Ketamine disrupts theta modulation of gamma in a computer model of hippocampus (Neymotin et al 2011)

 Download zip file   Auto-launch 
Help downloading and running models
"Abnormalities in oscillations have been suggested to play a role in schizophrenia. We studied theta-modulated gamma oscillations in a computer model of hippocampal CA3 in vivo with and without simulated application of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and psychotomimetic. Networks of 1200 multi-compartment neurons (pyramidal, basket and oriens-lacunosum moleculare, OLM, cells) generated theta and gamma oscillations from intrinsic network dynamics: basket cells primarily generated gamma and amplified theta, while OLM cells strongly contributed to theta. ..."
1 . Neymotin SA, Lazarewicz MT, Sherif M, Contreras D, Finkel LH, Lytton WW (2011) Ketamine disrupts theta modulation of gamma in a computer model of hippocampus Journal of Neuroscience 31(32):11733-11743 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Hippocampus;
Cell Type(s): Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal cell; Hippocampus CA3 basket cell; Hippocampus CA3 stratum oriens lacunosum-moleculare interneuron;
Channel(s): I L high threshold; I A; I K; I K,Ca;
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): GabaA; NMDA; Glutamate;
Gene(s): HCN1; HCN2;
Transmitter(s): Gaba; Glutamate;
Simulation Environment: NEURON; Python;
Model Concept(s): Oscillations; Synchronization; Therapeutics; Pathophysiology; Schizophrenia; Information transfer; Brain Rhythms;
Implementer(s): Lazarewicz, Maciej [mlazarew at]; Neymotin, Sam [samn at];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal cell; Hippocampus CA3 basket cell; GabaA; NMDA; Glutamate; I L high threshold; I A; I K; I K,Ca; Gaba; Glutamate;
CA1ih.mod *
CA1ika.mod *
CA1ikdr.mod *
CA1ina.mod *
caolmw.mod *
capr.mod *
icaolmw.mod *
icapr.mod *
iholmkop.mod *
iholmw.mod *
ihpyrkop.mod *
kahppr.mod *
kaolmkop.mod *
kapyrkop.mod *
kcaolmw.mod *
kcpr.mod *
kdrbwb.mod *
kdrolmkop.mod *
kdrpr.mod *
kdrpyrkop.mod *
misc.mod *
MyExp2Syn.mod *
MyExp2SynAlpha.mod *
MyExp2SynBB.mod *
MyExp2SynNMDA.mod *
MyExp2SynNMDABB.mod *
nafbwb.mod *
nafolmkop.mod *
nafpr.mod *
nafpyrkop.mod *
vecst.mod *
wrap.mod * *
declist.hoc *
decmat.hoc *
decnqs.hoc *
decvec.hoc *
default.hoc *
drline.hoc *
geom.hoc * *
grvec.hoc *
init.hoc *
labels.hoc *
local.hoc *
misc.h * *
nqs.hoc *
nqs_utils.hoc *
nrnoc.hoc * *
simctrl.hoc *
stats.hoc *
syncode.hoc *
xgetargs.hoc *
// $Id: decnqs.hoc,v 1.38 2011/03/01 19:06:15 billl Exp $

objref nq[10],pq[10]

//** prl2nqs(NQS[,min,max,nointerp]) -- transfer printlist to NQS
proc rename () {}
// eg proc rename () { sprint($s1,"P%d",objnum($s1)) }
obfunc prl2nqs () { local tstep localobj st,oq
  st=new String2()
  oq=new NQS()
  if (numarg()>=1) min=$1 else min=0
  if (numarg()>=2) max=$2 else max=printlist.count-1
  if (numarg()>=3) interp=$3 else interp=0 // no interp when looking at spk times
  if (interp) oq.resize(max-min+2)
  if (interp) {
    tstep=0.1 // 0.1 ms step size for interpolation
    for ii=min,max {
      oq.s[ii+1-min].s = XO.var
  } else {
    for ii=min,max {
      rename(st.s) rename(st.t)
  return oq

//** pvp2nqs(NQS) -- transfer grvec data file to NQS
obfunc pvp2nqs () { local min,max,interp,gvnum,ii,jj,n localobj oq,po,st,xo
  if (argtype(1)==2) { po=gvnew($s1) gvnum=panobjl.count()-1 }
  if (argtype(1)==0) gvnum=$1
  if (numarg()>=2) min=$2
  if (numarg()>=3) max=$3
  if (numarg()>=4) interp=$4 // no interp when looking at spk times
  if (po==nil) po=panobjl.o(gvnum)
  oq=new NQS() st=new String2()
  if (gvnum>0) {
    if (max==0) max=po.llist.count()-1
    for ii=min,max {
      if (xo.num==-2) {
  } else { // from printlist
    if (max==0) max=printlist.count()-1
    for ii=min,max {
      if (xo.pstep==0) {
  return oq

//** veclist2nqs(nqs[,STR1,STR2,...])
proc veclist2nqs () { local flag,i
  if (numarg()==0) {printf("veclist2nqs(nqs[,STR1,STR2,...])\n") return}
  if (numarg()==1+$o1.m) flag=1 else flag=0
  for ltr(XO,veclist) {
    if (flag) {i=i1+2 $o1.s[i1].s=$si} else {sprint(tstr,"v%d",i1) $o1.s[i1].s=tstr}

// fudup(vec[,nq,#CUTS,LOGCUT,MIN]) -- use updown() to find spikes
// other options
pos_fudup=1 // set to 1 to move whole curve up above 0
maxp_fudup=0.95 // draw top sample at 95% of max 
minp_fudup=0.05 // draw bottom sample at 5% of max
over_fudup=1    // turn over and try again if nothing found
allover_fudup=0 // turn over and add these locs (not debugged)
verbose_fudup=0 // give messages, can also turn on DEBUG_VECST for messages from updown()
obfunc fudup () { local a,i,ii,npts,logflag,min,x,sz localobj bq,cq,v1,v2,v3,bb,tl,v5,eq
  if (verbose_fudup) printf("MAXTIME appears to be %g (dt=%g)\n",$o1.size*dt,dt)
  logflag=0  npts=10 // n sample locations by default
  if (argtype(i)==1) {i+=1 if ($o2==nil) {cq=new NQS() $o2=cq} else cq=$o2} else cq=new NQS()
  if (cq.m!=11) { cq.resize(0) 
  if (argtype(i)==0){ npts=$i i+=1
    if (argtype(i)==0){ logflag=$i i+=1
      if (argtype(i)==1) { v5=$oi i+=1
        if (npts!=v5.size) printf("Correcting npts from %d to %d\n",npts,npts=v5.size)
        if (v5.ismono(1)) v5.reverse
        if (! v5.ismono(-1)) {printf("fudup: final arg (%s) must be monotonic\n",v5) return}
  eq=new NQS(-2,npts) a=allocvecs(v1,v2,v3)
  eq.clear(2e4) vrsz(2e4,v1,v2,v3)
  if (pos_fudup) {
    v1.sub(min) // make it uniformly positive
  } else min=0
  if (numarg()>4) v2.copy(v5) else {
    v2.indgen(2,2+npts-1,1)   // sampling at npts points, start at 2 to avoid log(1)=0
    if (logflag) v2.log() // log sampling
    v2.scale(-maxp_fudup*v1.max,-minp_fudup*v1.max) v2.mul(-1)
  if (pos_fudup) { bq.v[1].add(min) bq.v[3].add(min) }
  if (allover_fudup) { // do it upside down as well
    v1.mul(-1) // v2 will be upside-down
    if (pos_fudup) {min=v1.min v1.sub(min)}
    if (0) {  // can't see a rationale to recalc sampling points
      v2.indgen(2,2+npts-1,1)   // sampling at npts points
      if (logflag) v2.log() // log sampling
      v2.scale(-0.95*v1.max,-0.05*v1.max) v2.mul(-1)
    bq.v[8].add(sz) bq.v[4].mul(-1) // turn HEIGHT upside down
  } else if (over_fudup && sz==0) { // turn it over an try again
    print "fudup() checking upside-down"
    v1.mul(-1) // v2 will be upside-down
  for case(&x,0,2,5) cq.v[x].mul(dt)
  return cq

//** listsort(LIST[,START,REV]) sorts list of strings numerically
// optional start gives a regexp to start at
proc listsort () { local x,rev localobj nq,st,xo
  if (numarg()==0) { 
    print "listsort(LIST[,RXP,REV]) numerically, optional RXP starts after there" return}
  if (numarg()==3) if ($3) rev=-1 else rev=0
  nq=new NQS("STR","NUM") nq.strdec("STR")
  st=new String()
  for ltr(xo,$o1) {
    if (numarg()>=2) sfunc.tail(xo.s,$s2,st.s) else st.s=xo.s
    if (sscanf(st.s,"%g",&x)!=1) print "listsort ERR: num not found in ",st.s
  for nq.qt(st.s,"STR") $o1.append(new String(st.s))

// stat(VEC) print stats for the vector
// stat(VEC1,VEC2) append stats of VEC1 on VEC2
// stat(VEC1,NQS) append stats of VEC1 on NQS (create if necessary)
proc stat () { local sz
  if (sz<=1) {printf("decnqs::stat() WARN: %s size %d\n",$o1,$o1.size) return}
  if (numarg()==1 && sz>1) {
    printf("Sz:%d\tmax=%g; min=%g; mean=%g; stdev=%g\n",$o1.size,$o1.max,$o1.min,$o1.mean,$o1.stdev)
  } else {
    if (!isassigned($o2)) { $o2=new NQS("SIZE","MAX","MIN","MEAN","STDEV")
    } else if (isobj($o2,"NQS")) { 
      if ($o2.m!=5) {$o2.resize(0) $o2.resize("SIZE","MAX","MIN","MEAN","STDEV")}
    } else if (isobj($o2,"Vector")) revec($o2)
    if (sz>2) {$o2.append($o1.size,$o1.max,$o1.min,$o1.mean,$o1.stdev) // .append for Vector or NQS
    } else   $o2.append($o1.size,$o1.max,$o1.min,$o1.min,0) // no sdev

//* fil2nqs(FILE,NQS) reads lines of file and places all numbers in NQS
func fil2nqs () { local a,n localobj v1
  for (n=1;tmpfile.gets(tstr)!=-1;n+=1) {
    if (n%1e3==0) printf("%d ",n)
    if (v1.size!=$o2.m) {
      printf("Wrong size at line %d (%d)  ",n,v1.size)  vlk(v1)
  return $o2.size(1)

//** plnqs(file,NQS) reads output of
// format ascii 'rows cols' then binary contents
proc plnqs () { local a,rows,cols localobj v1,v2
  sscanf(tstr,"%d %d",&rows,&cols)
  printf("%s: %d rows x %d cols\n",$s1,rows,cols)
  v1.fread(tmpfile,rows*cols) // could now use .transpose
  for ii=0,cols-1 {
// DEST=maxem(SRC,MIN,WIDTH) -- keep looking for maxima till get down to min
obfunc maxem () { local a,min,wid,ii,ix,beg,end localobj v1,aq
  aq=new NQS("max","loc") aq.clear(v1.size/2)
  min=$2 wid=$3
  while(v1.max>min) {
   beg=ix-wid if (beg<0) beg=0
   end=ix+wid if (end>=v1.size) end=v1.size-1
   for ii=beg,end v1.x[ii]=-1e9
  return aq

// nqo=percl(nq,"COLA", ..) generates NQS of percentile values (10..90) for these cols
// nqo=percl(nq,min,max,step,"COLA", ..) -- eg percl(nq,50,70,5,"COLA","COLB")
obfunc percl () {  local i,ii,a,p localobj v1,v2,v3,aq,xo
  aq=new NQS(numarg())
  if (argtype(2)==0) {
    i=5 j=4 // start at arg i and aq col #j
  } else {
    i=2 j=1
  for (;i<=numarg();i+=1) {
    for vtr(&ii,v3) {ii/=100 v2.append(v1.x[round(ii*v1.size)])}
  return aq

// pqunq(NQS) returns columns of sorted nique values corresponding to the arg
// NB: does not produce a rectangular array
obfunc pqunq () { local a localobj v1,v2,aq
  aq=new NQS()
  for ii=0,aq.m-1 {
  return aq

//** aa=seqind(ind) -- find beginning and end of sequential indices with 
obfunc seqind () { local a,n,skip,ii,x,last localobj vi,oq
  if (numarg()>=2) skip=$2+1 else skip=1
  if (numarg()>=3) oq=$o3
  if (!isassigned(oq)) {oq=new NQS() if (numarg()>=3) $o3=oq}
  if (oq.m!=3) { oq.resize(0) oq.resize("beg","end","diff") }
  for ii=1,vi.size(1)-1 {
    if (vi.x[ii]-vi.x[ii-1]>skip) {
      if (n>0) oq.append(vi.x[last],vi.x[ii-1],0)
    } else n+=1
  if (n>0) oq.append(vi.x[last],vi.x[ii-1],0)
  return oq

//** list_transpose
proc list_transpose () { localobj aq,mat,xo,inlist,outlist
  aq=new NQS() inlist=$o1 outlist=$o2
  if (!isojt(outlist,inlist)) {outlist=new List() $o2=outlist}
  for ltr(xo,inlist) aq.resize("",xo)
  mat=aq.tomat(1) // transpose

//* Sam's additions -- moved from nqs_utils.hoc
//get row of Vectors
//$o1 = nqs
//$2 = row number
//$s3 - $snumarg() - name of cols to get values for
//returns list with associated Vectors
obfunc getobjrow(){ local i,rowid localobj nq,vt,ls
  nq=$o1 rowid=$2
  ls=new List()
  vt=new Vector()
  return ls

//get column of objects as Vector using oform
//$o1 = nqs
//$s2 = col name
//$3=iff==1 return list of Vectors in column, else return vector of oform of each row in column
obfunc getobjcol(){ local idx,getl localobj nq,vt,vt2,ls
  if(numarg()>2) getl=$3 else getl=0
    ls=new List()
    vt=new Vector()
    for idx=0,nq.size-1{
    return ls
  } else {
    vt=new Vector(nq.size)
    vt2=new Vector()
    for idx=0,nq.size-1{
    return vt

//get correlation between 2 columns of an NQS
//$s2=column name
//$s3=column name
//$4=pearson correlation iff == 1 (default), otherwise spearman
func nqcor(){ local pc localobj nq1,v1,v2
  if(numarg()>3) pc=$4 else pc=1
  v1=nq1.getcol($s2)  v2=nq1.getcol($s3)
  if (pc) return v1.pcorrel(v2) else return v1.scorrel(v2)

//func nqgrslice(){ local startidx,endidx localobj nq,vtmp
//  nq=$o1 startidx=$2 endidx=$3
//  vtmp=new Vector($3-$2+1)
//  gg(

func MIN(){ if($1<$2)return $1 else return $2 }

//get correlation matrix/nqs of all columns to all columns
//$o1 = NQS
//$2 = num columns 0 - NQS.m
//$3 = start row/index
//$4 = end row/index
//$5 = index increment
//$6 = window size , iff <= 0, do full columns against each other
obfunc nqcolcor(){ local startidx,endidx,inct,wint,c1,c2,ncol localobj vhr,vhl,nqc,nqf
   printf("nqcolcor usage: \n\t$o1 = NQS\
                           \n\t$2 = num columns 0 - NQS.m\
                           \n\t$3 = start row/index\
                           \n\t$4 = end row/index\
                           \n\t$5 = index increment\
                           \n\t$6 = window size , iff <= 0, do full columns against each other\n")
   return nil
 if(numarg()>1) ncol=$2 else ncol=nqf.m
 if(numarg()>2) startidx=$3 else startidx=0
 if(numarg()>3) endidx=$4 else endidx=nqf.size
 if(numarg()>4) inct=$5 else inct=50*2//50ms
 if(numarg()>5) wint=$6 else wint=100*2//50ms

 vhr=new Vector(wint) vhl=new Vector(wint)

 if(wint<=0){ //full column cross-correlation
   nqc=new NQS("ID0","ID1","cor") 
   for c1=0,ncol-1{
     for c2=c1+1,ncol-1{
 } else { //cross correlation using slices of column
   nqc=new NQS("ID0","ID1","start","end","cor") 
   for c1=0,ncol-1{
     for c2=c1+1,ncol-1{

 return nqc

//read wmf ascii file (just skips header and calls rdcol)
//$s1 = wmf file path
//$2 = # of columns
// obfunc rdwmf(){ local idx,jdx,hdrlines localobj nq,myf,myftmp,strf,str,strtmp,lcols
// myf=new File() myftmp=new File() strf=new StringFunctions() str=new String() lcols=new List()
// strtmp=new String() hdrlines=6
// myf.ropen($s1)
// if(!myf.is_open()){
//  printf("rdwmf ERRA: couldn't open wmf file %s for read\n",$s1)
//  return nil
// }
// for idx=0,hdrlines-1{
//  if(myf.gets(str.s)==-1){
//    printf("rdwmf ERRB: corrupt header\n")
//    return nil
//  } else if(idx==2){
//    jdx=strf.tail(str.s,"",strtmp.s)            
//  }
// }
// myf.close()
// return nq
// }

//draw regression line
//$o1 = nqs, $s2 = column 1, $s3 = column 2
// or
//$o1 = Vector 1 , $o2 = Vector 2
//returns vo
obfunc drawregline(){ local x0,y0,x1,y1,gvtmp,r localobj vo,nq,v1,v2,vx,vy,str
  vo=new Vector(5)
    nq = $o1
    v1=new Vector()  v2=new Vector()
  } else {
    v1=$o1 v2=$o2
  x0 = v2.min
  y0 = x0*vo.x(0)+vo.x(1)
  x1 = v2.max
  y1 = x1*vo.x(0)+vo.x(1)
  vx=new Vector(2)
  vy=new Vector(2)
  str=new String()
    sprint(str.s,"r = %.2f, p = %g, N = %d",r,rpval_stats(v1.size,r),v1.size)
  return vo

// select from a vector handled as a matrix -- see matrix.mod
obfunc mindsel () { local a,x,r,c localobj vm,vi,oq
  if (numarg()==4) vi.indvwhere(vm,$s2,$3,$4) else vi.indvwhere(vm,$s2,$3)
  oq=new NQS("row","col","val") 
  for vtr(&x,vi) {
    r=int(x/COLS) c=x-r*COLS
    if (!halfmat || c>r) oq.append(r,c,vm.x[x])
  print oq.size(1)
  return oq

//* return row $2 of nqs $o1 
obfunc nqrow () { local row,col localobj vout,nq
  vout=new Vector(nq.m)
  for col=0,nq.m-1 vout.x(col)=nq.v[col].x(row)
  return vout

//* find row $o2 (vector) in $o1 (nqs) and return index
//  if not there return -1
func nqfindrow () { local idx,jdx,sz localobj nq,vf,vrow
  nq=$o1  vf=$o2
  for idx=0,sz-1 {
    vrow = nqrow(nq,idx)
    if(vrow.eq(vf)) return idx
  return -1

//* nquniq(NQS) -- return a new NQS with unique rows in $o1
obfunc nquniq () { local sz,idx,outrow,jdx localobj nqin,nqout,vrow
  nqout=new NQS()
  for idx=0,nqin.m-1{
  for idx=0,sz-1{
      for jdx=0,nqin.m-1 nqout.v[jdx].x(outrow) = vrow.x(jdx)
      outrow += 1
  for idx=0,nqout.m-1 nqout.v[idx].resize(outrow)
  return nqout

Neymotin SA, Lazarewicz MT, Sherif M, Contreras D, Finkel LH, Lytton WW (2011) Ketamine disrupts theta modulation of gamma in a computer model of hippocampus Journal of Neuroscience 31(32):11733-11743[PubMed]

References and models cited by this paper

References and models that cite this paper

Achim AM, Bertrand MC, Sutton H, Montoya A, Czechowska Y, Malla AK, Joober R, Pruessner JC, L (2007) Selective abnormal modulation of hippocampal activity during memory formation in first-episode psychosis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:999-1014 [PubMed]

Benes FM, Sorensen I, Bird ED (1991) Reduced neuronal size in posterior hippocampus of schizophrenic patients. Schizophr Bull 17:597-608 [PubMed]

Bleuler E (1911) Dementia Praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien Handbuch der Psychiatrie, Aschaffenburg G, ed.

Borgers C, Kopell N (2003) Synchronization in networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons with sparse, random connectivity. Neural Comput 15:509-38 [PubMed]

Bragin A, Jando G, Nadasdy Z, Hetke J, Wise K, Buzsaki G (1995) Gamma (40-100 Hz) oscillation in the hippocampus of the behaving rat. J Neurosci 15:47-60 [PubMed]

Bresink I, Danysz W, Parsons CG, Mutschler E (1995) Different binding affinities of NMDA receptor channel blockers in various brain regions--indication of NMDA receptor heterogeneity. Neuropharmacology 34:533-40 [PubMed]

Bubeníkova-Valesova V, Horacek J, Vrajova M, Höschl C (2008) Models of schizophrenia in humans and animals based on inhibition of NMDA receptors. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:1014-23 [PubMed]

Canolty RT, Edwards E, Dalal SS, Soltani M, Nagarajan SS, Kirsch HE, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, K (2006) High gamma power is phase-locked to theta oscillations in human neocortex. Science 313:1626-8 [PubMed]

Cardin JA, Carlen M, Meletis K, Knoblich U, Zhang F, Deisseroth K, Tsai LH, Moore CI (2009) Driving fast-spiking cells induces gamma rhythm and controls sensory responses. Nature 459:663-7 [PubMed]

Carnevale NT, Hines ML (2006) The NEURON Book

Cobb SR, Halasy K, Vida I, Nyiri G, Tamas G, Buhl EH, Somogyi P (1997) Synaptic effects of identified interneurons innervating both interneurons and pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus. Neuroscience 79:629-48 [PubMed]

Cull-Candy S, Brickley S, Farrant M (2001) NMDA receptor subunits: diversity, development and disease. Curr Opin Neurobiol 11:327-35 [PubMed]

Cutsuridis V, Cobb S, Graham BP (2009) Encoding and retrieval in a model of the hippocampal CA1 microcircuit. Hippocampus 20(3):423-46 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Encoding and retrieval in a model of the hippocampal CA1 microcircuit (Cutsuridis et al. 2009) [Model]

Dean B, Scarr E, Bradbury R, Copolov D (1999) Decreased hippocampal (CA3) NMDA receptors in schizophrenia. Synapse 32:67-9

Destexhe A, Rudolph M, Pare D (2003) The high-conductance state of neocortical neurons in vivo. Nat Rev Neurosci 4:739-51 [PubMed]

Ehrlichman RS, Gandal MJ, Maxwell CR, Lazarewicz MT, Finkel LH, Contreras D, Turetsky BI, Sie (2009) N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor antagonist-induced frequency oscillations in mice recreate pattern of electrophysiological deficits in schizophrenia. Neuroscience 158:705-12 [PubMed]

Fries P, Nikolić D, Singer W (2007) The gamma cycle. Trends Neurosci 30:309-16 [PubMed]

Gourevitch B, Eggermont JJ (2007) Evaluating information transfer between auditory cortical neurons. J Neurophysiol 97:2533-43 [PubMed]

Goutagny R, Jackson J, Williams S (2009) Self-generated theta oscillations in the hippocampus. Nat Neurosci 12:1491-3 [PubMed]

Gray CM, Singer W (1989) Stimulus-specific neuronal oscillations in orientation columns of cat visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:1698-702 [PubMed]

Greene R (2001) Circuit analysis of NMDAR hypofunction in the hippocampus, in vitro, and psychosis of schizophrenia. Hippocampus 11:569-77 [PubMed]

Grillner S, Markram H, De Schutter E, Silberberg G, LeBeau FE (2005) Microcircuits in action--from CPGs to neocortex. Trends Neurosci 28:525-33 [PubMed]

Hajos N, Freund TF, Mody I (2002) Comparison of single NMDA receptor channels recorded on hippocampal principal cells and oriens-alveus interneurons projecting to stratum lacunosum-moleculare (O-LM cells). Acta Biol Hung 53:465-72 [PubMed]

Hangya B, Borhegyi Z, Szilagyi N, Freund TF, Varga V (2009) GABAergic neurons of the medial septum lead the hippocampal network during theta activity. J Neurosci 29:8094-102 [PubMed]

Heckers S (2001) Neuroimaging studies of the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Hippocampus 11:520-8 [PubMed]

Hines ML, Carnevale NT (1997) The NEURON simulation environment. Neural Comput 9:1179-209 [PubMed]

Hines ML, Carnevale NT (2001) NEURON: a tool for neuroscientists. Neuroscientist 7:123-35 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Spatial gridding and temporal accuracy in NEURON (Hines and Carnevale 2001) [Model]

Hines ML, Davison AP, Muller E (2009) NEURON and Python Frontiers in Neuroinformatics 3:1 [Journal] [PubMed]

   NEURON + Python (Hines et al. 2009) [Model]

Holthausen EA, Wiersma D, Sitskoorn MM, Dingemans PM, Schene AH, van den Bosch RJ (2003) Long-term memory deficits in schizophrenia: primary or secondary dysfunction? Neuropsychology 17:539-47 [PubMed]

Homayoun H, Moghaddam B (2007) NMDA receptor hypofunction produces opposite effects on prefrontal cortex interneurons and pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci 27:11496-500 [PubMed]

Honea R, Crow TJ, Passingham D, Mackay CE (2005) Regional deficits in brain volume in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. Am J Psychiatry 162:2233-45 [PubMed]

Hong LE, Summerfelt A, Buchanan RW, O'Donnell P, Thaker GK, Weiler MA, Lahti AC (2010) Gamma and delta neural oscillations and association with clinical symptoms under subanesthetic ketamine. Neuropsychopharmacology 35:632-40 [PubMed]

Jackson ME, Homayoun H, Moghaddam B (2004) NMDA receptor hypofunction produces concomitant firing rate potentiation and burst activity reduction in the prefrontal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:8467-72 [PubMed]

Jahr CE, Stevens CF (1990) Voltage dependence of NMDA-activated macroscopic conductances predicted by single-channel kinetics. J Neurosci 10:3178-82 [PubMed]

Jessen F, Scheef L, Germeshausen L, Tawo Y, Kockler M, Kuhn KU, Maier W, Schild HH, Heun R (2003) Reduced hippocampal activation during encoding and recognition of words in schizophrenia patients. Am J Psychiatry 160:1305-12 [PubMed]

Kelemen E, Fenton AA (2010) Dynamic grouping of hippocampal neural activity during cognitive control of two spatial frames. PLoS Biol 8:e1000403 [PubMed]

Kolomeets NS, Orlovskaya DD, Uranova NA (2007) Decreased numerical density of CA3 hippocampal mossy fiber synapses in schizophrenia. Synapse 61:615-21 [PubMed]

Lazarewicz MT, Ehrlichman RS, Maxwell CR, Gandal MJ, Finkel LH, Siegel SJ (2010) Ketamine modulates theta and gamma oscillations. J Cogn Neurosci 22:1452-64 [PubMed]

Lisman J, Buzsaki G (2008) A neural coding scheme formed by the combined function of gamma and theta oscillations. Schizophr Bull 34:974-80 [PubMed]

Lisman JE, Coyle JT, Green RW, Javitt DC, Benes FM, Heckers S, Grace AA (2008) Circuit-based framework for understanding neurotransmitter and risk gene interactions in schizophrenia. Trends Neurosci 31:234-42 [PubMed]

Lytton WW (2006) Neural Query System: Data-mining from within the NEURON simulator. Neuroinformatics 4:163-76 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Neural Query System NQS Data-Mining From Within the NEURON Simulator (Lytton 2006) [Model]

Lytton WW (2008) Computer modelling of epilepsy. Nat Rev Neurosci 9:626-37 [Journal] [PubMed]

Lytton WW, Sejnowski TJ (1991) Simulations of cortical pyramidal neurons synchronized by inhibitory interneurons. J Neurophysiol 66:1059-79 [Journal] [PubMed]

Malhotra AK, Pinals DA, Adler CM, Elman I, Clifton A, Pickar D, Breier A (1997) Ketamine-induced exacerbation of psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment in neuroleptic-free schizophrenics. Neuropsychopharmacology 17:141-50 [PubMed]

Malhotra AK, Pinals DA, Weingartner H, Sirocco K, Missar CD, Pickar D, Breier A (1996) NMDA receptor function and human cognition: the effects of ketamine in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 14:301-7 [PubMed]

Narr KL, Thompson PM, Szeszko P, Robinson D, Jang S, Woods RP, Kim S, Hayashi KM, Asunction D (2004) Regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions in first-episode schizophrenia. Neuroimage 21:1563-75 [PubMed]

Newcomer JW, Farber NB, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Selke G, Melson AK, Hershey T, Craft S, Olney J (1999) Ketamine-induced NMDA receptor hypofunction as a model of memory impairment and psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology 20:106-18 [PubMed]

Neymotin SA, Jacobs KM, Fenton AA, Lytton WW (2011) Synaptic information transfer in computer models of neocortical columns. J Comput Neurosci. 30(1):69-84 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Synaptic information transfer in computer models of neocortical columns (Neymotin et al. 2010) [Model]

Neymotin SA, Lee H, Park E, Fenton AA, Lytton WW (2011) Emergence of physiological oscillation frequencies in a computer model of neocortex. Front Comput Neurosci 5:19-75 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Emergence of physiological oscillation frequencies in neocortex simulations (Neymotin et al. 2011) [Model]

Nyi­ri G, Stephenson FA, Freund TF, Somogyi P (2003) Large variability in synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor density on interneurons and a comparison with pyramidal-cell spines in the rat hippocampus. Neuroscience 119:347-63 [PubMed]

Olypher AV, Klement D, Fenton AA (2006) Cognitive disorganization in hippocampus: a physiological model of the disorganization in psychosis. J Neurosci 26:158-68 [PubMed]

Oppenheim AV, Schafer RW, Buck JR (1999) Discrete-time signal processing

Orban G, Kiss T, Erdi P (2006) Intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms determining the timing of neuron population activity during hippocampal theta oscillation. J Neurophysiol 96:2889-904 [PubMed]

Orban G, Kiss T, Lengyel M, Erdi P (2001) Hippocampal rhythm generation: gamma-related theta-frequency resonance in CA3 interneurons. Biol Cybern 84:123-32 [PubMed]

Parnas J, Bovet P, Zahavi D (2002) Schizophrenic autism: clinical phenomenology and pathogenetic implications. World Psychiatry 1:131-6 [PubMed]

Reggia JA, Goodall SM, Shkuro Y, Glezer M (2001) The callosal dilemma: explaining diaschisis in the context of hemispheric rivalry via a neural network model. Neurol Res 23:465-71 [PubMed]

Sabolek H, Penley S, Bunce J, Hinman J, Chrobak J (2006) Ketamine alters synchrony throughout the hippocampal formation Society for Neuroscience Abstract 751.12-AA3

Silberberg G, Grillner S, LeBeau FE, Maex R, Markram H (2005) Synaptic pathways in neural microcircuits. Trends Neurosci 28:541-51 [PubMed]

Stacey WC, Lazarewicz MT, Litt B (2009) Synaptic noise and physiological coupling generate high-frequency oscillations in a hippocampal computational model. J Neurophysiol 102:2342-57 [Journal] [PubMed]

   High frequency oscillations in a hippocampal computational model (Stacey et al. 2009) [Model]

Stewart M, Fox SE (1990) Do septal neurons pace the hippocampal theta rhythm? Trends Neurosci 13:163-8 [PubMed]

Suzuki Y, Jodo E, Takeuchi S, Niwa S, Kayama Y (2002) Acute administration of phencyclidine induces tonic activation of medial prefrontal cortex neurons in freely moving rats. Neuroscience 114:769-79 [PubMed]

Szeszko PR, Goldberg E, Gunduz-Bruce H, Ashtari M, Robinson D, Malhotra AK, Lencz T, Bates J, (2003) Smaller anterior hippocampal formation volume in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 160:2190-7 [PubMed]

Tamminga CA, Stan AD, Wagner AD (2010) The hippocampal formation in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 167:1178-93 [PubMed]

Tiesinga P, Sejnowski TJ (2009) Cortical enlightenment: are attentional gamma oscillations driven by ING or PING? Neuron 63:727-32 [PubMed]

Tort AB, Rotstein HG, Dugladze T, Gloveli T, Kopell NJ (2007) On the formation of gamma-coherent cell assemblies by oriens lacunosum-moleculare interneurons in the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13490-5 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Gamma and theta rythms in biophysical models of hippocampus circuits (Kopell et al. 2011) [Model]

Uhlhaas PJ, Phillips WA, Mitchell G, Silverstein SM (2006) Perceptual grouping in disorganized schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 145:105-17 [PubMed]

Uhlhaas PJ, Phillips WA, Schenkel LS, Silverstein SM (2006) Theory of mind and perceptual context-processing in schizophrenia. Cogn Neuropsychiatry 11:416-36

Uhlhaas PJ, Silverstein SM (2005) Perceptual organization in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: empirical research and theoretical implications. Psychol Bull 131:618-32 [PubMed]

Uhlhaas PJ, Singer W (2006) Neural synchrony in brain disorders: relevance for cognitive dysfunctions and pathophysiology. Neuron 52:155-68 [PubMed]

Wang XJ (2002) Pacemaker neurons for the theta rhythm and their synchronization in the septohippocampal reciprocal loop. J Neurophysiol 87:889-900 [PubMed]

Wang XJ, Buzsaki G (1996) Gamma oscillation by synaptic inhibition in a hippocampal interneuronal network model. J Neurosci 16:6402-13 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Gamma oscillations in hippocampal interneuron networks (Wang, Buzsaki 1996) [Model]

White JA, Banks MI, Pearce RA, Kopell NJ (2000) Networks of interneurons with fast and slow gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) kinetics provide substrate for mixed gamma-theta rhythm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:8128-33 [PubMed]

Whittington MA, Traub RD, Kopell N, Ermentrout B, Buhl EH (2000) Inhibition-based rhythms: experimental and mathematical observations on network dynamics. Int J Psychophysiol 38:315-36 [PubMed]

Zaidel DW, Esiri MM, Harrison PJ (1997) Size, shape, and orientation of neurons in the left and right hippocampus: investigation of normal asymmetries and alterations in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 154:812-8 [PubMed]

Bezaire MJ, Raikov I, Burk K, Vyas D, Soltesz I (2016) Interneuronal mechanisms of hippocampal theta oscillation in a full-scale model of the rodent CA1 circuit. Elife [Journal] [PubMed]

   Hippocampal CA1 NN with spontaneous theta, gamma: full scale & network clamp (Bezaire et al 2016) [Model]

Chadderdon GL, Mohan A, Suter BA, Neymotin SA, Kerr CC, Francis JT, Shepherd GM, Lytton WW (2014) Motor cortex microcircuit simulation based on brain activity mapping. Neural Comput 26:1239-62 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Motor cortex microcircuit simulation based on brain activity mapping (Chadderdon et al. 2014) [Model]

Chehelcheraghi M, van Leeuwen C, Steur E, Nakatani C (2017) A neural mass model of cross frequency coupling. PLoS One 12:e0173776 [Journal] [PubMed]

   A neural mass model of cross frequency coupling (Chehelcheraghi et al 2017) [Model]

Ferguson KA, Huh CY, Amilhon B, Williams S, Skinner FK (2013) Experimentally constrained CA1 fast-firing parvalbumin-positive interneuron network models exhibit sharp transitions into coherent high frequency rhythms. Front Comput Neurosci 7:144 [Journal] [PubMed]

   CA1 PV+ fast-firing hippocampal interneuron (Ferguson et al. 2013) [Model]

Neymotin SA, Chadderdon GL, Kerr CC, Francis JT, Lytton WW (2013) Reinforcement learning of 2-joint virtual arm reaching in a computer model of sensorimotor cortex Neural Computation 25(12):3263-93 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Sensorimotor cortex reinforcement learning of 2-joint virtual arm reaching (Neymotin et al. 2013) [Model]

Neymotin SA, Dura-Bernal S, Lakatos P, Sanger TD, Lytton WW (2016) Multitarget Multiscale Simulation for Pharmacological Treatment of Dystonia in Motor Cortex. Front Pharmacol 7:157 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Multitarget pharmacology for Dystonia in M1 (Neymotin et al 2016) [Model]

Neymotin SA, Hilscher MM, Moulin TC, Skolnick Y, Lazarewicz MT, Lytton WW (2013) Ih Tunes Theta/Gamma Oscillations and Cross-Frequency Coupling In an In Silico CA3 Model PLoS ONE 8(10):e76285 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Ih tunes oscillations in an In Silico CA3 model (Neymotin et al. 2013) [Model]

Neymotin SA, McDougal RA, Bulanova AS, Zeki M, Lakatos P, Terman D, Hines ML, Lytton WW (2016) Calcium regulation of HCN channels supports persistent activity in a multiscale model of neocortex Neuroscience 316:344-366 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Ca+/HCN channel-dependent persistent activity in multiscale model of neocortex (Neymotin et al 2016) [Model]

Sanjay M, Neymotin SA, Krothapalli SB (2015) Impaired dendritic inhibition leads to epileptic activity in a computer model of CA3. Hippocampus 25:1336-50 [Journal] [PubMed]

   CA3 Network Model of Epileptic Activity (Sanjay et. al, 2015) [Model]

Stanley DA, Talathi SS, Parekh MB, Cordiner DJ, Zhou J, Mareci TH, Ditto WL, Carney PR (2013) Phase shift in the 24-hour rhythm of hippocampal EEG spiking activity in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurophysiol 110:1070-86 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Hippocampal CA3 network and circadian regulation (Stanley et al. 2013) [Model]

(84 refs)