Reinforcement learning of targeted movement (Chadderdon et al. 2012)

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Accession:144538
"Sensorimotor control has traditionally been considered from a control theory perspective, without relation to neurobiology. In contrast, here we utilized a spiking-neuron model of motor cortex and trained it to perform a simple movement task, which consisted of rotating a single-joint “forearm” to a target. Learning was based on a reinforcement mechanism analogous to that of the dopamine system. This provided a global reward or punishment signal in response to decreasing or increasing distance from hand to target, respectively. Output was partially driven by Poisson motor babbling, creating stochastic movements that could then be shaped by learning. The virtual forearm consisted of a single segment rotated around an elbow joint, controlled by flexor and extensor muscles. ..."
Reference:
1 . Chadderdon GL, Neymotin SA, Kerr CC, Lytton WW (2012) Reinforcement learning of targeted movement in a spiking neuronal model of motor cortex PLoS ONE 2012 7(10):e47251
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Neocortex;
Cell Type(s): Neocortex fast spiking (FS) interneuron; Neocortex spiking regular (RS) neuron; Neocortex spiking low threshold (LTS) neuron;
Channel(s):
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): GabaA; AMPA; NMDA;
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s): Dopamine; Gaba; Glutamate;
Simulation Environment: NEURON;
Model Concept(s): Simplified Models; Synaptic Plasticity; Long-term Synaptic Plasticity; Reinforcement Learning; Reward-modulated STDP;
Implementer(s): Neymotin, Sam [samn at neurosim.downstate.edu]; Chadderdon, George [gchadder3 at gmail.com];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  GabaA; AMPA; NMDA; Dopamine; Gaba; Glutamate;
/
arm1d
README
drspk.mod *
infot.mod *
intf6_.mod *
intfsw.mod *
misc.mod *
nstim.mod *
stats.mod *
updown.mod *
vecst.mod *
arm.hoc
basestdp.hoc
col.hoc *
colors.hoc *
declist.hoc *
decmat.hoc *
decnqs.hoc *
decvec.hoc *
default.hoc *
drline.hoc *
filtutils.hoc *
geom.hoc
grvec.hoc *
hinton.hoc *
infot.hoc *
init.hoc
intfsw.hoc *
labels.hoc *
local.hoc *
misc.h *
mosinit.hoc
network.hoc
nload.hoc
nqs.hoc *
nqsnet.hoc *
nrnoc.hoc *
params.hoc
run.hoc
samutils.hoc *
sense.hoc *
setup.hoc *
sim.hoc
simctrl.hoc *
stats.hoc *
stim.hoc
syncode.hoc *
units.hoc *
xgetargs.hoc *
                            
// $Id: stim.hoc,v 1.19 2012/03/07 19:07:07 samn Exp $ 

//* Declarations

dosetexvals=name_declared("wmatex")==0 // whether to set values in wmatex,ratex

sprint(tstr,"d[%d][%d][%d]",numcols,CTYPi,STYPi)
declare("wmatex",tstr,"ratex",tstr) // weights,avg. rate of external inputs

declare("nstim","o[1]")

declare("sgrdur",mytstop) //duration of poisson stims
declare("inputseed",1236)
declare("sgrhzEE",300,"sgrhzEI",300,"sgrhzII",125,"sgrhzIE",125,"sgrhzNM",50,"sgron",1,"sgrdel",0)//poisson rates
declare("sgrhzdel",0)//variance in sgrhz for an INTF6
declare("EXGain",15) // gain for poisson external inputs
declare("lcstim",new List()) // list of CSTIM objects
{sprint(tstr,"o[%d]",numcols) declare("nqwmex",tstr)} // new NQS("ct","sy","w","rate") // NQS passed to CSTIM init
{sprint(tstr,"d[%d]",numcols) declare("EIBalance",tstr)} // whether to balance rate of external E/I inputs
declare("usens",1) // whether to use NetStims in CSTIM
declare("EMWEXGain",1,"EMREXGain",1) // gains for external inputs to EM (1st is for weights, 2nd for rates)

//* shock-related params
declare("MAXSHOCK",10)
sprint(tstr,"d[%d][%d][%d][%d]",numcols,CTYPi,STYPi,MAXSHOCK)
declare("wshock",tstr,"durshock",tstr,"prctshock",tstr,"nshock",tstr,"isishock",tstr,"startshock",tstr)

//* "modulation"-related params -- just modulates external input weights to ModType
// applies modulation at t = modulationT ms.
// ModGain is scaling factor for AM2,NM2 synapses
declare("ModONT",0,"fid","o[1]","ModGain",1,"ModType",EM) // when to apply modulation to ModType
declare("ModOFFT",-1) // modulation stays on full sim -- -1==never modulate off

//* Training-signal related params
declare("TrainISI",0,"TrainNUM",0,"TrainTY",E4,"TrainW",0,"TrainDUR",1,"TrainPRCT",100,"TrainSY",AM2)

declare("dosendex",0,"nqwrex","o[2]","fix","o[1]","EXRedStartT",5e3,"EXDT",5e3,"EXFctr",0.99)

SCAHP=SCTH=1

//* "zip"-related params -- modulates strength of internal weights from E->X
declare("ZipONT",0,"zid","o[1]","EERed",1,"EIRed",1)
declare("ZipOFFT",-1) // zip stays on full sim -- -1==never zip off

//* ModulateON -- applies ModGain to AM2,NM2 inputs to ModType cells (NetCon weights)
proc ModulateON () { local i localobj nc,ncl
  print "Modulation of " , ModGain, " to " , CTYP.o(ModType).s, " ON at t = ", t
  for i=0,numcols-1 { ncl = col[i].cstim.ncl
    for ltr(nc,ncl) if(!isojt(nc.pre,INTF6[0]) && isojt(nc.syn,INTF6[0])) {
      if(nc.syn.type==ModType) {
        if(nc.weight(AM2)>0) nc.weight(AM2) = wmatex[i][ModType][AM2] * ModGain
        if(nc.weight(NM2)>0) nc.weight(NM2) = wmatex[i][ModType][NM2] * ModGain
      }
    }
  }
}

//* ModulateOFF -- applies ModGain to AM2,NM2 inputs to ModType cells (NetCon weights)
proc ModulateOFF () { local i localobj nc,ncl
  print "Modulation of " , ModGain, " to " , CTYP.o(ModType).s, " OFF at t = ", t
  for i=0,numcols-1 { ncl = col[i].cstim.ncl
    for ltr(nc,ncl) if(!isojt(nc.pre,INTF6[0]) && isojt(nc.syn,INTF6[0])) {
      if(nc.syn.type==ModType) {
        if(nc.weight(AM2)>0) nc.weight(AM2) = wmatex[i][ModType][AM2]
        if(nc.weight(NM2)>0) nc.weight(NM2) = wmatex[i][ModType][NM2]
      }
    }
  }
}

//* InitModulation
proc InitModulation () {
  if(ModGain!=1) {
    cvode.event(ModONT,"ModulateON()")
    if(ModOFFT > 0)  cvode.event(ModOFFT,"ModulateOFF()")
  }
}

//* ZipON - turn on zip - reduce internal AM2,NM2 weights
proc ZipON () { local i,j,k,c
  for c=0,numcols-1 for col[c].ctt(&i) if(!ice(i)) {
    for col[c].ctt(&j) if(col[c].div[i][j]) {
      if(ice(j)) {
        for case(&k,AM2,NM2) col[c].wd0[i][j][k] /= EIRed
      } else {
        for case(&k,AM2,NM2) col[c].wd0[i][j][k] /= EERed
      }
    }
  }
}

//* ZipOFF - turn off zip - resets internal weights back up
proc ZipOFF () { local i,j,k,c
  for c=0,numcols-1 for col[c].ctt(&i) if(!ice(i)) {
    for col[c].ctt(&j) if(col[c].div[i][j]) {
      if(ice(j)) {
        for case(&k,AM2,NM2) col[c].wd0[i][j][k] *= EIRed
      } else {
        for case(&k,AM2,NM2) col[c].wd0[i][j][k] *= EERed
      }
    }
  }
}

//* InitZip
proc InitZip () {
  if(EERed!=1 || EIRed!=1) {
    cvode.event(ZipONT,"ZipON()")
    if(ZipOFFT > 0)  cvode.event(ZipOFFT,"ZipOFF()")
  }
}

//* setwmatex - set weights of external inputs to INTF6s
proc setwmatex () {  local ct,sy,c
  if(dosetexvals) {
    for c=0,numcols-1 {
      for ct=0,CTYPi-1 for sy=0,STYPi-1 wmatex[c][ct][sy]=0
      for ct=0,CTYPi-1 if(col[c].numc[ct]) {
        if(ct==DP || ct==ES) continue // no external 'noise' to DP, ES cells
        if(ice(ct)) {
          ratex[c][ct][AM2]=sgrhzEI
          ratex[c][ct][GA2]=ratex[c][ct][GA]=sgrhzII
        } else {
          ratex[c][ct][AM2]=sgrhzEE
          ratex[c][ct][GA2]=ratex[c][ct][GA]=sgrhzIE
        } 
        ratex[c][ct][NM2]=sgrhzNM
        if(IsLTS(ct)) {
          wmatex[c][ct][AM2] = 0.2
          wmatex[c][ct][NM2] = 0.025
          wmatex[c][ct][GA]=wmatex[c][ct][GA2]=0.125
        } else if(ice(ct)) {
          wmatex[c][ct][NM2] = 0.100   
          wmatex[c][ct][AM2] = 0.275 
          wmatex[c][ct][GA]=wmatex[c][ct][GA2]=0.125
        } else if(ct==EM) {
          wmatex[c][ct][NM2] = 0.05 * 1.0
          wmatex[c][ct][AM2] = 0.25 * 1.05
          wmatex[c][ct][GA]=wmatex[c][ct][GA2]=0.125
        } else {
          wmatex[c][ct][NM2] = 0.05   
          wmatex[c][ct][AM2] = 0.25 
          wmatex[c][ct][GA]=wmatex[c][ct][GA2]=0.125
        }
        for sy=0,STYPi-1 wmatex[c][ct][sy] *= EXGain // apply gain control
      }
      {wmatex[c][EM][AM2] *= EMWEXGain  wmatex[c][EM][NM2] *= EMWEXGain}
      {ratex[c][EM][AM2] *=EMREXGain  ratex[c][EM][NM2] *=EMREXGain}
      nqsdel(nqwmex[c]) nqwmex[c]=new NQS("ct","sy","w","rate")
      for ct=0,CTYPi-1 for sy=0,STYPi-1 if(wmatex[c][ct][sy]) nqwmex[c].append(ct,sy,wmatex[c][ct][sy],ratex[c][ct][sy])
    }
  }
}

proc rewt () {} // nothing needs to be done since copy directly into wd0[][][]

//* setcstim - set external inputs to COLUMNs using CSTIM
proc setcstim () { local i,seed
  for i=0,lcol.count-1 {
    print i
    if(dbgcols)seed=inputseed else seed=(i+1)*inputseed
    lcstim.append(new CSTIM(lcol.o(i),seed,sgrdur,sgrhzdel,EIBalance[i],usens))
    lcstim.o(lcstim.count-1).setwm(nqwmex[i])
    lcstim.o(lcstim.count-1).setspks()
  }
  print "set external inputs"
}

//* clrshock -- clear all shock params and actual shocks
proc clrshock () { local i,j,k,l
  for i=0,numcols-1 for j=0,CTYPi-1 for k=0,STYPi-1 for l=0,MAXSHOCK-1 {
    wshock[i][j][k][l]=durshock[i][j][k][l]=prctshock[i][j][k][l]=nshock[i][j][k][l]=isishock[i][j][k][l]=startshock[i][j][k][l]=0
  }
  setshock(1)
}

//* setshockp(celltype,column,synapsetype,weight,starttime,prctcells,nshocks,isi,dur,shocknum)
proc setshockp () { local i,x,cty,col,syty,wt,tm,prct,ns,isi,dur,shockn
  cty=$1 col=$2 syty=$3 wt=$4 tm=$5 prct=$6 ns=$7 isi=$8 dur=$9 shockn=$10
  wshock[col][cty][syty][shockn] = wt
  durshock[col][cty][syty][shockn] = dur
  prctshock[col][cty][syty][shockn] = prct
  nshock[col][cty][syty][shockn] = ns
  isishock[col][cty][syty][shockn] = isi
  startshock[col][cty][syty][shockn] = tm
}

//* setshock([clear vq first]) - set stims using shock matrices , NB: DEFAULT IS TO CLEAR vq FIRST
proc setshock () { local clr,i,j,k,l,tt,set,ns
  if(numarg()>0) clr=$1 else clr=1
  for i=0,numcols-1 for ns=0,1 {
    set=0 // whether setting new spikes
    if(clr) {col[i].cstim.vq.clear() col[i].ce.o(0).clrvspks()} // clear shocks to this column?
    for j=0,CTYPi-1 for k=0,STYPi-1 if(wshock[i][j][k][ns]>0 && nshock[i][j][k][ns]>0) {
      set = 1
      tt = startshock[i][j][k][ns] // time
      for l=0,nshock[i][j][k][ns]-1 {
        col[i].cstim.shock(durshock[i][j][k][ns],prctshock[i][j][k][ns],j,tt,9342*(i+1)*(j+1)*(k+1)*(l+1),k,wshock[i][j][k][ns]) 
        tt += isishock[i][j][k][ns] // inc by ISI
      }
    }
    if(set) {
      col[i].cstim.pushspks()
      print col[i].cstim.vq.size(-1)
    }
  }
}

//* trainsig(isi,signal number,weight,ty,dur,prct[,clear]) - setup training signal
proc trainsig () { local i,numshocks,isi,clr,w,ty,dur,prct,sy
  if(numarg()>7) clr=$8 else clr=0
  if(clr) clrshock()
  isi=$1
  numshocks = (plastendT_INTF6 - plaststartT_INTF6) / isi
  w=$3 ty=$4 dur=$5 prct=$6 sy=$7
  for i=0,numcols-1 setshockp(ty,i,sy,w,plaststartT_INTF6,prct,numshocks,isi,dur,$2)
  setshock(0)
}

//* wrex2nq(col) - return an NQS with external input info
obfunc wrex2nq () { local i,sy,r,w,row,a localobj enq,col,nsl,ncl,nc,vsy,vm
  a=allocvecs(vsy,vm) vsy.append(GA,GA2,AM2,NM2) vm.append(0,0,1,0,3,4,2)
  col=$o1 ncl=col.cstim.ncl nsl=col.cstim.nsl
  enq = new NQS("id","wGA","wGA2","wAM2","wNM2","rGA","rGA2","rAM2","rNM2","bal")
  if(col.allcells<2) {
    dealloc(a)
    return enq
  }
  enq.v.indgen(0,col.allcells-1,1)
  enq.pad()
  for i=1,enq.m-1 enq.v[i].fill(0)
  for ltr(nc,ncl,&i) {
    row = nc.syn.id
    for vtr(&sy,vsy) if(nc.weight(sy)) {
      w = enq.v[vm.x(sy)].x(row) = nc.weight(sy)
      r = enq.v[vm.x(sy)+4].x(row) = 1e3/nsl.o(i).interval
      if(sy==AM2 || sy==NM2) {
        enq.v[9].x(row) += r*w
      } else {
        enq.v[9].x(row) -= r*w
      }
      break
    }
  }
  dealloc(a)
  return enq
}

//* nq2wrex(enq,col) - sets external weight/rate params based on NQS
proc nq2wrex () { local i,sy,row,a localobj enq,col,nsl,ncl,nc,vsy,vm
  a=allocvecs(vsy,vm) vsy.append(GA,GA2,AM2,NM2) vm.append(0,0,1,0,3,4,2)
  enq = $o1 col=$o2 ncl=col.cstim.ncl nsl=col.cstim.nsl
  if(enq.v.size<1) return
  for ltr(nc,ncl,&i) {
    row = nc.syn.id
    for vtr(&sy,vsy) if(nc.weight(sy)) {
      nc.weight(sy) = enq.v[vm.x(sy)].x(row) 
      nsl.o(i).interval = 1e3 / enq.v[vm.x(sy)+4].x(row) 
      break
    }
  }
  dealloc(a)
}

//* updateEX
proc updateEX () { local i,j localobj co
  print "updateEX at t = ", t
  for ltr(co,lcol,&i) {
    for j=1,4 nqwrex[i].v[j].mul(EXFctr)
    nq2wrex(nqwrex[i],col[i])
  }
  cvode.event(t+EXDT,"updateEX()") // set next update weights event
}

//* mysendex - starts off the update EX q
proc mysendex () { local i,sz localobj xo,co
  for ltr(co,lcol,&i) {
    nqsdel(nqwrex[i])
    nqwrex[i] = wrex2nq(col[i])
  }
  cvode.event(EXRedStartT,"updateEX()") 
}

//* sethandlers - setup runtime events, if needed
proc sethandlers () {
  // sets up modulation events to ModType, only matters if ModGain != 1 (supposed to be < 1 for damage)
  // fid = new FInitializeHandler(1,"InitModulation()") 
  // sets up Zip, if applicable (only iff EERed !=1 or EIRed != 1)
  zid = new FInitializeHandler(1,"InitZip()") 
  if(dosendex) fix=new FInitializeHandler("mysendex()")
}

//* func calls

setwmatex() // sets params for poisson inputs

if (!jcn) rjinet() //means no jitcon

setcstim() // creates poisson inputs

if(TrainW>0 && TrainISI>0) {
  trainsig(TrainISI,0,TrainW,TrainTY,TrainDUR,TrainPRCT,TrainSY)//optional training signal during plasticity period
}

sethandlers() // for events during run

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