Reinforcement learning of targeted movement (Chadderdon et al. 2012)

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Accession:144538
"Sensorimotor control has traditionally been considered from a control theory perspective, without relation to neurobiology. In contrast, here we utilized a spiking-neuron model of motor cortex and trained it to perform a simple movement task, which consisted of rotating a single-joint “forearm” to a target. Learning was based on a reinforcement mechanism analogous to that of the dopamine system. This provided a global reward or punishment signal in response to decreasing or increasing distance from hand to target, respectively. Output was partially driven by Poisson motor babbling, creating stochastic movements that could then be shaped by learning. The virtual forearm consisted of a single segment rotated around an elbow joint, controlled by flexor and extensor muscles. ..."
Reference:
1 . Chadderdon GL, Neymotin SA, Kerr CC, Lytton WW (2012) Reinforcement learning of targeted movement in a spiking neuronal model of motor cortex PLoS ONE 2012 7(10):e47251
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Neocortex;
Cell Type(s): Neocortex fast spiking (FS) interneuron; Neocortex spiking regular (RS) neuron; Neocortex spiking low threshold (LTS) neuron;
Channel(s):
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): GabaA; AMPA; NMDA;
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s): Dopamine; Gaba; Glutamate;
Simulation Environment: NEURON;
Model Concept(s): Simplified Models; Synaptic Plasticity; Long-term Synaptic Plasticity; Reinforcement Learning; Reward-modulated STDP;
Implementer(s): Neymotin, Sam [samn at neurosim.downstate.edu]; Chadderdon, George [gchadder3 at gmail.com];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  GabaA; AMPA; NMDA; Dopamine; Gaba; Glutamate;
/
arm1d
README
drspk.mod *
infot.mod *
intf6_.mod *
intfsw.mod *
misc.mod *
nstim.mod *
stats.mod *
updown.mod *
vecst.mod *
arm.hoc
basestdp.hoc
col.hoc *
colors.hoc *
declist.hoc *
decmat.hoc *
decnqs.hoc *
decvec.hoc *
default.hoc *
drline.hoc *
filtutils.hoc *
geom.hoc
grvec.hoc *
hinton.hoc *
infot.hoc *
init.hoc
intfsw.hoc *
labels.hoc *
local.hoc *
misc.h *
mosinit.hoc
network.hoc
nload.hoc
nqs.hoc *
nqsnet.hoc *
nrnoc.hoc *
params.hoc
run.hoc
samutils.hoc *
sense.hoc *
setup.hoc *
sim.hoc
simctrl.hoc *
stats.hoc *
stim.hoc
syncode.hoc *
units.hoc *
xgetargs.hoc *
                            
// $Id: declist.hoc,v 1.157 2010/12/07 14:19:28 billl Exp $

print "Loading declist.hoc..."

//* Declarations
strdef mchnms
objref tmplist,tmplist2,tmpobj,aa,XO,YO
if (! name_declared("datestr")) {load_file("setup.hoc")}
tmplist = new List()
proc declist() {}

//* Templates
//** template String2
begintemplate String2
public s,t,x,append,prepend,exec,tinit
strdef s,t
proc init() {
  if (numarg() == 1) { s=$s1 }
  if (numarg() == 2) { s=$s1 t=$s2 }
  if (numarg() == 3) { s=$s1 t=$s2 x=$3 }
}
proc append () { local i
  if (argtype(1)==2) sprint(t,"%s%s",s,$s1)
  for i=2,numarg() sprint(t,"%s%s",t,$si)
}
proc prepend () { local i
  if (argtype(1)==2) sprint(t,"%s%s",$s1,s)
  for i=2,numarg() sprint(t,"%s%s",$si,t)
}
proc exec () {
  if (numarg()==1) sprint(t,"%s%s",$s1,s)
  execute(t)
}
proc tinit() { t=$s1 }

endtemplate String2

//** template DBL
begintemplate DBL
  public x
  proc init () { if (numarg()==1) x=$1 else x=0 }
endtemplate DBL

//** template Union
// USAGE: XO=new Union(val) where val can be a number string or object
//        XO=new Union(list,index) will pick up a string or object from list
//        XO=new Union(vec,index)  will pick up a number from vector
//        XO=new Union(&dbl,index) will pick up a number from double array
// Union allows storage of a double, string or object
// 2 ways of storing strings: directly in XO.s (t,u,v) OR 
//   using XO.set("NAME","STR") which is returned by XO.get("NAME").s
// It is useful as a localobj in an obfunc since it will permit returning anything
// It also makes it easy to pick up any kind of value out of a list, vector or array
// declared() not yet declared
if (!name_declared("isobj")) execute1("func isobj(){return 0}") // place holder
if (!name_declared("isassigned")) execute1("func isassigned(){return 0}") // place holder
if (!name_declared("llist")) execute1("proc llist(){}") // place holder
begintemplate Union
public ty,x,s,t,u,v,o,xptr,xg,xs,optr,og,os,get,set,xl,ol,fi,inc,list,err,pr,sz
strdef s,t,u,v,tstr
objref o[10],xl,ol,this,xo
double x[10],sz[1],err[1]
external sfunc,isobj,isassigned,nil,DBL,llist
// 1arg -- store a num, string or obj
// 2arg -- pick up type out of list
proc init () { local ii,i,ox,xx,sx,flag
  ox=xx=sx=0 ty=argtype(1) // 'type' of Union defined by 1st arg on creation
  sz=10 // 10 is default size of arrays; for ii=0,sz-1 
  for ii=0,sz-1 x[ii]=ERR
  // special case of number in a vector or something in a list -- 2 args: list or vec,index
  err=1 flag=0
  if (numarg()/2==int(numarg()/2)) for (i=1;i<numarg();i+=2) {
    if (argtype(i)!=2 || argtype(i+1)==2) break
    flag=1
  }
  if (flag) { // "name",val,etc
    for (i=1;i<numarg();i+=1) {
      tstr=$si i+=1 
      if (argtype(i)==0) set(tstr,$i) else set(tstr,$oi)
    }
    s="" // used as temp storage only
  } else if (argtype(1)==1 && argtype(2)==0 && argtype(3)==-1) {
    ii=$2
    // printf("Union WARNING: taking single element out of a Vector or List\n")
    if (argtype(1)==1) {
      if (isobj($o1,"Vector")) { 
        if (ii<0 || ii>=$o1.size) {
          printf("Union ERR: vec index (%d) out of bounds for %s\n",ii,$o1)
          return }
        ty=0 x=$o1.x[ii] o=$o1
      } else if (isobj($o1,"List")) {
        if (ii<0 || ii>=$o1.count) {
          printf("Union ERR: list index (%d) out of bounds for %s\n",ii,$o1)
          return }
        if (isobj($o1.object(ii),"String")) { // will handle String2
          ty=2 s=$o1.object(ii).s o=$o1.object(ii) x=ii
        } else { ty=1 o=$o1.object(ii) x=ii }
      }
    } else if (argtype(1)==3) {
      ty=0 x=$&1[ii] // could check - but no + bound checking possible
    }
  } else for i=1,numarg() {
    ii=argtype(i)
    if (ii==0) { 
      if (xx<sz) { 
        x[xx]=$i xx+=1 
      } else printf("Only have %d doubles available so can't store %g\n",sz,$i)
    } else if (ii==2) { 
      if (sx==0) s=$si else if (sx==1) t=$si else if (sx==2) u=$si else if (sx==3) v=$si else {
        printf("Only have 4 strings available so can't store %s\n",$si) }
      sx+=1
    } else if (ii==1) { 
      if (ox<sz) { o[ox]=$oi ox+=1
      } else printf("Only have %d objects available so can't store %s\n",sz,$oi)
    } else printf("Union ERR: argtype not recognized numarg %d %d\n",i,ii)
  }
  err=0
}

proc pr () { print "Use Union[].list" }

proc list () { local flag
  flag=0
  if (ol!=nil) {
    for ii=0,sz-1 if ((! isojt(ol,ol.o(ii)))||o[ii]!=nil) {
      if (isojt(ol,ol.o(ii))) printf("%10s\t%s\n","NO NAME", o[ii]) else {
                              printf("%10s\t%s\n",ol.o(ii).s,o[ii]) }
    }
    printf("%s\n","================================") 
    flag=1
  }
  if (xl!=nil) {
    for ii=0,sz-1 if ((! isojt(xl,xl.o(ii)))||x[ii]!=ERR) {
      if (isojt(xl,xl.o(ii))) printf("%10s\t%g\n","NO NAME", x[ii]) else {
                              printf("%10s\t%g\n",xl.o(ii).s,x[ii]) }
    }
    printf("%s\n","================================") 
    flag=1
  }
  if (!flag) {
    printf("%s\nSCALARS: ","================================") 
    for ii=0,sz-1 if (x[ii]!=ERR) printf("%d:%g ",ii,x[ii])
    printf("\n%s\nOBJECTS: ","================================") 
    for ii=0,sz-1 if (o[ii]!=nil) printf("%d:%s ",ii,o[ii])
    printf("\n%s\n","================================") 
  }
  if (sfunc.len(s)>0) printf("%10s\t%s\n","s",s)
  if (sfunc.len(t)>0) printf("%10s\t%s\n","t",t)
  if (sfunc.len(u)>0) printf("%10s\t%s\n","u",u)
  if (sfunc.len(v)>0) printf("%10s\t%s\n","v",v)
}

// full List
obfunc newl () { localobj o
  o=new List() 
  for ii=0,sz-1 o.append(o)
  return o
} 
proc repl () { 
  if (isobj($o1.o($2),"String")) { $o1.o($2).s=$s3
  } else { $o1.remove($2) $o1.insrt($2,new String($s3)) }
}

func fi () { local ii
  fif=-1
  for ii=0,sz-1 {
    if ($o1.o(ii)==$o1) {
      if (fif==-1) fif=ii // first empty slot if any
    } else if (strcmp($o1.o(ii).s,$s2)==0) return ii
  }
  return ERR
}
// put in pointers for the x values
func xptr () { local i,ii
  if (numarg()>sz) {printf("More names (%d) than x items (%d) in %s:xptr\n",numarg(),sz,this) 
    error()}
  if (!isassigned(xl)) xl=newl()
  for i=1,numarg() repl(xl,i-1,$si)
  return xl.count
}
func optr () { local i,ii
  if (numarg()>sz) {printf("More names %d than o items (%d) in %s:optr\n",numarg(),sz,this) error()}
  if (!isassigned(ol)) ol=newl()
  for i=1,numarg()  repl(ol,i-1,$si)
  return ol.count
}
// xg() associative get of a num
func xg () { local ii
  ii=fi(xl,$s1)
  if (ii==ERR) {printf("Union:og (num get) failed -- \"%s\" not found\n",$s1) return ERR}
  return x[ii] 
}
// xg() associative get of an obj
obfunc og () { local ii
  ii=fi(ol,$s1)
  if (ii==ERR) {printf("Union:og (obj get) failed -- \"%s\" not found\n",$s1) return nil}
  return o[ii] 
}
// xs(index,"label",num) set a specific location using a string -- see set()
// xs("label",num) set an existing one only
func xs () { local ii,i
  if (!isassigned(xl)) xl=newl()
  if (argtype(1)==0) {
    i=3 ii=$1 // an index
    repl(xl,ii,$s2)
  } else {
    i=2 ii=fi(xl,$s1)
    if (ii==ERR) {printf("Union:xs (num set) failed -- no %s found\n",$s1) return ERR}
  }
  if (argtype(i)!=0) {printf("Union:xs err -- arg %d must be object\n",i) return ERR}
  x[ii]=$i
  return $i
}
// os(index,"label",obj) set a specific location using a string -- see set()
// os("label",obj) set an existing one only
obfunc os () { local ii,i
  if (!isassigned(ol)) ol=newl()
  if (argtype(1)==0) {
    i=3 ii=$1 // $1 is an index
    repl(ol,ii,$s2)
  } else {
    i=2 ii=fi(ol,$s1)
    if (ii==ERR) {printf("Union:os (obj set) failed -- \"%s\" not found\n",$s1) return nil}
  }
  if (argtype(i)!=1) {printf("Union:os err -- arg %d must be object\n",i) return nil}
  o[ii]=$oi
  return $oi
}

// get() get any type
obfunc get () { local ii
  if        ((ii=fi(ol,$s1))!=ERR) { 
    return o[ii] 
  } else if ((ii=fi(xl,$s1))!=ERR) { 
    if (argtype(2)==3) { $&2=x[ii] return this } else { return new DBL(x[ii]) }
  } else {
    // printf("Union:get() \"%s\" not found\n",$s1) 
    return nil // make returning nil the unique error
  }
}

// increment or with neg decrement something
func inc () { local n
  if (numarg()==2) n=$2 else n=1
  if ((ii=fi(xl,$s1))==ERR) {printf("Union:inc ERR: %s %s\n",this,$s1) return ERR}
  return x[ii]+=n
}

// set() set any type
func set () { local ii,i,ty,fo,fx
  if (xl==nil) xl=newl() if (ol==nil) ol=newl()
  for (i=1;i<numarg();i+=1) {
    tstr=$si i+=1 
    if ((ty=argtype(i))==0) xo=xl else if (ty==1 || ty==2) xo=ol // use String() for strings
    ii=fi(xo,tstr)
    if (ii==ERR) {
      if (fif==-1) {printf("UNION:set() ERRB: %s full for type %d\n",this,ty)  return ERR}
      repl(xo,(ii=fif),tstr)
    }
    if (ty==0) x[ii]=$i else if (ty==1) o[ii]=$oi else if (ty==2) { // don't use s,t,u,v
      o[ii]=new String($si)
    }
  }
  return ii
}
endtemplate Union

//* Iterators
//** list iterator ltr
// usage 'for ltr(tmplist) { print XO }' :: 1 arg, assumes XO as dummy
// usage 'for ltr(YO, tmplist) { print YO }' 2 arg, specify dummy
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, &x) { print XO,x }' :: x is counter (else use global i1)
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, 5) { print XO,x }' :: max; only print out 0-5
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, 5, 7) { print XO,x }' :: print 5-7
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, &x, 5) { print XO,x }' :: counter with max
// usage 'for ltr(XO, tmplist, &x, 5, 7) { print XO,x }' :: counter,min,max
iterator ltr () { local i,min,max,ifl
  min=0 max=1e9 ifl=0 // iterator flag
  if (numarg()==3) {
    if (argtype(3)==3) {ifl=1 $&3=0}
    if (argtype(3)==0) max=$3
  } else if (numarg()==4) { 
    if (argtype(3)==0) i1=min=$3 else {ifl=1 $&3=0}
    max=$4 
  } else if (numarg()==5) { 
    $&3=min=$4 max=$5 ifl=1 
  }
  if (! ifl) i1=0
  if (numarg()==1) {
    for i = 0, $o1.count-1 {
      XO = $o1.object(i)
      iterator_statement
      i1+=1
    }
    tmpobj=$o1
    XO=nil
  } else {
    if (max==1e9) max=$o2.count()-1 else if (max<0) { min=$o2.count+max max=$o2.count-1 
    } else if (max>$o2.count-1) max=$o2.count-1
    for i = min, max {
      $o1 = $o2.object(i)
      iterator_statement
      if (ifl) { $&3+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
    }
    tmpobj=$o2
    $o1 = nil
  }
}

//** list iterator ltrb -- backwards list iterator
// usage 'for ltrb(tmplist) { print XO }' :: 1 arg, assumes XO as dummy
// usage 'for ltrb(YO, tmplist) { print YO }' 2 arg, specify dummy
// usage 'for ltrb(XO, tmplist, &x) { print XO,x }' :: 3 args, define counter (else i1 default)
//                                                 :: note that x, i1 must be defined
iterator ltrb () { local i
  if (numarg()==1) {
    i1=$o1.count-1
    for (i=$o1.count()-1;i>=0;i-=1) {
      XO = $o1.object(i)
      iterator_statement
      i1-=1
    }
    tmpobj=$o1 XO=nil
  } else {
    if (numarg()==3) $&3=$o2.count-1 else i1=$o2.count-1
    for (i=$o2.count()-1;i>=0;i-=1) {
      $o1 = $o2.object(i)
      iterator_statement
      if (numarg()==3) { $&3-=1 } else { i1-=1 }
    }
    tmpobj=$o2
    $o1 = nil
  }
}

//** list iterator ltr2
// usage 'for ltr2(XO, YO, list1, list2) { print XO,YO }'
iterator ltr2() { local i,cnt
  if (numarg()==5) $&5=0 else i1=0
  cnt=$o4.count
  if ($o3.count != $o4.count) { print "ltr2 WARNING: lists have different lengths" 
    if ($o3.count<$o4.count) cnt=$o3.count }
  for i = 0, cnt-1 {
    $o1 = $o3.object(i)
    $o2 = $o4.object(i)
    iterator_statement
    if (numarg()==5) { $&5+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
  }
  $o1=nil $o2=nil
}

//** list pairwise iterator ltrp
// usage 'for ltrp(XO, YO, list) { print XO,YO }' takes them pairwise
iterator ltrp() { local i
  if (numarg()==4) {$&4=0} else {i1 = 0}
  for (i=0;i<$o3.count()-1;i+=2) {
    $o1 = $o3.object(i) $o2 = $o3.object(i+1)
    iterator_statement
    if (numarg()==4) { $&4+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
  }
  $o1=nil $o2=nil
}

//** list iterator sltr
// usage 'for sltr(XO, string) { print XO }'
iterator sltr() { local i
  tmplist = new List($s2)
  if (numarg()==3) {$&3=0} else {i1=0}
  for i = 0, tmplist.count() - 1 {
    $o1 = tmplist.object(i)
    iterator_statement
    if (numarg()==3) { $&3+=1 } else { i1+=1 }
  }
  $o1 = nil
}

//* Procedures
//** append(LIST,o1,o2,...) -- like revec() makes a list of objects
proc append () { local i,max
  if (!isassigned($o1)) $o1=new List()
  max=numarg()
  if (argtype(max)==0) {max-=1 $o1.remove_all}
  for i=2,max $o1.append($oi)
}

//** rcshead([flag])
// with flag does head from archive
func rcshead () { local x,flag localobj st
  x=-1 flag=0
  st=new String2()
  if (numarg()==2) {
    st=dirname($s1)
    sprint(st.t,"%sRCS/%s,v",st.s,st.t)
    flag=1
  } else st.t=$s1
  sprint(st.s,"head -1 %s",st.t)
  system(st.s,st.s)
  if (flag) sscanf(st.s,"head\t1.%d",&x) else sscanf(st.s,"%*[^,],v 1.%d",&x)
  return x
}

//** getenv()
obfunc getenv () { localobj st
  st=new String()
  sprint(st.s,"echo $%s",$s1)
  system(st.s,st.s)
  sfunc.left(st.s,sfunc.len(st.s)-1)
  if (numarg()==2) $s2=st.s
  return st
}

//** rcsopen(file,vers[,flag])  -- version open, flag to do load_file
// rcsopen(file,vers,proc_name)  -- just load the single proc or func from that vers
//  rcsopen("nqsnet.hoc,43,network.hoc,17,params.hoc,842,run.hoc,241") will open several files
func rcsopen () { local a,vers,ii,x,ret localobj st,fn,v1,o,xo
  st=new String2()   ret=1
  if (argtype(1)==2) st.s=$s1 else st.s=$o1.s
  // open network.hoc,params.hoc,run.hoc files for "#.#.#" 
  if (strm(st.s,"^[^,]+,[^,]+,[^,]+,[^,]+")) {
    a=allocvecs(v1)  o=new List()
    split(st.s,o)
    for (ii=1;ii<o.count;ii+=2) v1.append(str2num(o.o(ii).s))
    if (o.count!=v1.size*2) { printf("rcsopen() discrepency: ") vlk(v1) llist(o) dealloc(a) 
      return 0 }
    for ltr(xo,o,&x) if (x%2==0) { // every other
      printf("Opening %s%d\n",xo.s,v1.x[x/2])
      if (!rcsopen(xo.s,v1.x[x/2])) { dealloc(a) ret=0 }
    }
    dealloc(a)
    return ret
  }
  if (numarg()>1) vers=$2 else vers=0
  if (! vers) vers=rcshead(st.s,1) // vers=0 means get latest version
  // do checkout
  fn=filname(st.s)
  sprint(st.t,"RCS/%s,v",st.s)
  if (sfunc.len(fn.t)>0) {
    sprint(st.t,"%sRCS/%s,v",fn.t,fn.s)
    print st.s,"::",st.t,"::",fn.s,"::",fn.t
  } else if (fexists(st.t)) {
    if (rcshead(st.s)!=vers) {
      sprint(st.t,"cp -f %s %s.OLD",st.s,st.s)   system(st.t)
      sprint(st.t,"co -f -r1.%d %s",vers,st.s)   system(st.t)
    }
  } else { // look for file in remote location
    getenv("SITE",st.t)
    sprint(st.t,"%s/nrniv/local/hoc/%s",st.t,st.s)
    if (! fexists(st.t)) {printf("Can't find %s\n",st.t) return 0}
    sprint(st.s,"%s%d",st.s,vers)
    printf("Found %s at %s -> %s\n",$s1,st.t,st.s)
    sprint(st.t,"co -f -p1.%d %s > %s",vers,st.t,st.s) system(st.t)
  }
  if (numarg()>2) {
    if (argtype(3)==0) {  // 3rd arg 1 means do load_file statt xopen
      if ($3) { 
        load_file(st.s)
        return 1
      } else return 1 // 3rd arg 0 does co but no open
    } else { // 3rd arg string means locate a single proc, iter etc.
      sprint(st.s,"hocproc %s %s %s",st.s,$s3,".tmp")
      system(st.s,st.t)
      if (strm(st.t,"ERROR")) return 0 else {
        printf("Loading '%s()' from %s%d (via .tmp)\n",$s3,$s1,vers)
        xopen(".tmp")
        return 1
      } 
    }
  }
  xopen(st.s)
  return 1
}

//** simopen()
proc simopen () { local x localobj o,xo
  o=new List()
  if (numarg()==1) split(allfiles,o) else split(simfiles,o)
  for ltr(xo,o,&x) xopen(xo.s)
}

//** pxopen(FILE) prints out the version before opening a file
proc pxopen () { local flag localobj o
  flag=1
  o=new List("ParallelContext")
  if (o.count>0) if (o.o(0).id!=0) flag=0
  if (flag) printf("%s version %d\n",$s1,rcshead($s1))
  xopen($s1)
}

//** lrm(LIST,STR) will remove item with string from LIST
proc lrm () { local cnt
  cnt=0
  if (argtype(2)==2) {
    for ltrb(XO,$o1) if (strm(XO.s,$s2)) { $o1.remove(i1) cnt+=1 }
    printf("%s found %d time\n",$s2,cnt)
  } else {
    $o1.remove($o1.index($o2))
  }
}

//** lcnt(LIST,STR) will count item with string in LIST
func lcnt () { local cnt localobj xo
  cnt=0
  for ltr(xo,$o1) if (strm(xo.s,$s2)) cnt+=1
  return cnt
}

//** lrepl(LIST,#,OBJ) will replace item at location # with OBJ
proc lrepl () { $o1.remove($2) $o1.insrt($2,$o3) }

//** lswap(list,#1,#2) swap items on a list
proc lswap () { local a,b
  if ($2<$3) {a=$2 b=$3} else {a=$3 b=$2}
  $o1.insrt(a,$o1.object(b))
  $o1.remove(b+1)
  $o1.insrt(b+1,$o1.object(a+1))
  $o1.remove(a+1)
}

//** proc shl() show a list
proc shl () { 
  if (numarg()==1) tmpobj=$o1 else tmpobj=tmplist 
  if (tmpobj.count==0) return
  if (isstring(tmpobj.object(0),tstr)) {
    for ltr(XO,tmpobj) print XO.s
  } else for ltr(XO,tmpobj) print XO
}

//** lfu() = ltr follow-up, pick out a single item from the last ltr request
// lfu(list,num[,obj])
proc lfu () { 
  if (numarg()==1) { 
    if (argtype(1)==0) XO=tmpobj.object($1)
    if (argtype(1)==1) tmpobj=$o1
  }
  if (numarg()==2) {
    if (argtype(1)==1 && argtype(2)==0) {tmpobj=$o1 XO=$o1.object($2)}
    if (argtype(1)==0 && argtype(2)==1) {$o2=tmpobj.object($1)}
  }
  if (numarg()==3) {
    if (argtype(1)==1 && argtype(2)==0 && argtype(3)==1) { tmpobj=$o1 $o3=$o1.object($2) }
  }
  if (numarg()==4) {
    $o2=tmpobj.object($1)  $o4=tmpobj.object($3) 
  }
}

//** listedit() allows you to remove things by clicking
proc listedit () {
  if (numarg()==0) { print "listedit(list,str) gives browser(list,str) for removing items" return}
  if (numarg()==1) {
  if (! isstring($o1.object(0),temp_string_)) {print "Give name for string of object?" return }
    sprint(temp_string_,"proc ledt1 () {sprint(temp_string_,%s,hoc_ac_,%s.object(hoc_ac_).%s)}","\"%d:%s\"",$o1,"s")
  } else {
    sprint(temp_string_,"proc ledt1 () {sprint(temp_string_,%s,hoc_ac_,%s.object(hoc_ac_).%s)}","\"%d:%s\"",$o1,$s2)
  }
  execute1(temp_string_)
  $o1.browser("Double click to remove",temp_string_,"ledt1()")
  sprint(temp_string_,"%s.remove(hoc_ac_)",$o1)
  $o1.accept_action(temp_string_)
}

//** crac() create and access
proc crac () {
  execute("create acell_home_")
  execute("access acell_home_")
}

//** listXO() connects stuff to XO from a list
proc listXO () {
  if (numarg()==1) {
    $o1.browser("Double click")
    sprint(temp_string_,"print hoc_ac_,\":XO -> \",%s.object(hoc_ac_) XO = %s.object(hoc_ac_)",$o1,$o1)
    $o1.accept_action(temp_string_)
  } else if (numarg()==2) {
    $o1.browser($s2)
    sprint(temp_string_,"XO = %s.object(hoc_ac_) print %s.object(hoc_ac_).%s",$o1,$o1,$s2)
    $o1.accept_action(temp_string_)
  } else if (numarg()==3) {
    $o1.browser($s2)
    sprint(temp_string_,"XO = %s.object(hoc_ac_) print %s.object(hoc_ac_).%s,%s.object(hoc_ac_).%s",$o1,$o1,$s2,$o1,$s3)
    $o1.accept_action(temp_string_)
  }
}

//** lcatstr(list,s1,s2,...) make new List("s1") new List("s2") ... in one list
proc lcatstr() { local i
  if (numarg()<3) { print "lcatstr(l1,s1,s2,...) puts new Lists into l1" return }
  $o1 = new List($s2)
  for i=3,numarg() {
    tmplist2 = new List($si)
    for ltr(XO,tmplist2) { $o1.append(XO) }  
  }
}

//** sublist() places a sublist in LIST0 from LIST1 index BEGIN to END inclusive
proc sublist () { local ii
  $o1.remove_all
  for ii=$3,$4 {
    $o1.append($o2.object(ii))
  }
}

//** catlist() concats LIST2...LISTN on end of LIST1
proc catlist () { local i
  for i = 2, numarg() {
    for ltr(YO,$oi) {
      $o1.append(YO)
    }
  }
}  

//** mechlist() creates a LIST of all this CELL type's TEMPLATE type
// list, cell, template
// make a list of mechanisms belonging to a certain template
proc mechlist () { local num,ii
//  mchnms = ""  // not a good storage since runs out of room
  if (numarg()==0) { print "mechlist(list, cell, template)" return}
  $o1 = new List($s2)
  num = $o1.count
  for ii=0,num-1 {
    sprint(temp_string_,"%s.append(%s.%s)",$o1,$o1.object(ii),$s3)
    execute(temp_string_)
    sprint(mchnms,"%s/%d/%s.%s",mchnms,ii,$o1.object(ii),$s3)
  }
  for (ii=num-1;ii>=0;ii=ii-1) { $o1.remove(ii) }
}

//** lp() loop through a list running command in object's context
// assumes list in tmplist
// with 1 args run $o1.object().obj_elem
// with 2 args run comm($o1.object().obj_elem)
proc lp () {
  for ii=0,tmplist.count-1 {
    printf("%s ",tmplist.object(ii))
    if (numarg()==2) {
      sprint(temp_string_,"%s(%s.%s)",$s2,tmplist.object(ii),$s1)
    } else {
      sprint(temp_string_,"%s.%s",tmplist.object(ii),$s1)
    }
    execute(temp_string_)
  }
}

//** prlp() loop through a list printing object name and result of command
proc prlp () {
  tmpobj=tmplist
  if (numarg()>0) if (argtype(1)==1) tmpobj=$o1
  for ltr(XO,tmpobj) {
    printf("%d %s ",i1,XO)
    if (numarg()>1) {
      sprint(temp_string_,"print %s.%s",XO,$s2)
      execute(temp_string_)
    } else { print "" }
  }
}

//** secl2l(SecList[,List]) convert a SectionList to set of secrefs on a regular List
obfunc secl2l () { localobj sref,ll,secl
  secl=$o1
  if (numarg()>1) ll=$o2 else ll=new List()
  ll.remove_all()
  forsec secl {sref = new SectionRef() ll.append(sref)}
  return ll
}

//* String functions
//** repl_str(str,stra,strb): replace stra with strb in string
// will only replace first string match
proc repl_str() { localobj scr
  scr=new String()
  if (sfunc.head($s1,$s2,scr.s) == -1) { print $s2," not in ",$s1  return }
  sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,scr.s)
  sprint(scr.s,"%s%s",$s3,scr.s)
  sfunc.head($s1,$s2,$s1)
  sprint($s1,"%s%s",$s1,scr.s)
}

//** find_str(str,left,right): pull out dest flanked by left and right
obfunc find_str() { localobj st
  st=new String2()
  if (sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,st.t) == -1) { print $s2," not in ",$s1  return }
  sfunc.head(st.t,$s3,st.s)
  return st
}

//** find_num(str,left,right): pull out number flanked by left and right
func find_num() { local x localobj st
  st=new String()
  if (sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,st.s) == -1) { print $s2," not in ",$s1  return }
  sfunc.head(st.s,$s3,st.s)
  sscanf(st.s,"%g",&x)
  return x
}

//** repl_mstr(str,stra,strb): replace stra with strb in string
// multiple replace
proc repl_mstr () { localobj scr
  scr=new String()
  while (sfunc.head($s1,$s2,scr.s) != -1) {
    sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,scr.s)
    sprint(scr.s,"%s%s",$s3,scr.s)
    sfunc.head($s1,$s2,$s1)
    sprint($s1,"%s%s",$s1,scr.s)
  }
}

//** extract(str,stra,strb[,dest]): pull out piece of string surrounded by stra,strb
obfunc str_extract() { local b,e,err localobj scr
  scr=new String2() err=0
  b=sfunc.tail($s1,$s2,scr.s) // scr.s contains after s2
  if (b==-1){printf("%s not found in %s\n",$s2,$s1) err=1}
  e=sfunc.head(scr.s,$s3,scr.t) // beg of s3
  if (e==-1){printf("%s not found in %s\n",$s3,scr.s) err=1}
  if (err) scr.s="" else sfunc.left(scr.s,e)
  if (numarg()==4) $s4=scr.s
  return scr
}

//** clean_str(str,scratch,s1,s2,s3,...)
// remove serial $si from string
proc clean_str () { local i
  for i=3,numarg() {
    while (sfunc.head($s1,$si,$s2) != -1) { 
      sfunc.tail($s1,$si,$s2)
      sfunc.head($s1,$si,$s1)
      sprint($s1,"%s%s",$s1,$s2)      
    }
  }
}

//** aaaa() (or $o2) becomes a list of strings from file $s1
proc aaaa () { local flag
  if (numarg()==2) { tmpfile.ropen($s1) aa=$o2 flag=0
  } else if (numarg()==1) { tmpfile.ropen($s1) flag=1
  } else { tmpfile.ropen("aa") flag=1 }
  if (flag==1) if (isobj(aa,"List")) { aa.remove_all() } else { aa=new List() }
  while (tmpfile.gets(temp_string_)>0) {
    chop(temp_string_)
    tmpobj=new String(temp_string_)
    aa.append(tmpobj)
  }
  tmpobj=nil
}

//* Object identification
//** objid() find information about object -- replaces var2obj, canobj, objnum
obfunc objid () { local flag localobj xo
  xo=new Union()
  if (argtype(1)==1) sprint(xo.s,"tmpobj=%s",$o1) else sprint(xo.s,"tmpobj=%s",$s1)
  execute(xo.s) // change variable name to object name
  xo.o=tmpobj
  sprint(xo.s,"%s",xo.o)
  sscanf(xo.s,"%*[^[][%d]",&xo.x)
  return xo
}

//** var2obj() and canobj() -- find true object names
// var2obj("tstr"[,"objvar"]) replaces variable name with actual name of the object
// default into XO; optional second arg allows to place somewhere else
// eg tstr="TC[0].ampa" var2obj(tstr) -> AMPA[0]
proc var2obj () { local flag
  if (numarg()==1) flag=1 else flag=0
  if (flag) sprint($s1,"XO=%s",$s1) else sprint($s1,"%s=%s",$s2,$s1)
  execute($s1) // change variable name to object name
  if (flag) sprint($s1,"%s",XO) else sprint($s1,"%s",$s2)
  printf("var2obj() PLEASE REPLACE WITH objid()\n") 
}

//** objnum(OBJ) -- find object number
func objnum () { local x localobj st
  st=new String()
  if (argtype(1)==1) sprint(st.s,"%s",$o1) else st.s=$s1
  if (sscanf(st.s,"%*[^[][%d]",&x) != 1) x=-1
  return x
}

proc allobjs () {
  hoc_stdout($s1)
  allobjects()
  hoc_stdout()
}

//** strnum(str,"PRE") -- pull number out of a string
func strnum () { local x localobj st
  st=new String2($s1)
  sfunc.tail(st.s,$s2,st.t)
  if (sscanf(st.t,"%d",&x) != 1) x=-99e99
  return x
}

//** canobj(obj[,"OBJVAR"]) -- default will assign to XO
// canonical object -- return canonical identity for an object
// eg canobj(tc,"YO") -- figure out what tc is and assign it to YO
proc canobj () { local flag
  if (numarg()==1) flag=1 else flag=0
  if (flag) sprint(tstr,"XO=%s",$o1) else sprint(tstr,"%s=%s",$s2,$o1)
  execute(tstr) // change variable name to object name
  sprint(tstr,"%s",$o1)
  printf("canobj() PLEASE REPLACE WITH objid()\n") 
}

//* push() and pop() for objects -- returns
proc push () { local i
  for i=2,numarg() $o1.append($oi)
}

//** pop()
obfunc pop () { local i,cnt localobj o
  cnt=$o1.count-1
  if (cnt==-1) { print "ERR: unable to pop" return } 
  o=$o1.object(cnt)
  $o1.remove(cnt)
  return o
}

//* time()
strdef tmstr
tmstr="run()"
func time () { local tti,uintmax,cps
  uintmax=4294967295 // UINT_MAX/CLOCKS_PER_SEC
  cps=1e6 // CLOCKS_PER_SEC
  tti=prtime()
  system("date")
  if (numarg()==1) execute1($s1) else execute1(tmstr)
  tti=prtime()-tti
  if (tti<0) tti+=uintmax
  if (tti<cps) {           print tti/1e3,       "kilocycles" 
  } else if (tti<60*cps) { print tti/cps,   "s" 
  } else                   print tti/cps/60,"m"
  system("date")
  return tti/1e3
}

func ftime () { local tti
  prtime()
  if (numarg()==1) execute($s1) else execute(tmstr)
  tti=prtime()
  return tti
}

proc setdate () {
  system("date +%y%b%d",datestr)
  chop(datestr)
  downcase(datestr)
}

proc sortlist () { local a,err,ii,x,rev,na localobj v1,v2,xo,nl,il
  il=$o1
  err=rev=0
  na=numarg()
  for ii=2,3 if (na>=ii) if (argtype(ii)==0) rev=1
  a=allocvecs(v1,v2,il.count)
  nl=new List()
  if (!name_declared("oform")) err=1
  if (!err) if (oform(v1)==NOP) err=1
  if (err) {printf("sortlist uses oform()\n") error()}
  for ltr(xo,il) v1.append(oform(xo))
  v1.sortindex(v2)
  if (rev) v2.reverse
  for ii=0,v2.size-1 nl.append(il.o(v2.x[ii]))
  if ((na==2 && !rev) || na==3) $o2=nl else {
    il.remove_all
    for ltr(xo,nl) il.append(xo)
  }
  dealloc(a)
}

func assoc () { local i,ty,ii localobj xo
  // object_push(xo) ty=name_declared("s",1) object_pop() // strdef:4, dbl:5
  for ltr(xo,$o2,&ii) {
    if (argtype(1)==2) {
      if (strcmp(xo.s,$s1)==0) break
    } else if (argtype(1)==0) {
      if (xo.x==$1) break
    }
  }
  if ($o2.count==ii) return -1 else return ii
}

// assoco() like assoc but returns the object instead of the index
obfunc assoco () { local i,ty,ii localobj xo
  // object_push(xo) ty=name_declared("s",1) object_pop() // strdef:4, dbl:5
  for ltr(xo,$o2,&ii) {
    if (argtype(1)==2) {
      if (strcmp(xo.s,$s1)==0) break
    } else if (argtype(1)==0) {
      if (xo.x==$1) break
    }
  }
  if ($o2.count==ii) return nil else return xo
}

// excu() does the associative search and executes the resultant string 
// eg excu("key",list) excu("key",list,"arg1"[,"arg2","arg3"...]) 
func excu () { local i,ty,ii localobj xo,o,st
  o=$o2
  // object_push(xo) ty=name_declared("s",1) object_pop() // strdef:4, dbl:5
  for ltr(xo,o,&ii) {
    if (argtype(1)==2) {
      if (strcmp(xo.s,$s1)==0) break
    } else if (argtype(1)==0) {
      if (xo.x==$1) break
    }
  }
  if (o.count!=ii) {
    if (sfunc.len(xo.t)==0) return 0 // empty string
    st=strcat(st,"hoc_ac_=",xo.t,"(")
    if (numarg()>2) { 
      for i=3,numarg() {
        if (argtype(i)==2) { sprint(st.s,"%s%s,",st.s,$si)
        } else if (argtype(i)==0) { sprint(st.s,"%s%g,",st.s,$i)
        } else if (argtype(i)==1) { sprint(st.s,"%s%s,",st.s,$oi) }
      }
      chop(st.s)
    }
    strcat(st,")")
    execute(st.s)    // print st.s
    return hoc_ac_
  } else return 0
}

// LAR: list_array is list used as an array
begintemplate LAR
public l,set,x,size,nil,resize,get,lt
objref l,nil
double size[1]

proc init () { local ii
  size=$1
  l=new List()
  for ii=0,size-1 l.append(l) // place holder
}

func set () { local ix
  ix=$1
  if (ix>=size) {printf("LAR set OOR %d>=%d\n",ix,size) return -1}
  l.remove(ix) l.insrt(ix,$o2) 
  return ix
}

obfunc x ()   { if (eqojt(l,l.o($1))) return nil else return l.o($1) }
obfunc get () { if (eqojt(l,l.o($1))) return nil else return l.o($1) }

proc resize () { local newsz,ii
  newsz=$1
  if (newsz<size) {
    for (ii=size-1;ii>=newsz;ii-=1) l.remove(ii)
  } else if (newsz>size) {
    for ii=size,newsz-1 l.append(l)
  }
  size=newsz
}

iterator lt () { local ii
  for ii=0,size-1 if (!eqojt(l,l.o(ii))) { 
    $o1=l.o(ii)
    iterator_statement
  }
}
endtemplate LAR

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