Granule Cells of the Olfactory Bulb (Simoes_De_Souza et al. 2014)

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Electrical responses of three classes of granule cells of the olfactory bulb to synaptic activation in different dendritic locations. The constructed models were based on morphological detailed compartmental reconstructions of three granule cell classes of the olfactory bulb with active dendrites described by Bhalla and Bower (J. Neurophysiol. 69: 1948-1965, 1993) and dendritic spine distributions described by Woolf et al. (J. Neurosci. 11: 1837-1854, 1991). The computational studies with the model neurons showed that different quantities of spines have to be activated in each dendritic region to induce an action potential, which always was originated in the active terminal dendrites, independently of the location of the stimuli and the morphology of the dendritic tree.
1 . Bhalla US, Bower JM (1993) Exploring parameter space in detailed single neuron models: simulations of the mitral and granule cells of the olfactory bulb. J Neurophysiol 69:1948-65 [PubMed]
2 . Woolf TB, Shepherd GM, Greer CA (1991) Local information processing in dendritic trees: subsets of spines in granule cells of the mammalian olfactory bulb. J Neurosci 11(6):1837-54 [PubMed]
3 . Simoes_De_Souza FM, Antunes G, Roque AC (2014) Electrical responses of three classes of Granule Neurons of the Olfactory Bulb to synaptic Inputs in Different Dendritic Locations Front. Comput. Neurosci. 8:128
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Neuron or other electrically excitable cell;
Brain Region(s)/Organism:
Cell Type(s): Olfactory bulb main interneuron granule MC cell; Olfactory bulb main interneuron granule TC cell;
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): AMPA; NMDA;
Simulation Environment: GENESIS;
Model Concept(s): Dendritic Action Potentials; Active Dendrites; Synaptic Integration; Olfaction;
Implementer(s): Simoes-de-Souza, Fabio [fabio.souza at];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Olfactory bulb main interneuron granule MC cell; Olfactory bulb main interneuron granule TC cell; AMPA; NMDA;
This is a simulation of the electrical responses of three classes of
granule cells of the olfactory bulb to synaptic inputs

Start GENESIS simulator. 
On the command line type:
Frontiers_granI.g =>to start the type I granule cell.
Frontiers_granII.g =>to start the type II granule cell.
Frontiers_granIII.g =>to start the type III granule cell.

For Frontiers_gran(#).g you will see four panels: 
Panel 1: Control panel
Panel 2: NMDA and AMPA receptor conductances in the stimulated spine 
Panel 3: Membrane potential in the soma and dendritic trunk 
Panel 4: full representation of the cell

On the panel 1, click on the STIM button to start a simulation that
stimulates the AMPA and NMDA receptors in the spines of the tip of the
apical dendrites. You can also just inject a current in the soma by
changing the Injection value (for instance 1e-10) and clicking on the
RUN button. dt stands for the simulation time step, and Tmax stands
for the maximum simulation time.

On the panel 4, type the "<" and ">" keys to zoom out and in, and use
the arrows to move the cell around. Use the key "p" to see the cell in
perspective. Pseudocolor code represents the membrane potential of the
compartments. "Hot" colors mean depolarization and "Cold" colors mean

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