JA (2008) A localization algorithm based on head-related transfer functions. J Acoust Soc Am 123:4290-6 [PubMed]

Makous JC, Middlebrooks JC (1990) Two-dimensional sound localization by human listeners. J Acoust Soc Am 87:2188-200 [PubMed]

Middlebrooks JC, Clock AE, Xu L, Green DM (1994) A panoramic code for sound location by cortical neurons. Science 264:842-4 [PubMed]

Middlebrooks JC, Green DM (1991) Sound localization by human listeners. Annu Rev Psychol 42:135-59 [PubMed]

Reed MC, Blum JJ (1990) A model for the computation and encoding of azimuthal information by the lateral superior olive. J Acoust Soc Am 88:1442-53 [PubMed]

Roman N, Wang D, Brown GJ (2003) Speech segregation based on sound localization. J Acoust Soc Am 114:2236-52 [PubMed]

Slaney M (1993) Auditory Toolbox Apple Technical Report fl45

Sterbing SJ, Hartung K, Hoffmann KP (2003) Spatial tuning to virtual sounds in the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig. J Neurophysiol 90:2648-59 [PubMed]

Stern RM, Zeiberg AS, Trahiotis C (1988) Lateralization of complex binaural stimuli: a weighted-image model. J Acoust Soc Am 84:156-65 [PubMed]

Thompson SK, von Kriegstein K, Deane-Pratt A, Marquardt T, Deichmann R, Griffiths TD, McAlpin (2006) Representation of interaural time delay in the human auditory midbrain. Nat Neurosci 9:1096-8 [PubMed]

Trussell LO (1997) Cellular mechanisms for preservation of timing in central auditory pathways. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7:487-92 [PubMed]

Trussell LO (1999) Synaptic mechanisms for coding timing in auditory neurons. Annu Rev Physiol 61:477-96 [PubMed]

Van Wanrooij MM, Van Opstal AJ (2005) Relearning sound localization with a new ear. J Neurosci 25:5413-24 [PubMed]

Wagner H, Asadollahi A, Bremen P, Endler F, Vonderschen K, von Campenhausen M (2007) Distribution of interaural time difference in the barn owl's inferior colliculus in the low- and high-frequency ranges. J Neurosci 27:4191-200 [PubMed]

Wang D, Brown GJ (2006) Computational Auditory Scene Analysis: Principles, Algorithms, and Applications

Wehr M, Zador AM (2003) Balanced inhibition underlies tuning and sharpens spike timing in auditory cortex. Nature 426:442-6 [PubMed]

Yin TC, Chan JC (1990) Interaural time sensitivity in medial superior olive of cat. J Neurophysiol 64:465-88 [Journal] [PubMed]

Zahorik P, Bangayan P, Sundareswaran V, Wang K, Tam C (2006) Perceptual recalibration in human sound localization: learning to remediate front-back reversals. J Acoust Soc Am 120:343-59 [PubMed]

Zhou Y, Carney LH, Colburn HS (2005) A Model for Interaural Time Difference Sensitivity in the Medial Superior Olive: Interaction of Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Inputs, Channel Dynamics, and Cellular Morphology J Neurosci 25:3046-3058 [Journal] [PubMed]

   A model for interaural time difference sensitivity in the medial superior olive (Zhou et al 2005) [Model]

Zilany MSA, Bruce IC (2007) Representation of the vowel /epsilon/ in normal and impaired auditory nerve fibers: Model predictions of responses in cats Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 122:402-17 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Cat auditory nerve model (Zilany and Bruce 2006, 2007) [Model]

Brette R (2012) Computing with neural synchrony PLoS Comput Biol. 8(6):e1002561 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Computing with neural synchrony (Brette 2012) [Model]

(57 refs)