Emergence of physiological oscillation frequencies in neocortex simulations (Neymotin et al. 2011)

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"Coordination of neocortical oscillations has been hypothesized to underlie the "binding" essential to cognitive function. However, the mechanisms that generate neocortical oscillations in physiological frequency bands remain unknown. We hypothesized that interlaminar relations in neocortex would provide multiple intermediate loops that would play particular roles in generating oscillations, adding different dynamics to the network. We simulated networks from sensory neocortex using 9 columns of event-driven rule-based neurons wired according to anatomical data and driven with random white-noise synaptic inputs. ..."
1 . Neymotin SA, Lee H, Park E, Fenton AA, Lytton WW (2011) Emergence of physiological oscillation frequencies in a computer model of neocortex. Front Comput Neurosci 5:19-75 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Neocortex;
Cell Type(s): Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cell; Neocortex V1 pyramidal intratelencephalic L2-5 cell; Neocortex V1 interneuron basket PV cell; Neocortex fast spiking (FS) interneuron; Neocortex spiny stellate cell;
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): GabaA; AMPA; NMDA; Gaba;
Transmitter(s): Gaba; Glutamate;
Simulation Environment: NEURON;
Model Concept(s): Activity Patterns; Oscillations; Synchronization; Laminar Connectivity;
Implementer(s): Lytton, William [billl at neurosim.downstate.edu]; Neymotin, Sam [samn at neurosim.downstate.edu];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cell; Neocortex V1 pyramidal intratelencephalic L2-5 cell; Neocortex V1 interneuron basket PV cell; GabaA; AMPA; NMDA; Gaba; Gaba; Glutamate;
misc.mod *
nstim.mod *
stats.mod *
declist.hoc *
decmat.hoc *
decnqs.hoc *
decvec.hoc *
default.hoc *
drline.hoc *
grvec.hoc *
init.hoc *
labels.hoc *
local.hoc *
nqs.hoc *
nqsnet.hoc *
nrnoc.hoc *
python.hoc *
pywrap.hoc *
simctrl.hoc *
spkts.hoc *
stats.hoc *
syncode.hoc *
xgetargs.hoc *
// $Id: declist.hoc,v 1.157 2010/12/07 14:19:28 billl Exp $

//* Declarations
strdef mchnms
objref tmplist,tmplist2,tmpobj,aa,XO,YO
if (! name_declared("datestr")) load_file("setup.hoc")
tmplist = new List()
proc declist() {}

//* Templates
//** template String2
begintemplate String2
public s,t,x,append,prepend,exec,tinit
strdef s,t
proc init() {
  if (numarg() == 1) { s=$s1 }
  if (numarg() == 2) { s=$s1 t=$s2 }
  if (numarg() == 3) { s=$s1 t=$s2 x=$3 }
proc append () { local i
  if (argtype(1)==2) sprint(t,"%s%s",s,$s1)
  for i=2,numarg() sprint(t,"%s%s",t,$si)
proc prepend () { local i
  if (argtype(1)==2) sprint(t,"%s%s",$s1,s)
  for i=2,numarg() sprint(t,"%s%s",$si,t)
proc exec () {
  if (numarg()==1) sprint(t,"%s%s",$s1,s)
proc tinit() { t=$s1 }

endtemplate String2

//** template DBL
begintemplate DBL
  public x
  proc init () { if (numarg()==1) x=$1 else x=0 }
endtemplate DBL

//** template Union
// USAGE: XO=new Union(val) where val can be a number string or object
//        XO=new Union(list,index) will pick up a string or object from list
//        XO=new Union(vec,index)  will pick up a number from vector
//        XO=new Union(&dbl,index) will pick up a number from double array
// Union allows storage of a double, string or object
// 2 ways of storing strings: directly in XO.s (t,u,v) OR 
//   using XO.set("NAME","STR") which is returned by XO.get("NAME").s
// It is useful as a localobj in an obfunc since it will permit returning anything
// It also makes it easy to pick up any kind of value out of a list, vector or array
// declared() not yet declared
if (!name_declared("isobj")) execute1("func isobj(){return 0}") // place holder
if (!name_declared("isassigned")) execute1("func isassigned(){return 0}") // place holder
if (!name_declared("llist")) execute1("proc llist(){}") // place holder
begintemplate Union
public ty,x,s,t,u,v,o,xptr,xg,xs,optr,og,os,get,set,xl,ol,fi,inc,list,err,pr,sz
strdef s,t,u,v,tstr
objref o[10],xl,ol,this,xo
double x[10],sz[1],err[1]
external sfunc,isobj,isassigned,nil,DBL,llist
// 1arg -- store a num, string or obj
// 2arg -- pick up type out of list
proc init () { local ii,i,ox,xx,sx,flag
  ox=xx=sx=0 ty=argtype(1) // 'type' of Union defined by 1st arg on creation
  sz=10 // 10 is default size of arrays; for ii=0,sz-1 
  for ii=0,sz-1 x[ii]=ERR
  // special case of number in a vector or something in a list -- 2 args: list or vec,index
  err=1 flag=0
  if (numarg()/2==int(numarg()/2)) for (i=1;i<numarg();i+=2) {
    if (argtype(i)!=2 || argtype(i+1)==2) break
  if (flag) { // "name",val,etc
    for (i=1;i<numarg();i+=1) {
      tstr=$si i+=1 
      if (argtype(i)==0) set(tstr,$i) else set(tstr,$oi)
    s="" // used as temp storage only
  } else if (argtype(1)==1 && argtype(2)==0 && argtype(3)==-1) {
    // printf("Union WARNING: taking single element out of a Vector or List\n")
    if (argtype(1)==1) {
      if (isobj($o1,"Vector")) { 
        if (ii<0 || ii>=$o1.size) {
          printf("Union ERR: vec index (%d) out of bounds for %s\n",ii,$o1)
          return }
        ty=0 x=$o1.x[ii] o=$o1
      } else if (isobj($o1,"List")) {
        if (ii<0 || ii>=$o1.count) {
          printf("Union ERR: list index (%d) out of bounds for %s\n",ii,$o1)
          return }
        if (isobj($o1.object(ii),"String")) { // will handle String2
          ty=2 s=$o1.object(ii).s o=$o1.object(ii) x=ii
        } else { ty=1 o=$o1.object(ii) x=ii }
    } else if (argtype(1)==3) {
      ty=0 x=$&1[ii] // could check - but no + bound checking possible
  } else for i=1,numarg() {
    if (ii==0) { 
      if (xx<sz) { 
        x[xx]=$i xx+=1 
      } else printf("Only have %d doubles available so can't store %g\n",sz,$i)
    } else if (ii==2) { 
      if (sx==0) s=$si else if (sx==1) t=$si else if (sx==2) u=$si else if (sx==3) v=$si else {
        printf("Only have 4 strings available so can't store %s\n",$si) }
    } else if (ii==1) { 
      if (ox<sz) { o[ox]=$oi ox+=1
      } else printf("Only have %d objects available so can't store %s\n",sz,$oi)
    } else printf("Union ERR: argtype not recognized numarg %d %d\n",i,ii)

proc pr () { print "Use Union[].list" }

proc list () { local flag
  if (ol!=nil) {
    for ii=0,sz-1 if ((! isojt(ol,ol.o(ii)))||o[ii]!=nil) {
      if (isojt(ol,ol.o(ii))) printf("%10s\t%s\n","NO NAME", o[ii]) else {
                              printf("%10s\t%s\n",ol.o(ii).s,o[ii]) }
  if (xl!=nil) {
    for ii=0,sz-1 if ((! isojt(xl,xl.o(ii)))||x[ii]!=ERR) {
      if (isojt(xl,xl.o(ii))) printf("%10s\t%g\n","NO NAME", x[ii]) else {
                              printf("%10s\t%g\n",xl.o(ii).s,x[ii]) }
  if (!flag) {
    printf("%s\nSCALARS: ","================================") 
    for ii=0,sz-1 if (x[ii]!=ERR) printf("%d:%g ",ii,x[ii])
    printf("\n%s\nOBJECTS: ","================================") 
    for ii=0,sz-1 if (o[ii]!=nil) printf("%d:%s ",ii,o[ii])
  if (sfunc.len(s)>0) printf("%10s\t%s\n","s",s)
  if (sfunc.len(t)>0) printf("%10s\t%s\n","t",t)
  if (sfunc.len(u)>0) printf("%10s\t%s\n","u",u)
  if (sfunc.len(v)>0) printf("%10s\t%s\n","v",v)

// full List
obfunc newl () { localobj o
  o=new List() 
  for ii=0,sz-1 o.append(o)
  return o
proc repl () { 
  if (isobj($o1.o($2),"String")) { $o1.o($2).s=$s3
  } else { $o1.remove($2) $o1.insrt($2,new String($s3)) }

func fi () { local ii
  for ii=0,sz-1 {
    if ($o1.o(ii)==$o1) {
      if (fif==-1) fif=ii // first empty slot if any
    } else if (strcmp($o1.o(ii).s,$s2)==0) return ii
  return ERR
// put in pointers for the x values
func xptr () { local i,ii
  if (numarg()>sz) {printf("More names (%d) than x items (%d) in %s:xptr\n",numarg(),sz,this) 
  if (!isassigned(xl)) xl=newl()
  for i=1,numarg() repl(xl,i-1,$si)
  return xl.count
func optr () { local i,ii
  if (numarg()>sz) {printf("More names %d than o items (%d) in %s:optr\n",numarg(),sz,this) error()}
  if (!isassigned(ol)) ol=newl()
  for i=1,numarg()  repl(ol,i-1,$si)
  return ol.count
// xg() associative get of a num
func xg () { local ii
  if (ii==ERR) {printf("Union:og (num get) failed -- \"%s\" not found\n",$s1) return ERR}
  return x[ii] 
// xg() associative get of an obj
obfunc og () { local ii
  if (ii==ERR) {printf("Union:og (obj get) failed -- \"%s\" not found\n",$s1) return nil}
  return o[ii] 
// xs(index,"label",num) set a specific location using a string -- see set()
// xs("label",num) set an existing one only
func xs () { local ii,i
  if (!isassigned(xl)) xl=newl()
  if (argtype(1)==0) {
    i=3 ii=$1 // an index
  } else {
    i=2 ii=fi(xl,$s1)
    if (ii==ERR) {printf("Union:xs (num set) failed -- no %s found\n",$s1) return ERR}
  if (argtype(i)!=0) {printf("Union:xs err -- arg %d must be object\n",i) return ERR}
  return $i
// os(index,"label",obj) set a specific location using a string -- see set()
// os("label",obj) set an existing one only
obfunc os () { local ii,i
  if (!isassigned(ol)) ol=newl()
  if (argtype(1)==0) {
    i=3 ii=$1 // $1 is an index
  } else {
    i=2 ii=fi(ol,$s1)
    if (ii==ERR) {printf("Union:os (obj set) failed -- \"%s\" not found\n",$s1) return nil}
  if (argtype(i)!=1) {printf("Union:os err -- arg %d must be object\n",i) return nil}
  return $oi

// get() get any type
obfunc get () { local ii
  if        ((ii=fi(ol,$s1))!=ERR) { 
    return o[ii] 
  } else if ((ii=fi(xl,$s1))!=ERR) { 
    if (argtype(2)==3) { $&2=x[ii] return this } else { return new DBL(x[ii]) }
  } else {
    // printf("Union:get() \"%s\" not found\n",$s1) 
    return nil // make returning nil the unique error

// increment or with neg decrement something
func inc () { local n
  if (numarg()==2) n=$2 else n=1
  if ((ii=fi(xl,$s1))==ERR) {printf("Union:inc ERR: %s %s\n",this,$s1) return ERR}
  return x[ii]+=n

// set() set any type
func set () { local ii,i,ty,fo,fx
  if (xl==nil) xl=newl() if (ol==nil) ol=newl()
  for (i=1;i<numarg();i+=1) {
    tstr=$si i+=1 
    if ((ty=argtype(i))==0) xo=xl else if (ty==1 || ty==2) xo=ol // use String() for strings
    if (ii==ERR) {
      if (fif==-1) {printf("UNION:set() ERRB: %s full for type %d\n",this,ty)  return ERR}
    if (ty==0) x[ii]=$i else if (ty==1) o[ii]=$oi else if (ty==2) { // don't use s,t,u,v
      o[ii]=new String($si)
  return ii
endtemplate Union

//* Iterators
//** list iterator ltr
// usage 'for ltr(tmplist) { print XO }' :: 1 arg, assumes XO as dummy
// usage 'for ltr(YO, tmplist) { print YO }' 2 arg, specify dummy
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, &x) { print XO,x }' :: x is counter (else use global i1)
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, 5) { print XO,x }' :: max; only print out 0-5
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, 5, 7) { print XO,x }' :: print 5-7
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, &x, 5) { print XO,x }' :: counter with max
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, &x, 5, 7) { print XO,x }' :: counter,min,max
iterator ltr () { local i,min,max,ifl
  min=0 max=1e9 ifl=0 // iterator flag
  if (numarg()==3) {
    if (argtype(3)==3) {ifl=1 $&3=0}
    if (argtype(3)==0) max=$3
  } else if (numarg()==4) { 
    if (argtype(3)==0) i1=min=$3 else {ifl=1 $&3=0}
  } else if (numarg()==5) { 
    $&3=min=$4 max=$5 ifl=1 
  if (! ifl) i1=0
  if (numarg()==1) {
    for i = 0, $o1.count-1 {
      XO = $o1.object(i)
  } else {
    if (max==1e9) max=$o2.count()-1 else if (max<0) { min=$o2.count+max max=$o2.count-1 
    } else if (max>$o2.count-1) max=$o2.count-1
    for i = min, max {
      $o1 = $o2.object(i)
      if (ifl) { $&3+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
    $o1 = nil

//** list iterator ltrb -- backwards list iterator
// usage 'for ltrb(tmplist) { print XO }' :: 1 arg, assumes XO as dummy
// usage 'for ltrb(YO, tmplist) { print YO }' 2 arg, specify dummy
// usage 'for ltrb(XO, tmplist, &x) { print XO,x }' :: 3 args, define counter (else i1 default)
//                                                 :: note that x, i1 must be defined
iterator ltrb () { local i
  if (numarg()==1) {
    for (i=$o1.count()-1;i>=0;i-=1) {
      XO = $o1.object(i)
    tmpobj=$o1 XO=nil
  } else {
    if (numarg()==3) $&3=$o2.count-1 else i1=$o2.count-1
    for (i=$o2.count()-1;i>=0;i-=1) {
      $o1 = $o2.object(i)
      if (numarg()==3) { $&3-=1 } else { i1-=1 }
    $o1 = nil

//** list iterator ltr2
// usage 'for ltr2(XO, YO, list1, list2) { print XO,YO }'
iterator ltr2() { local i,cnt
  if (numarg()==5) $&5=0 else i1=0
  if ($o3.count != $o4.count) { print "ltr2 WARNING: lists have different lengths" 
    if ($o3.count<$o4.count) cnt=$o3.count }
  for i = 0, cnt-1 {
    $o1 = $o3.object(i)
    $o2 = $o4.object(i)
    if (numarg()==5) { $&5+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
  $o1=nil $o2=nil

//** list pairwise iterator ltrp
// usage 'for ltrp(XO, YO, list) { print XO,YO }' takes them pairwise
iterator ltrp() { local i
  if (numarg()==4) {$&4=0} else {i1 = 0}
  for (i=0;i<$o3.count()-1;i+=2) {
    $o1 = $o3.object(i) $o2 = $o3.object(i+1)
    if (numarg()==4) { $&4+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
  $o1=nil $o2=nil

//** list iterator sltr
// usage 'for sltr(XO, string) { print XO }'
iterator sltr() { local i
  tmplist = new List($s2)
  if (numarg()==3) {$&3=0} else {i1=0}
  for i = 0, tmplist.count() - 1 {
    $o1 = tmplist.object(i)
    if (numarg()==3) { $&3+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
  $o1 = nil

//* Procedures
//** append(LIST,o1,o2,...) -- like revec() makes a list of objects
proc append () { local i,max
  if (!isassigned($o1)) $o1=new List()
  if (argtype(max)==0) {max-=1 $o1.remove_all}
  for i=2,max $o1.append($oi)

//** rcshead([flag])
// with flag does head from archive
func rcshead () { local x,flag localobj st
  x=-1 flag=0
  st=new String2()
  if (numarg()==2) {
  } else st.t=$s1
  sprint(st.s,"head -1 %s",st.t)
  if (flag) sscanf(st.s,"head\t1.%d",&x) else sscanf(st.s,"%*[^,],v 1.%d",&x)
  return x

//** getenv()
obfunc getenv () { localobj st
  st=new String()
  sprint(st.s,"echo $%s",$s1)
  if (numarg()==2) $s2=st.s
  return st

//** rcsopen(file,vers[,flag])  -- version open, flag to do load_file
// rcsopen(file,vers,proc_name)  -- just load the single proc or func from that vers
//  rcsopen("nqsnet.hoc,43,network.hoc,17,params.hoc,842,run.hoc,241") will open several files
func rcsopen () { local a,vers,ii,x,ret localobj st,fn,v1,o,xo
  st=new String2()   ret=1
  if (argtype(1)==2) st.s=$s1 else st.s=$o1.s
  // open network.hoc,params.hoc,run.hoc files for "#.#.#" 
  if (strm(st.s,"^[^,]+,[^,]+,[^,]+,[^,]+")) {
    a=allocvecs(v1)  o=new List()
    for (ii=1;ii<o.count;ii+=2) v1.append(str2num(o.o(ii).s))
    if (o.count!=v1.size*2) { printf("rcsopen() discrepency: ") vlk(v1) llist(o) dealloc(a) 
      return 0 }
    for ltr(xo,o,&x) if (x%2==0) { // every other
      printf("Opening %s%d\n",xo.s,v1.x[x/2])
      if (!rcsopen(xo.s,v1.x[x/2])) { dealloc(a) ret=0 }
    return ret
  if (numarg()>1) vers=$2 else vers=0
  if (! vers) vers=rcshead(st.s,1) // vers=0 means get latest version
  // do checkout
  if (sfunc.len(fn.t)>0) {
    print st.s,"::",st.t,"::",fn.s,"::",fn.t
  } else if (fexists(st.t)) {
    if (rcshead(st.s)!=vers) {
      sprint(st.t,"cp -f %s %s.OLD",st.s,st.s)   system(st.t)
      sprint(st.t,"co -f -r1.%d %s",vers,st.s)   system(st.t)
  } else { // look for file in remote location
    if (! fexists(st.t)) {printf("Can't find %s\n",st.t) return 0}
    printf("Found %s at %s -> %s\n",$s1,st.t,st.s)
    sprint(st.t,"co -f -p1.%d %s > %s",vers,st.t,st.s) system(st.t)
  if (numarg()>2) {
    if (argtype(3)==0) {  // 3rd arg 1 means do load_file statt xopen
      if ($3) { 
        return 1
      } else return 1 // 3rd arg 0 does co but no open
    } else { // 3rd arg string means locate a single proc, iter etc.
      sprint(st.s,"hocproc %s %s %s",st.s,$s3,".tmp")
      if (strm(st.t,"ERROR")) return 0 else {
        printf("Loading '%s()' from %s%d (via .tmp)\n",$s3,$s1,vers)
        return 1
  return 1

//** simopen()
proc simopen () { local x localobj o,xo
  o=new List()
  if (numarg()==1) split(allfiles,o) else split(simfiles,o)
  for ltr(xo,o,&x) xopen(xo.s)

//** pxopen(FILE) prints out the version before opening a file
proc pxopen () { local flag localobj o
  o=new List("ParallelContext")
  if (o.count>0) if (o.o(0).id!=0) flag=0
  if (flag) printf("%s version %d\n",$s1,rcshead($s1))

//** lrm(LIST,STR) will remove item with string from LIST
proc lrm () { local cnt
  if (argtype(2)==2) {
    for ltrb(XO,$o1) if (strm(XO.s,$s2)) { $o1.remove(i1) cnt+=1 }
    printf("%s found %d time\n",$s2,cnt)
  } else {

//** lcnt(LIST,STR) will count item with string in LIST
func lcnt () { local cnt localobj xo
  for ltr(xo,$o1) if (strm(xo.s,$s2)) cnt+=1
  return cnt

//** lrepl(LIST,#,OBJ) will replace item at location # with OBJ
proc lrepl () { $o1.remove($2) $o1.insrt($2,$o3) }

//** lswap(list,#1,#2) swap items on a list
proc lswap () { local a,b
  if ($2<$3) {a=$2 b=$3} else {a=$3 b=$2}

//** proc shl() show a list
proc shl () { 
  if (numarg()==1) tmpobj=$o1 else tmpobj=tmplist 
  if (tmpobj.count==0) return
  if (isstring(tmpobj.object(0),tstr)) {
    for ltr(XO,tmpobj) print XO.s
  } else for ltr(XO,tmpobj) print XO

//** lfu() = ltr follow-up, pick out a single item from the last ltr request
// lfu(list,num[,obj])
proc lfu () { 
  if (numarg()==1) { 
    if (argtype(1)==0) XO=tmpobj.object($1)
    if (argtype(1)==1) tmpobj=$o1
  if (numarg()==2) {
    if (argtype(1)==1 && argtype(2)==0) {tmpobj=$o1 XO=$o1.object($2)}
    if (argtype(1)==0 && argtype(2)==1) {$o2=tmpobj.object($1)}
  if (numarg()==3) {
    if (argtype(1)==1 && argtype(2)==0 && argtype(3)==1) { tmpobj=$o1 $o3=$o1.object($2) }
  if (numarg()==4) {
    $o2=tmpobj.object($1)  $o4=tmpobj.object($3) 

//** listedit() allows you to remove things by clicking
proc listedit () {
  if (numarg()==0) { print "listedit(list,str) gives browser(list,str) for removing items" return}
  if (numarg()==1) {
  if (! isstring($o1.object(0),temp_string_)) {print "Give name for string of object?" return }
    sprint(temp_string_,"proc ledt1 () {sprint(temp_string_,%s,hoc_ac_,%s.object(hoc_ac_).%s)}","\"%d:%s\"",$o1,"s")
  } else {
    sprint(temp_string_,"proc ledt1 () {sprint(temp_string_,%s,hoc_ac_,%s.object(hoc_ac_).%s)}","\"%d:%s\"",$o1,$s2)
  $o1.browser("Double click to remove",temp_string_,"ledt1()")

//** crac() create and access
proc crac () {
  execute("create acell_home_")
  execute("access acell_home_")

//** listXO() connects stuff to XO from a list
proc listXO () {
  if (numarg()==1) {
    $o1.browser("Double click")
    sprint(temp_string_,"print hoc_ac_,\":XO -> \",%s.object(hoc_ac_) XO = %s.object(hoc_ac_)",$o1,$o1)
  } else if (numarg()==2) {
    sprint(temp_string_,"XO = %s.object(hoc_ac_) print %s.object(hoc_ac_).%s",$o1,$o1,$s2)
  } else if (numarg()==3) {
    sprint(temp_string_,"XO = %s.object(hoc_ac_) print %s.object(hoc_ac_).%s,%s.object(hoc_ac_).%s",$o1,$o1,$s2,$o1,$s3)

//** lcatstr(list,s1,s2,...) make new List("s1") new List("s2") ... in one list
proc lcatstr() { local i
  if (numarg()<3) { print "lcatstr(l1,s1,s2,...) puts new Lists into l1" return }
  $o1 = new List($s2)
  for i=3,numarg() {
    tmplist2 = new List($si)
    for ltr(XO,tmplist2) { $o1.append(XO) }  

//** sublist() places a sublist in LIST0 from LIST1 index BEGIN to END inclusive
proc sublist () { local ii
  for ii=$3,$4 {

//* catlist() concats LIST2...LISTN on end of LIST1
proc catlist () { local i
  for i = 2, numarg() {
    for ltr(YO,$oi) {

//* mechlist() creates a LIST of all this CELL type's TEMPLATE type
// list, cell, template
// make a list of mechanisms belonging to a certain template
proc mechlist () { local num,ii
//  mchnms = ""  // not a good storage since runs out of room
  if (numarg()==0) { print "mechlist(list, cell, template)" return}
  $o1 = new List($s2)
  num = $o1.count
  for ii=0,num-1 {
  for (ii=num-1;ii>=0;ii=ii-1) { $o1.remove(ii) }

//* lp() loop through a list running command in object's context
// assumes list in tmplist
// with 1 args run $o1.object().obj_elem
// with 2 args run comm($o1.object().obj_elem)
proc lp () {
  for ii=0,tmplist.count-1 {
    printf("%s ",tmplist.object(ii))
    if (numarg()==2) {
    } else {

//* prlp() loop through a list printing object name and result of command
proc prlp () {
  if (numarg()>0) if (argtype(1)==1) tmpobj=$o1
  for ltr(XO,tmpobj) {
    printf("%d %s ",i1,XO)
    if (numarg()>1) {
      sprint(temp_string_,"print %s.%s",XO,$s2)
    } else { print "" }

//* String functions
//** repl_str(str,stra,strb): replace stra with strb in string
// will only replace first string match
proc repl_str() { localobj scr
  scr=new String()
  if (sfunc.head($s1,$s2,scr.s) == -1) { print $s2," not in ",$s1  return }

//** find_str(str,left,right): pull out dest flanked by left and right
obfunc find_str() { localobj st
  st=new String2()
  if (sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,st.t) == -1) { print $s2," not in ",$s1  return }
  return st

//** find_num(str,left,right): pull out number flanked by left and right
func find_num() { local x localobj st
  st=new String()
  if (sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,st.s) == -1) { print $s2," not in ",$s1  return }
  return x

//** repl_mstr(str,stra,strb): replace stra with strb in string
// multiple replace
proc repl_mstr () { localobj scr
  scr=new String()
  while (sfunc.head($s1,$s2,scr.s) != -1) {

//** extract(str,stra,strb[,dest]): pull out piece of string surrounded by stra,strb
obfunc str_extract() { local b,e,err localobj scr
  scr=new String2() err=0
  b=sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,scr.s) // scr.s contains after s2
  if (b==-1){printf("%s not found in %s\n",$s2,$s1) err=1}
  e=sfunc.head(scr.s,$s3,scr.t) // beg of s3
  if (e==-1){printf("%s not found in %s\n",$s3,scr.s) err=1}
  if (err) scr.s="" else sfunc.left(scr.s,e)
  if (numarg()==4) $s4=scr.s
  return scr

//** clean_str(str,scratch,s1,s2,s3,...)
// remove serial $si from string
proc clean_str () { local i
  for i=3,numarg() {
    while (sfunc.head($s1,$si,$s2) != -1) { 

//** aaaa() (or $o2) becomes a list of strings from file $s1
proc aaaa () { local flag
  if (numarg()==2) { tmpfile.ropen($s1) aa=$o2 flag=0
  } else if (numarg()==1) { tmpfile.ropen($s1) flag=1
  } else { tmpfile.ropen("aa") flag=1 }
  if (flag==1) if (isobj(aa,"List")) { aa.remove_all() } else { aa=new List() }
  while (tmpfile.gets(temp_string_)>0) {
    tmpobj=new String(temp_string_)

//* Object identification
//** objid() find information about object -- replaces var2obj, canobj, objnum
obfunc objid () { local flag localobj xo
  xo=new Union()
  if (argtype(1)==1) sprint(xo.s,"tmpobj=%s",$o1) else sprint(xo.s,"tmpobj=%s",$s1)
  execute(xo.s) // change variable name to object name
  return xo

//** var2obj() and canobj() -- find true object names
// var2obj("tstr"[,"objvar"]) replaces variable name with actual name of the object
// default into XO; optional second arg allows to place somewhere else
// eg tstr="TC[0].ampa" var2obj(tstr) -> AMPA[0]
proc var2obj () { local flag
  if (numarg()==1) flag=1 else flag=0
  if (flag) sprint($s1,"XO=%s",$s1) else sprint($s1,"%s=%s",$s2,$s1)
  execute($s1) // change variable name to object name
  if (flag) sprint($s1,"%s",XO) else sprint($s1,"%s",$s2)
  printf("var2obj() PLEASE REPLACE WITH objid()\n") 

//** objnum(OBJ) -- find object number
func objnum () { local x localobj st
  st=new String()
  if (argtype(1)==1) sprint(st.s,"%s",$o1) else st.s=$s1
  if (sscanf(st.s,"%*[^[][%d]",&x) != 1) x=-1
  return x

proc allobjs () {

//** strnum(str,"PRE") -- pull number out of a string
func strnum () { local x localobj st
  st=new String2($s1)
  if (sscanf(st.t,"%d",&x) != 1) x=-99e99
  return x

//** canobj(obj[,"OBJVAR"]) -- default will assign to XO
// canonical object -- return canonical identity for an object
// eg canobj(tc,"YO") -- figure out what tc is and assign it to YO
proc canobj () { local flag
  if (numarg()==1) flag=1 else flag=0
  if (flag) sprint(tstr,"XO=%s",$o1) else sprint(tstr,"%s=%s",$s2,$o1)
  execute(tstr) // change variable name to object name
  printf("canobj() PLEASE REPLACE WITH objid()\n") 

//* push() and pop() for objects -- returns
proc push () { local i
  for i=2,numarg() $o1.append($oi)

//** pop()
obfunc pop () { local i,cnt localobj o
  if (cnt==-1) { print "ERR: unable to pop" return } 
  return o

//* time()
strdef tmstr
func time () { local tti,uintmax,cps
  uintmax=4294967295 // UINT_MAX/CLOCKS_PER_SEC
  cps=1e6 // CLOCKS_PER_SEC
  if (numarg()==1) execute1($s1) else execute1(tmstr)
  if (tti<0) tti+=uintmax
  if (tti<cps) {           print tti/1e3,       "kilocycles" 
  } else if (tti<60*cps) { print tti/cps,   "s" 
  } else                   print tti/cps/60,"m"
  return tti/1e3

func ftime () { local tti
  if (numarg()==1) execute($s1) else execute(tmstr)
  return tti

proc setdate () {
  system("date +%y%b%d",datestr)

proc sortlist () { local a,err,ii,x,rev,na localobj v1,v2,xo,nl,il
  for ii=2,3 if (na>=ii) if (argtype(ii)==0) rev=1
  nl=new List()
  if (!name_declared("oform")) err=1
  if (!err) if (oform(v1)==NOP) err=1
  if (err) {printf("sortlist uses oform()\n") error()}
  for ltr(xo,il) v1.append(oform(xo))
  if (rev) v2.reverse
  for ii=0,v2.size-1 nl.append(il.o(v2.x[ii]))
  if ((na==2 && !rev) || na==3) $o2=nl else {
    for ltr(xo,nl) il.append(xo)

func assoc () { local i,ty,ii localobj xo
  // object_push(xo) ty=name_declared("s",1) object_pop() // strdef:4, dbl:5
  for ltr(xo,$o2,&ii) {
    if (argtype(1)==2) {
      if (strcmp(xo.s,$s1)==0) break
    } else if (argtype(1)==0) {
      if (xo.x==$1) break
  if ($o2.count==ii) return -1 else return ii

// assoco() like assoc but returns the object instead of the index
obfunc assoco () { local i,ty,ii localobj xo
  // object_push(xo) ty=name_declared("s",1) object_pop() // strdef:4, dbl:5
  for ltr(xo,$o2,&ii) {
    if (argtype(1)==2) {
      if (strcmp(xo.s,$s1)==0) break
    } else if (argtype(1)==0) {
      if (xo.x==$1) break
  if ($o2.count==ii) return nil else return xo

// excu() does the associative search and executes the resultant string 
// eg excu("key",list) excu("key",list,"arg1"[,"arg2","arg3"...]) 
func excu () { local i,ty,ii localobj xo,o,st
  // object_push(xo) ty=name_declared("s",1) object_pop() // strdef:4, dbl:5
  for ltr(xo,o,&ii) {
    if (argtype(1)==2) {
      if (strcmp(xo.s,$s1)==0) break
    } else if (argtype(1)==0) {
      if (xo.x==$1) break
  if (o.count!=ii) {
    if (sfunc.len(xo.t)==0) return 0 // empty string
    if (numarg()>2) { 
      for i=3,numarg() {
        if (argtype(i)==2) { sprint(st.s,"%s%s,",st.s,$si)
        } else if (argtype(i)==0) { sprint(st.s,"%s%g,",st.s,$i)
        } else if (argtype(i)==1) { sprint(st.s,"%s%s,",st.s,$oi) }
    execute(st.s)    // print st.s
    return hoc_ac_
  } else return 0

// LAR: list_array is list used as an array
begintemplate LAR
public l,set,x,size,nil,resize,get,lt
objref l,nil
double size[1]

proc init () { local ii
  l=new List()
  for ii=0,size-1 l.append(l) // place holder

func set () { local ix
  if (ix>=size) {printf("LAR set OOR %d>=%d\n",ix,size) return -1}
  l.remove(ix) l.insrt(ix,$o2) 
  return ix

obfunc x ()   { if (eqojt(l,l.o($1))) return nil else return l.o($1) }
obfunc get () { if (eqojt(l,l.o($1))) return nil else return l.o($1) }

proc resize () { local newsz,ii
  if (newsz<size) {
    for (ii=size-1;ii>=newsz;ii-=1) l.remove(ii)
  } else if (newsz>size) {
    for ii=size,newsz-1 l.append(l)

iterator lt () { local ii
  for ii=0,size-1 if (!eqojt(l,l.o(ii))) { 
endtemplate LAR

Neymotin SA, Lee H, Park E, Fenton AA, Lytton WW (2011) Emergence of physiological oscillation frequencies in a computer model of neocortex. Front Comput Neurosci 5:19-75[PubMed]

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   Hippocampal CA1 NN with spontaneous theta, gamma: full scale & network clamp (Bezaire et al 2016) [Model]

Chadderdon GL, Mohan A, Suter BA, Neymotin SA, Kerr CC, Francis JT, Shepherd GM, Lytton WW (2014) Motor cortex microcircuit simulation based on brain activity mapping. Neural Comput 26:1239-62 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Motor cortex microcircuit simulation based on brain activity mapping (Chadderdon et al. 2014) [Model]

Chadderdon GL, Neymotin SA, Kerr CC, Lytton WW (2012) Reinforcement learning of targeted movement in a spiking neuronal model of motor cortex PLoS ONE 2012 7(10):e47251 [Journal]

   Reinforcement learning of targeted movement (Chadderdon et al. 2012) [Model]

Dura-Bernal S, Li K, Neymotin SA, Francis JT, Principe JC, Lytton WW (2016) Restoring behavior via inverse neurocontroller in a lesioned cortical spiking model driving a virtual arm. Front. Neurosci. Neuroprosthetics 10:28 [Journal]

   Cortical model with reinforcement learning drives realistic virtual arm (Dura-Bernal et al 2015) [Model]

Dura-Bernal S, Zhou X, Neymotin SA, Przekwas A, Francis JT, Lytton WW (2015) Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm. Front Neurorobot 9:13 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Cortical model with reinforcement learning drives realistic virtual arm (Dura-Bernal et al 2015) [Model]

Eguchi A, Neymotin SA and Stringer SM (2014) Color opponent receptive fields self-organize in a biophysical model of visual cortex via spike-timing dependent plasticity 8:16. doi: Front. Neural Circuits 8:16 [Journal]

   Simulated cortical color opponent receptive fields self-organize via STDP (Eguchi et al., 2014) [Model]

Kerr CC, Van Albada SJ, Neymotin SA, Chadderdon GL, Robinson PA, Lytton WW (2013) Cortical information flow in Parkinson's disease: a composite network-field model. Front Comput Neurosci 7:39:1-14 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Composite spiking network/neural field model of Parkinsons (Kerr et al 2013) [Model]

Lytton WW, Neymotin SA, Wester JC, Contreras D (2011) Neocortical simulation for epilepsy surgery guidance: Localization and intervention Computational Surgery and Dual Training

   Computational Surgery (Lytton et al. 2011) [Model]

Neymotin SA, Chadderdon GL, Kerr CC, Francis JT, Lytton WW (2013) Reinforcement learning of 2-joint virtual arm reaching in a computer model of sensorimotor cortex Neural Computation 25(12):3263-93 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Sensorimotor cortex reinforcement learning of 2-joint virtual arm reaching (Neymotin et al. 2013) [Model]

Neymotin SA, Dura-Bernal S, Lakatos P, Sanger TD, Lytton WW (2016) Multitarget Multiscale Simulation for Pharmacological Treatment of Dystonia in Motor Cortex. Front Pharmacol 7:157 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Multitarget pharmacology for Dystonia in M1 (Neymotin et al 2016) [Model]

Neymotin SA, Lazarewicz MT, Sherif M, Contreras D, Finkel LH, Lytton WW (2011) Ketamine disrupts theta modulation of gamma in a computer model of hippocampus Journal of Neuroscience 31(32):11733-11743 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Ketamine disrupts theta modulation of gamma in a computer model of hippocampus (Neymotin et al 2011) [Model]

Neymotin SA, McDougal RA, Bulanova AS, Zeki M, Lakatos P, Terman D, Hines ML, Lytton WW (2016) Calcium regulation of HCN channels supports persistent activity in a multiscale model of neocortex Neuroscience 316:344-366 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Ca+/HCN channel-dependent persistent activity in multiscale model of neocortex (Neymotin et al 2016) [Model]

Rowan MS, Neymotin SA, Lytton WW (2014) Electrostimulation to reduce synaptic scaling driven progression of Alzheimer's disease. Front Comput Neurosci 8:39 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Electrostimulation to reduce synaptic scaling driven progression of Alzheimers (Rowan et al. 2014) [Model]

Rowan MS,Neymotin SA (2013) Synaptic Scaling Balances Learning in a Spiking Model of Neocortex Adaptive and Natural Computing Algorithms, Tomassini M, Antonioni A, Daolio F, Buesser P, ed. pp.20 [Journal]

   Synaptic scaling balances learning in a spiking model of neocortex (Rowan & Neymotin 2013) [Model]

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