Reinforcement learning of targeted movement (Chadderdon et al. 2012)

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Accession:144538
"Sensorimotor control has traditionally been considered from a control theory perspective, without relation to neurobiology. In contrast, here we utilized a spiking-neuron model of motor cortex and trained it to perform a simple movement task, which consisted of rotating a single-joint “forearm” to a target. Learning was based on a reinforcement mechanism analogous to that of the dopamine system. This provided a global reward or punishment signal in response to decreasing or increasing distance from hand to target, respectively. Output was partially driven by Poisson motor babbling, creating stochastic movements that could then be shaped by learning. The virtual forearm consisted of a single segment rotated around an elbow joint, controlled by flexor and extensor muscles. ..."
Reference:
1 . Chadderdon GL, Neymotin SA, Kerr CC, Lytton WW (2012) Reinforcement learning of targeted movement in a spiking neuronal model of motor cortex PLoS ONE 2012 7(10):e47251
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Neocortex;
Cell Type(s): Neocortex fast spiking (FS) interneuron; Neocortex spiking regular (RS) neuron; Neocortex spiking low threshold (LTS) neuron;
Channel(s):
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): GabaA; AMPA; NMDA;
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s): Dopamine; Gaba; Glutamate;
Simulation Environment: NEURON;
Model Concept(s): Simplified Models; Synaptic Plasticity; Long-term Synaptic Plasticity; Reinforcement Learning; Reward-modulated STDP;
Implementer(s): Neymotin, Sam [samn at neurosim.downstate.edu]; Chadderdon, George [gchadder3 at gmail.com];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  GabaA; AMPA; NMDA; Dopamine; Gaba; Glutamate;
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arm1d
README
drspk.mod *
infot.mod *
intf6_.mod *
intfsw.mod *
misc.mod *
nstim.mod *
stats.mod *
updown.mod *
vecst.mod *
arm.hoc
basestdp.hoc
col.hoc *
colors.hoc *
declist.hoc *
decmat.hoc *
decnqs.hoc *
decvec.hoc *
default.hoc *
drline.hoc *
filtutils.hoc *
geom.hoc
grvec.hoc *
hinton.hoc *
infot.hoc *
init.hoc
intfsw.hoc *
labels.hoc *
local.hoc *
misc.h *
mosinit.hoc
network.hoc
nload.hoc
nqs.hoc *
nqsnet.hoc *
nrnoc.hoc *
params.hoc
run.hoc
samutils.hoc *
sense.hoc *
setup.hoc *
sim.hoc
simctrl.hoc *
stats.hoc *
stim.hoc
syncode.hoc *
units.hoc *
xgetargs.hoc *
                            
// $Id: labels.hoc,v 1.104 2012/04/12 01:44:03 samn Exp $

print "Loading labels.hoc..."

{load_file("declist.hoc")}
// keep track of version number for future changes
// eg if (label_hoc_vers>88) rcsopen("labels.hoc",88) // go back to 88
labels_hoc_vers=find_num("$Id: labels.hoc,v 1.104 2012/04/12 01:44:03 samn Exp $","1\\."," ")
objref NCv,CODEv,DELv
objref PRIDv,POIDv,PRv,POv,DISTv,WT0v,WT1v // mo(1) will assign these
{declare("ce",nil,"CTYP",new List(),"CPLA",new List(),"TPA",new List(),"nm",new List())}
{declare("STYP",new List(),"ncells",0,"ZTYP",new List(),"INCOL",new List())}
{declare("DEND",0,"SOMA",1,"AXON",2)} // compartment codes - only 3 for now

scrsz=50*1e3
double scr[scrsz]

//* utility functions
// plmin(val,var)
func plmin() { return $1 + $2*(2*u_rand() - 1) } 

//* cell types: 
// iex(), returns numeric index associated with a string or string object
func iex () { 
  if (argtype(1)==2) sprint(tstr,"x=%s",$s1) else sprint(tstr,"x=%s",$o1.s)
  execute(tstr) return x 
}
// ice(), returns whether cell is an inhib cell based on its name starting with I
func ice () { local x
  if (argtype(1)==2) return strm($s1,"^I")
  if (argtype(1)==0) x=$1 else if (argtype(1)==1) x=$o1.type 
  return strm(CTYP.o(x).s,"^I")
}
//* GetLyr - return layer of type
func GetLyr () { local x localobj st
  st=new String()
  if (argtype(1)==2) st.s=$s1 else if (argtype(1)==0) st.s=CTYP.o($1).s else {
    st.s=CTYP.o($o1.type).s }
  sscanf(st.s,"%*1s%d",&x)
  return x
}

proc printtype () { local i
  for (i=1;argtype(i)==0;i+=1) if ($i!=-1) printf("%s(%d) ",CTYP.o($i).s,$i)
  if (argtype(i)==2) printf("%s",$si) else print ""
}
proc celltype () { localobj st
  st=new String("\n")
  if (argtype(2)==2) st.s=$s2
  if (argtype(1)==0) printtype(ce.o($1).type,st.s) else printtype($o1.type,st.s) 
}

obfunc names2indices () { local x localobj lo,xo,st
  lo=new List() st=new String()
  split($s1,lo)
  for ltr(xo,lo,&x) { sprint(st.s,"%s=%d",xo.s,x) execute(st.s) }
  return lo
}

// at some point may want to divide up this list into cell type -- eg RS,IB and location
CTYP=names2indices("NU,SM,DP,SU,IN,TC,IRE,ITH,E6,I6,I6C,I6L,E5B,E5R,I5,I5L,E4,I4,I4L,E2,E2B,I2,I2Q,I2C,I2L,RS,IB,LTS,FS,ECA1,ICA1,ICA1L,EDG,IDG,IDGL,ECA3,ICA3,ICA3L,E3,I3,I3L,ES,IS,ISL,EM,IM,IML,EV,IV,IVL")
CTYPi=CTYP.count  // number of cell types
EXCIT=-1  // don't know how to fit these in best
INHIB=-2

// 1 cmp nrn, 2 cmp nrn, multi cmp nrn, intfire1, INTF, invlfire, nstim
for scase2(XO,"1-CMP","CMP1","2-CMP","CMP2","MULTI-CMP","MC","IntFire1","IF1","INTF","IF",\
          "INVLF","IFV","NStim","STM") { CPLA.append(XO)
  sprint(tstr,"%s=%d",XO.t,i1) execute(tstr) }
CPLAi=CPLA.count // count of cell templates

for scase2(XO,"REAL","RL","ARTC","AC","SOMA","SO","DEND","DN") {TPA.append(XO)}
TPAi=TPA.count

proc ae () { localobj xo
  STYP.remove_all
  for scase2(xo,"AMPA","AM","NMDA","NM","GABAA","GA","GABAB","GB",\
             "AMPA2","AM2","NMDA2","NM2","GABAA2","GA2","GABAB2","GB2",\
           "IClamp","IC","AMPA/NMDA","EX","GABAA/GABAB2","IX","Exp2Syn","E2Sy"){
    STYP.append(new String2(xo.t,xo.s)) // switch them around here
    sprint(tstr,"%s=%d",xo.t,i1)
    execute(tstr)
  }
  STYPi=STYP.count  // number of cell types
}
ae()

for scase(XO,"DG","CA3","CA1","SUB","PSUB","MEC","LEC") {
  sprint(tstr,"%s=%d",XO.s,i1) execute(tstr) ZTYP.append(new String(XO.s))
}

for scase2(XO,"RIGHT","RIT","INCOL","INC","LEFT","LFT") { INCOL.append(new String(XO.s))
  sprint(tstr,"%s=%d",XO.t,i1) execute(tstr) }
INCOLi=INCOL.count

//* IsLTS - return if type is LTS
func IsLTS () {
  return $1 == I2L || $1 == I4L || $1 == I5L || $1 == I6L || $1 == ISL || $1 == IML || $1 == IVL
}
//* IsBurst - return if type is intrinsically bursting
func IsBurst () {
  return $1 == E2B || $1 == E5B
}
//* IsFRB - return true if type is fast regular bursting
func IsFRB () {
  return $1 == E2B
}
//* IsRS - return true if type is regular spiking E cell
func IsRS () {
  return $1 == E2 || $1 == E4 || $1 == E5R || $1 == E6 || $1 == ES || $1 == EM || $1 == EV
}
//* IsFS - return true if type is fast spiking interneuron
func IsFS () {
  return $1==I2 || $1==I4 || $1==I5 || $1==I6 || $1==ICA3 || $1==IDG || $1==ICA1 || $1==IS || $1==IM || $1==IV
}
//* IsTHAL - return true if type is from thalamus
func IsTHAL () {
  return $1 == TC || $1 == IRE
}

func isartcell () { return sfunc.is_point_process($o1) }


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