Long time windows from theta modulated inhib. in entorhinal–hippo. loop (Cutsuridis & Poirazi 2015)

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Accession:181967
"A recent experimental study (Mizuseki et al., 2009) has shown that the temporal delays between population activities in successive entorhinal and hippocampal anatomical stages are longer (about 70–80 ms) than expected from axon conduction velocities and passive synaptic integration of feed-forward excitatory inputs. We investigate via computer simulations the mechanisms that give rise to such long temporal delays in the hippocampus structures. ... The model shows that the experimentally reported long temporal delays in the DG, CA3 and CA1 hippocampal regions are due to theta modulated somatic and axonic inhibition..."
Reference:
1 . Cutsuridis V, Poirazi P (2015) A computational study on how theta modulated inhibition can account for the long temporal windows in the entorhinal-hippocampal loop. Neurobiol Learn Mem 120:69-83 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism:
Cell Type(s): Dentate gyrus granule GLU cell; Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 interneuron basket GABA cell; Dentate gyrus mossy cell; Dentate gyrus basket cell; Dentate gyrus hilar cell; Hippocampus CA1 basket cell; Hippocampus CA3 stratum oriens lacunosum-moleculare interneuron; Hippocampus CA1 bistratified cell; Hippocampus CA1 axo-axonic cell; Hippocampus CA3 axo-axonic cells;
Channel(s): I Na,t; I L high threshold; I N; I T low threshold; I A; I K; I M; I h; I K,Ca; I_AHP;
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): GabaA; AMPA; NMDA;
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s):
Simulation Environment: NEURON;
Model Concept(s): Pattern Recognition; Temporal Pattern Generation; Spatio-temporal Activity Patterns; Brain Rhythms; Storage/recall;
Implementer(s): Cutsuridis, Vassilis [vcutsuridis at gmail.com];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Dentate gyrus granule GLU cell; Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal GLU cell; Hippocampus CA3 interneuron basket GABA cell; GabaA; AMPA; NMDA; I Na,t; I L high threshold; I N; I T low threshold; I A; I K; I M; I h; I K,Ca; I_AHP;
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CutsuridisPoirazi2015
Results
Weights
readme.html
ANsyn.mod *
bgka.mod *
borgkm.mod *
burststim.mod
cacumm.mod *
cad.mod
cadiv.mod *
cagk.mod
cagk2.mod
cagk3.mod
cal.mod *
cal1.mod
cal2.mod
calH.mod *
can2.mod *
can3.mod
car.mod *
cat.mod *
cat2.mod
cat3.mod
ccanl.mod *
distr.mod *
gskch.mod *
h.mod *
h2.mod
hha_old.mod *
hha2.mod *
hNa.mod *
hyperde3.mod *
IA.mod *
ichan2.mod *
Ih.mod *
kad.mod *
kahp.mod *
KahpM95.mod *
kap.mod *
kaprox.mod
Kaxon.mod *
kca.mod *
kd.mod *
Kdend.mod *
kdr.mod *
kdrca1.mod *
km.mod *
km2.mod
Ksoma.mod *
LcaMig.mod *
my_exp2syn.mod *
na3n.mod *
Naaxon.mod *
Nadend.mod *
nahh.mod *
Nasoma.mod *
naxn.mod *
nca.mod *
nmda.mod *
regn_stim.mod *
somacar.mod *
BasketCell.hoc
burst_cell.hoc
CA1AAC.hoc
CA1BC.hoc
CA1BSC.hoc
CA1OLM.hoc
CA1PC.hoc
CA3AAC.hoc
CA3BC.hoc
CA3BSC.hoc
CA3OLM.hoc
CA3PC.hoc
GC.hoc
gui.ses
HC.hoc
MC.hoc
mosinit.hoc
network.hoc
OLM.hoc
ranstream.hoc *
rig.hoc
screenshot.png
stim_cell.hoc
                            
// Network cell template
// CA1PyramidalCell
// Geometry: 14 sections + axon
// Active properties: from Poirazi et al, Neuron 2003
// Adjusted to get more decrementing BPAP
// BPG & VCU, 2-1-09

begintemplate CA1PyramidalCell
public is_art
public init, topol, basic_shape, subsets, geom, biophys
public pre_list, connect2target

public soma, radTprox, radTmed, radTdist, lm_thick2, lm_medium2, lm_thin2
public lm_thick1, lm_medium1, lm_thin1, oriprox1, oridist1, oriprox2, oridist2
public axon
public all

objref pre_list

proc init() {
  topol()
  subsets()
  geom()
  biophys()
  geom_nseg()
  pre_list = new List()
  synapses()
}

create soma, oriprox1, oridist1, oriprox2, oridist2, axon, radTprox
create radTmed, radTdist, lm_thick2, lm_medium2, lm_thin2, lm_thick1, lm_medium1
create lm_thin1, radTprox_obl2, radTprox_obl1, radTdist_obl2, radTdist_obl1

proc topol() { local i
  connect oriprox1(0), soma(0)
  connect oridist1(0), oriprox1(1)
  connect oriprox2(0), soma(1)
  connect oridist2(0), oriprox2(1)
  connect axon(0), soma(0)
  connect radTprox(0), soma(1)
  connect radTmed(0), radTprox(1)
  connect radTdist(0), radTmed(1)
  connect lm_thick2(0), radTdist(1)
  connect lm_medium2(0), lm_thick2(1)
  connect lm_thin2(0), lm_medium2(1)
  connect lm_thick1(0), radTdist(1)
  connect lm_medium1(0), lm_thick1(1)
  connect lm_thin1(0), lm_medium1(1)
  connect radTprox_obl2(0), radTprox(1)
  connect radTprox_obl1(0), radTprox(1)
  connect radTdist_obl2(0), radTmed(1)
  connect radTdist_obl1(0), radTmed(1)
  basic_shape()
}
proc basic_shape() {
  soma {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(0, 0, 0, 1) pt3dadd(15, 0, 0, 1)}
  oriprox1 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(0, 0, 0, 1) pt3dadd(-14, -14, 0, 1)}
  oridist1 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(-14, -14, 0, 1) pt3dadd(-44, -29, 0, 1)}
  oriprox2 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(15, 0, 0, 1) pt3dadd(30, -14, 0, 1)}
  oridist2 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(30, -14, 0, 1) pt3dadd(60, -29, 0, 1)}
  axon {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(0, 0, 0, 1) pt3dadd(0, -89, 0, 1)}
  radTprox {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(15, 0, 0, 1) pt3dadd(15, 30, 0, 1)}
  radTmed {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(15, 30, 0, 1) pt3dadd(15, 60, 0, 1)}
  radTdist {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(15, 60, 0, 1) pt3dadd(15, 90, 0, 1)}
  lm_thick2 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(15, 90, 0, 1) pt3dadd(30, 105, 0, 1)}
  lm_medium2 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(30, 105, 0, 1) pt3dadd(45, 120, 0, 1)}
  lm_thin2 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(45, 120, 0, 1) pt3dadd(60, 135, 0, 1)}
  lm_thick1 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(15, 90, 0, 1) pt3dadd(0, 105, 0, 1)}
  lm_medium1 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(0, 105, 0, 1) pt3dadd(-14, 120, 0, 1)}
  lm_thin1 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(-14, 120, 0, 1) pt3dadd(-29, 135, 0, 1)}
  radTprox_obl2 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(15, 30, 0, 1) pt3dadd(45, 45, 0, 1)}
  radTprox_obl1 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(15, 30, 0, 1) pt3dadd(-14, 45, 0, 1)}
  radTdist_obl2 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(15, 60, 0, 1) pt3dadd(30, 75, 0, 1)}
  radTdist_obl1 {pt3dclear() pt3dadd(15, 60, 0, 1) pt3dadd(-14, 90, 0, 1)}
}

objref all
proc subsets() { local i
  objref all
  all = new SectionList()
    soma all.append()
    oriprox1 all.append()
    oridist1 all.append()
    oriprox2 all.append()
    oridist2 all.append()
    axon all.append()
    radTprox all.append()
    radTmed all.append()
    radTdist all.append()
    lm_thick2 all.append()
    lm_medium2 all.append()
    lm_thin2 all.append()
    lm_thick1 all.append()
    lm_medium1 all.append()
    lm_thin1 all.append()
    radTprox_obl2 all.append()
    radTprox_obl1 all.append()
    radTdist_obl2 all.append()
    radTdist_obl1 all.append()
}

proc geom() {
  soma {  L = 10  diam = 10  }
  // SR is first 500um of apical dendrite
  radTprox {  L = 100  diam = 4  }	// L = 100  diam = 4
  radTmed {  L = 100  diam = 3  }	// L = 100  diam = 3
  radTdist {  L = 200  diam = 2  }	// L = 200  diam = 2
  radTprox_obl1 {  L = 100  diam = 4  }
  radTprox_obl2 {  L = 100  diam = 4  }  
  radTdist_obl1 {  L = 100  diam = 2  }
  radTdist_obl2 {  L = 100  diam = 2  }
  // LM is final 300um of apical dendrite
  lm_thick2 {  L = 100  diam = 2  }	// L = 100  diam = 2
  lm_medium2 {  L = 100  diam = 1.5  }
  lm_thin2 {  L = 50  diam = 1  }
  lm_thick1 {  L = 100  diam = 2  }	//  L = 100  diam = 2
  lm_medium1 {  L = 100  diam = 1.5  }
  lm_thin1 {  L = 50  diam = 1  }
  // Basal dendrites extend 300 um
  oriprox1 {  L = 100  diam = 2  }
  oridist1 {  L = 200  diam = 1.5  }
  oriprox2 {  L = 100  diam = 2  }
  oridist2 {  L = 200  diam = 1.5  }
  // Short section of axon
  axon {  L = 150  diam = 1  }
}

external lambda_f
proc geom_nseg() {
  forsec all { nseg = int((L/(0.1*lambda_f(100))+.9)/2)*2 + 1  }
}

proc biophys() {
	forsec all {
//		Rm = 28000	// Ohm.cm^2 (Migliore value)
		Rm = 20000	// Ohm.cm^2 (Migliore value)
	
//		gka_soma = 0.0075
//		gka_soma = 0.005
		gka_soma = 0.0025
		gh_soma = 0.00005
	}

  	soma {  
 		insert hha2    	// HH mechanism with low threshold for Na spikes (-57 mV)
       		gnabar_hha2 = 0.007
       		gkbar_hha2  = 0.007/5
       		gl_hha2     = 0
       		el_hha2     = -70
        	
        	insert pas    			// leak conductance
        	g_pas =  1/Rm

        	insert hd2     			// h current according to Migliore et al. 2004 
//  		ghdbar_hd = 0
  		ghdbar_hd = gh_soma
  		vhalfl_hd = -73
  
  //		insert hNa			// h current according to Poirazi 2003
  //    	gbar_h  = 0.000043		// anything above 0.000043 gives hyperpolarizing oscillations
  //    	gbar_h  = 1.872e-5		
  //    	K_h     = 8.8
  //    	vhalf_h = -82
  
        	insert kap  			// proximal A current
//        	gkabar_kap = 0.00075
        	gkabar_kap = gka_soma		//0.0075
  
        	insert km  			// m-type potassium current
        	gbar_km    = 0.06
             
        	insert cal 			// HVA Ca++-L type current
        	//gcalbar_cal = 0.014/2
        	gcalbar_cal = 0.0014/2
        	     	
        	insert cat 			// LVA Ca++-T type current
        	gcatbar_cat = 0.0001/2
  
              	insert somacar 			// HVAm Ca++-R type current
//             	gcabar_somacar = 0.003
              	gcabar_somacar = 0.0003
              	
              	insert kca   			// K(Ca) sAHP potassium type current
             	gbar_kca = 5*0.0001
//              	gbar_kca = 0
       		
       		insert cagk2  			// medium AHP K++ current 
       		gkbar_cagk2 = 0.09075
//       		gkbar_cagk2 = 0
           	       	
              	insert cad  			// calcium pump/buffering mechanism
  	}
  	
  	radTprox {
          	insert hd2     			// h current according to Migliore et al. 2004 
		ghdbar_hd = 2*gh_soma			//0.000005
//		ghdbar_hd = 7*gh_soma			//0.000005						
		vhalfl_hd = -81

//		insert hNa			// h current according to Poirazi 2003
//          	gbar_h  = 0.000043		// anything above 0.000043 gives hyperpolarizing oscillations
//         	gbar_h  = 1.872e-5		
//            	K_h     = 8.8
//            	vhalf_h = -82

		insert car
		gcabar_car = 0.1*0.0003
		
		insert calH
		gcalbar_calH = 0.1*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
//		gcalbar_calH = 4.6*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
		
		insert cat
		gcatbar_cat = 0.0001
 
		insert cad			// calcium pump/buffering mechanism
		insert kca			// slow AHP K+ current
		gbar_kca = 5*0.0001		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
//		gbar_kca = 0		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
       		
       		insert cagk2  			// medium AHP K++ current 
     		gkbar_cagk2 = 2*0.0165
//	       	gkbar_cagk2 = 0
		
		insert km			// m-type K current
		gbar_km = 0.06			// varies with distance (see Poirazzi et al. 2003 cell-setup.hoc file)

          	insert kap               	// Inserting A-current
   		gkabar_kap = 2*gka_soma		//0.0075
//   		gkabar_kap = 0.00075			//0.0075
   		
   		insert kad
//    		gkabar_kad = 0.00075
   		gkabar_kad = 6*gka_soma
   		   
          	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
                    
          	insert pas 			// leak conductance
  	}
  
    	radTprox_obl1 {
            	insert hd2     			// h current according to Migliore et al. 2004 
  		ghdbar_hd = 2*gh_soma			//0.000005						
  		vhalfl_hd = -81
  
  //		insert hNa			// h current according to Poirazi 2003
  //          	gbar_h  = 0.000043		// anything above 0.000043 gives hyperpolarizing oscillations
  //         	gbar_h  = 1.872e-5		
  //            K_h     = 8.8
  //            vhalf_h = -82
  
  		insert car
  		gcabar_car = 0.1*0.0003
  		
   		insert calH
  		gcalbar_calH = 0.1*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
  		
  		insert cat
  		gcatbar_cat = 0.0001
   
  		insert cad			// calcium pump/buffering mechanism
  		insert kca			// slow AHP K+ current
  		gbar_kca = 5*0.0001		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
//  		gbar_kca = 0		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
         		
         	insert cagk2  			// medium AHP K++ current 
         	gkbar_cagk2 = 2*0.0165
//         	gkbar_cagk2 = 0
  		
  		insert km			// m-type K current
  		gbar_km = 0.06			// varies with distance (see Poirazzi et al. 2003 cell-setup.hoc file)
  
            	insert kap               	// Inserting A-current
     		gkabar_kap = 2*gka_soma		//0.0075
//     		gkabar_kap = 0.00075
     		
     		insert kad
//    		gkabar_kad = 0.00075
   		gkabar_kad = 2*gka_soma
     		   
            	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                  gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                  gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                  el_hha_old     = -70
                      
            	insert pas 			// leak conductance
  	}
 
   	radTprox_obl2 {
           	insert hd2     			// h current according to Migliore et al. 2004 
 		ghdbar_hd = 2*gh_soma			//0.000005						
 		vhalfl_hd = -81
 
 //		insert hNa			// h current according to Poirazi 2003
 //          	gbar_h  = 0.000043		// anything above 0.000043 gives hyperpolarizing oscillations
 //         	gbar_h  = 1.872e-5		
 //            	K_h     = 8.8
 //            	vhalf_h = -82
 
 		insert car
 		gcabar_car = 0.1*0.0003
 		
 		insert calH
// 		gcalbar_calH = 0.1*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
		gcalbar_calH = 10*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
 		
 		insert cat
 		gcatbar_cat = 0.0001
  
 		insert cad			// calcium pump/buffering mechanism
 		insert kca			// slow AHP K+ current
 		gbar_kca = 5*0.0001		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
// 		gbar_kca = 0		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
        		
        	insert cagk2  			// medium AHP K++ current 
        	gkbar_cagk2 = 2*0.0165
//        	gkbar_cagk2 = 0
 		
 		insert km			// m-type K current
 		gbar_km = 0.06			// varies with distance (see Poirazzi et al. 2003 cell-setup.hoc file)
 
           	insert kap               	// Inserting A-current
    		gkabar_kap = 2*gka_soma		//0.0075
//    		gkabar_kap = 0.00075
    		
    		insert kad
//    		gkabar_kad = 0.00075
   		gkabar_kad = 2*gka_soma
    		   
           	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                 gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                 gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                 el_hha_old     = -70
                     
           	insert pas 			// leak conductance
  	}
  	
  	radTmed {
            	insert hd2     			// h current according to Migliore et al. 2004 
		ghdbar_hd = 4*gh_soma			// 0.000005
//		ghdbar_hd = 7*gh_soma			// 0.000005					
		vhalfl_hd = -81

//		insert hNa			// h current according to Poirazi 2003
//          	gbar_h  = 0.000043		
//         	gbar_h  = 1.872e-5		
//            	K_h     = 8.8
//            	vhalf_h = -82

		insert car			// HVAm Ca++-R type current
		gcabar_car = 0.1*0.0003
		
		insert calH			// HVA L-type Ca2+ channel used in distal dendrites to account for 
						// distally restricted initiation of Ca2+ spikes
//		gcalbar_calH = 4.6*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
		gcalbar_calH = 10*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
		
		insert cat			// HVA T-type Ca2+ channel 
		gcatbar_cat = 0.0001		// 0.0001
 
		insert cad			// calcium pump/buffering mechanism
		
		insert kca			// slow AHP K+ current
		gbar_kca = 5*0.0001		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
//		gbar_kca = 0		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
       		
       		insert cagk2  			// medium AHP K++ current 
       		gkbar_cagk2 = 2*0.0165
//       		gkbar_cagk2 = 0

		insert km			// m-type K current
		gbar_km = 0.06			// varies with distance (see Poirazzi et al. 2003 cell-setup.hoc file)

          	insert kap               	// Inserting A-current
   		gkabar_kap = 0
   		
   		insert kad
   		gkabar_kad = 4*gka_soma
//   		gkabar_kad = 0.00075
   		   
          	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
                    
          	insert pas 			// leak conductance
  	}
  	
  	radTdist {
            	insert hd2     			// h current according to Migliore et al. 2004 
		ghdbar_hd = 7*gh_soma			// 0.000005					
		vhalfl_hd = -81

//		insert hNa			// h current according to Poirazi 2003
//          	gbar_h  = 0.000043		
//         	gbar_h  = 1.872e-5		
//            	K_h     = 8.8
//            	vhalf_h = -82

		insert car
		gcabar_car = 0.1*0.0003
		
		insert calH
//		gcalbar_calH = 4.6*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
		gcalbar_calH = 10*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
		
		insert cat
		gcatbar_cat = 0.0001
 
		insert cad			// calcium pump/buffering mechanism
		insert kca			// slow AHP K+ current
		gbar_kca = 0.5*0.0001		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
//		gbar_kca = 0		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
       		
       		insert cagk2  			// medium AHP K++ current 
       		gkbar_cagk2 = 0

		insert km			// m-type K current
		gbar_km = 0.06			// varies with distance (see Poirazzi et al. 2003 cell-setup.hoc file)

          	insert kap               	// Inserting A-current
   		gkabar_kap = 0	
 		
 		insert kad
     		gkabar_kad = 6*gka_soma
//     		gkabar_kad = 0.00075
   		  
          	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
                    
          	insert pas 			// leak conductance
  	}
  
    	radTdist_obl1 {
              	insert hd2     			// h current according to Migliore et al. 2004 
  		ghdbar_hd = 7*gh_soma			// 0.000005					
  		vhalfl_hd = -81
  
  //		insert hNa			// h current according to Poirazi 2003
  //          	gbar_h  = 0.000043		
  //         	gbar_h  = 1.872e-5		
  //            K_h     = 8.8
  //            vhalf_h = -82
  
  		insert car
  		gcabar_car = 0.1*0.0003
  		
  		insert calH
//  		gcalbar_calH = 4.6*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
  		gcalbar_calH = 10*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
  		
  		insert cat
  		gcatbar_cat = 0.0001
   
  		insert cad			// calcium pump/buffering mechanism
  		insert kca			// slow AHP K+ current
  		gbar_kca = 0.5*0.0001		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
//  		gbar_kca = 0		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
         		
         	insert cagk2  			// medium AHP K++ current 
         	gkbar_cagk2 = 0.25*0.0165
//         	gkbar_cagk2 = 0
  
  		insert km			// m-type K current
  		gbar_km = 0.06			// varies with distance (see Poirazzi et al. 2003 cell-setup.hoc file)
  
            	insert kap               	// Inserting A-current
     		gkabar_kap = 0	
   		
   		insert kad
     		gkabar_kad = 6*gka_soma
//     		gkabar_kad = 0.00075
     		  
            	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                  gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                  gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                  el_hha_old     = -70
                      
            	insert pas 			// leak conductance
  	}
  
    	radTdist_obl2 {
              	insert hd2     			// h current according to Migliore et al. 2004 
  		ghdbar_hd = 7*gh_soma			// 0.000005					
  		vhalfl_hd = -81
  
  //		insert hNa			// h current according to Poirazi 2003
  //          	gbar_h  = 0.000043		
  //         	gbar_h  = 1.872e-5		
  //            K_h     = 8.8
  //            vhalf_h = -82
  
  		insert car
  		gcabar_car = 0.1*0.0003
  		
  		insert calH
//  		gcalbar_calH = 4.6*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
  		gcalbar_calH = 10*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
  		
  		insert cat
  		gcatbar_cat = 0.0001
   
  		insert cad			// calcium pump/buffering mechanism
  		insert kca			// slow AHP K+ current
  		gbar_kca = 0.5*0.0001		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
//  		gbar_kca = 0		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
         		
         	insert cagk2  			// medium AHP K++ current 
         	gkbar_cagk2 = 0.25*0.0165
//         	gkbar_cagk2 = 0
  
  		insert km			// m-type K current
  		gbar_km = 0.06			// varies with distance (see Poirazzi et al. 2003 cell-setup.hoc file)
  
            	insert kap               	// Inserting A-current
     		gkabar_kap = 0	
   		
   		insert kad
     		gkabar_kad = 6*gka_soma
//     		gkabar_kad = 0.00075
     		  
            	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                  gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                  gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                  el_hha_old     = -70
                      
            	insert pas 			// leak conductance
  	}
  	
  
  	lm_thick2 {
            	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
            	gl_hha_old     = 0
  
            	insert pas 			// passive properties
                g_pas          = 1/200000

            	insert kad 			// Insert basal A current
                gkabar_kad = 6.5*gka_soma
//                gkabar_kad = 0.00075
  	}
  	
  	lm_medium2 {
            	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
            	gl_hha_old     = 0
  
            	insert pas 			// passive properties
                g_pas          = 1/200000

            	insert kad 			// Insert basal A current
                gkabar_kad = 6.5*gka_soma
//                gkabar_kad = 0.00075
  	}
  
  	lm_thin2 {
            	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
            	gl_hha_old     = 0
  
            	insert pas 			// passive properties
                g_pas          = 1/200000

            	insert kad 			// Insert basal A current
                gkabar_kad = 6.5*gka_soma
//                gkabar_kad = 0.00075
  	}
  
  	lm_thick1 {
            	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
            	gl_hha_old     = 0
  
            	insert pas 			// passive properties
                g_pas          = 1/200000

            	insert kad 			// Insert basal A current
                gkabar_kad = 6.5*gka_soma
//                gkabar_kad = 0.00075
  	}
  
  	lm_medium1 {
            	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
            	gl_hha_old     = 0
  
            	insert pas 			// passive properties
                g_pas          = 1/200000

            	insert kad 			// Insert basal A current
                gkabar_kad = 6.5*gka_soma
//                gkabar_kad = 0.00075
  	}
  
  	lm_thin1 {
            	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
            	gl_hha_old     = 0
  
            	insert pas 			// passive properties
                g_pas          = 1/200000

            	insert kad 			// Insert basal A current
                gkabar_kad = 6.5*gka_soma
//                gkabar_kad = 0.00075
  	}
  
  	oriprox1 {
            	insert hd2     			// h current according to Migliore et al. 2004 
		ghdbar_hd = gh_soma
		vhalfl_hd = -81

//		insert hNa			// h current according to Poirazi 2003
//          	gbar_h  = 0.000043		// anything above 0.000043 gives hyperpolarizing oscillations
//         	gbar_h  = 1.872e-5		
//            	K_h     = 8.8
//            	vhalf_h = -82

		insert car
		gcabar_car = 0.1*0.0003
		
		insert calH
		gcalbar_calH = 0.1*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
		
		insert cat
		gcatbar_cat = 0.0001
 
		insert cad			// calcium pump/buffering mechanism
		insert kca			// slow AHP K+ current
		gbar_kca = 5*0.0001		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
       		
       		insert cagk2  			// medium AHP K++ current 
       		gkbar_cagk2 = 2*0.0165

		insert km			// m-type K current
		gbar_km = 0.06			// varies with distance (see Poirazzi et al. 2003 cell-setup.hoc file)

          	insert kap               	// Inserting A-current
   		gkabar_kap = gka_soma			//0.0075
//   		gkabar_kap = 0.00075
   		
   		insert kad
   		gkabar_kad = 0
    
          	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
                    
          	insert pas 			// leak conductance

  	}
  
  	oridist1 {
            	insert hd2     			// h current according to Migliore et al. 2004 
		ghdbar_hd = 2*gh_soma
		vhalfl_hd = -81

//		insert hNa			// h current according to Poirazi 2003
//          	gbar_h  = 0.000043		// anything above 0.000043 gives hyperpolarizing oscillations
//         	gbar_h  = 1.872e-5		
//            	K_h     = 8.8
//            	vhalf_h = -82

		insert car
		gcabar_car = 0.1*0.0003
		
		insert calH
		gcalbar_calH = 0.1*0.00031635	// varies from 4.6*0.00031635 to 0.1*0.00031635
		
		insert cat
		gcatbar_cat = 0.0001
 
		insert cad			// calcium pump/buffering mechanism
		insert kca			// slow AHP K+ current
		gbar_kca = 5*0.0001		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
       		
       		insert cagk2  			// medium AHP K++ current 
       		gkbar_cagk2 = 2*0.0165
		
		insert km			// m-type K current
		gbar_km = 0.06			// varies with distance (see Poirazzi et al. 2003 cell-setup.hoc file)

          	insert kap               	// Inserting A-current
   		gkabar_kap = gka_soma			//0.0075
//   		gkabar_kap = 0.00075
   		
   		insert kad
   		gkabar_kad = 0
   		   
          	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
                    
          	insert pas 			// leak conductance

  	}
  
  	oriprox2 {
            	insert hd2     			// h current according to Migliore et al. 2004 
		ghdbar_hd = gh_soma
		vhalfl_hd = -81

//		insert hNa			// h current according to Poirazi 2003
//          	gbar_h  = 0.000043		// anything above 0.000043 gives hyperpolarizing oscillations
//         	gbar_h  = 1.872e-5		
//            	K_h     = 8.8
//            	vhalf_h = -82

		insert car
		gcabar_car = 0.1*0.0003
		
		insert calH
		gcalbar_calH = 0.1*0.00031635	// varies from .1*0.00031635 to 4.6*0.00031635 as distance increases
		
		insert cat
		gcatbar_cat = 0.0001
 
		insert cad			// calcium pump/buffering mechanism
		insert kca			// slow AHP K+ current
		gbar_kca = 5*0.0001		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
       		
       		insert cagk2  			// medium AHP K++ current
       		gkbar_cagk2 = 2*0.0165

		insert km			// m-type K current
		gbar_km = 0.06			// varies with distance (see Poirazzi et al. 2003 cell-setup.hoc file)

          	insert kap               	// Inserting A-current
//   		gkabar_kap = 0.0075			//0.0075
   		gkabar_kap = 0.00075
   		
   		insert kad
   		gkabar_kad = 0
   
          	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
                    
          	insert pas 			// leak conductance
       	
  	}
  	
  	oridist2 {
            	insert hd2     			// h current according to Migliore et al. 2004 
		ghdbar_hd = 2*gh_soma
		vhalfl_hd = -81

//		insert hNa			// h current according to Poirazi 2003
//          	gbar_h  = 0.000043		// anything above 0.000043 gives hyperpolarizing oscillations
//         	gbar_h  = 1.872e-5		
//            	K_h     = 8.8
//            	vhalf_h = -82

		insert car
		gcabar_car = 0.1*0.0003
		
		insert calH
		gcalbar_calH = 0.1*0.00031635	// varies from 4.6*0.00031635 to 0.1*0.00031635
		
		insert cat
		gcatbar_cat = 0.0001
 
		insert cad			// calcium pump/buffering mechanism
		insert kca			// slow AHP K+ current
		gbar_kca = 5*0.0001		// varies depending on distance from 0.5*0.0001 to 5*0.0001
       		
       		insert cagk2  			// medium AHP K++ current
       		gkbar_cagk2 = 2*0.0165
		
		insert km			// m-type K current
		gbar_km = 0.06			// varies with distance (see Poirazzi et al. 2003 cell-setup.hoc file)

          	insert kap               	// Inserting A-current
//   		gkabar_kap = 0.0075			//0.0075
   		gkabar_kap = 0.00075
   		
   		insert kad
   		gkabar_kad = 0
   		   
          	insert hha_old 			// HH mechanism with high threshold for Na spikes (-50 mV)
                gnabar_hha_old = 0.007
                gkbar_hha_old  = 0.007/8.065
                el_hha_old     = -70
                    
          	insert pas 			// leak conductance
  	}
  
  	axon {
              	insert hha2  			// HH mechanism with low threshold for Na spikes (-57 mV)
              	gnabar_hha2 = .1
              	gkbar_hha2  = .1/5
              	gl_hha2     = 0
              	el_hha2     = -70
     
              	insert pas  			// leak conductance
              	g_pas       = 1/Rm

              	insert km  			// m-type potassium current
              	gbar_km     = 0.5*0.06
  	}
  	
  	forsec all {
		ek = -80
		ena = 50
		e_pas = -70
		g_pas = 1/Rm		
		Ra = 50
//		Ra = 100
//		Ra = 150
		cm = 1

  	}
}

obfunc connect2target() { localobj nc //$o1 target point process, optional $o2 returned NetCon
  soma nc = new NetCon(&v(1), $o1)
  nc.threshold = -10
  if (numarg() == 2) { $o2 = nc } // for backward compatibility
  return nc
}

objref syn_
proc synapses() {
  	/* E0 */   	lm_thick1 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.5)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input	*** DONT USE THIS ***
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E1 */   	lm_thick2 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.5)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input	*** DONT USE THIS ***
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E2 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.5)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	*** DONT USE THIS ***
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E3 */   	radTmed syn_ = new NMDA(0.5)  pre_list.append(syn_)		// NMDA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	*** DONT USE THIS ***
    	syn_.tcon = 2.3	
    	syn_.tcoff = 100
    	syn_.gNMDAmax = 1	// use connection weight to determine max cond
  	/* E4 */   	radTprox syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.5)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		PC recurrent input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* I5 */   	soma syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.5)  pre_list.append(syn_)		// GABA-A	B cell
    	syn_.tau1 = 1
    	syn_.tau2 = 8
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I6 */   	axon syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.1)  pre_list.append(syn_)		// GABA-A	AA cell
    	syn_.tau1 = 1
    	syn_.tau2 = 8
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I7 */	lm_thick1 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.5) pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-A	OLM cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 1
    	syn_.tau2 = 8
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I8 */	lm_thick2 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.5) pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-A	OLM cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 1
    	syn_.tau2 = 8
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I9 */	lm_thick1 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.5) pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-B	OLM cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 35
    	syn_.tau2 = 100
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I10 */	lm_thick2 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.5) pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-B	OLM cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 35
    	syn_.tau2 = 100
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I11 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.8)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-A	BS cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 1
    	syn_.tau2 = 8
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I12 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.7)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-A	BS cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 1
    	syn_.tau2 = 8
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I13 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.6)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-A	BS cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 1
    	syn_.tau2 = 8
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I14 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.4)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-A	BS cells
   	syn_.tau1 = 1
    	syn_.tau2 = 8
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I15 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.3)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-A	BS cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 1
    	syn_.tau2 = 8
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I16 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.2)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-A	BS cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 1
    	syn_.tau2 = 8
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I17 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.8)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-B	BS cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 35
    	syn_.tau2 = 100
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I18 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.7)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-B	BS cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 35
    	syn_.tau2 = 100
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I19 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.6)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-B	BS cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 35
    	syn_.tau2 = 100
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I20 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.4)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-B	BS cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 35
    	syn_.tau2 = 100
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I21 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.3)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-B	BS cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 35
    	syn_.tau2 = 100
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* I22 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.2)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// GABA-B	BS cells
    	syn_.tau1 = 35
    	syn_.tau2 = 100
    	syn_.e = -75
  	/* E23 */   	lm_thick1 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.1)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E24 */   	lm_thick2 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.1)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E25 */   	lm_thick1 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.2)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E26 */   	lm_thick2 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.2)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E27 */   	lm_thick1 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.3)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E28 */   	lm_thick2 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.3)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E29 */   	lm_thick1 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.4)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E30 */   	lm_thick2 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.4)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E31 */   	lm_thick1 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.5)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E32 */   	lm_thick2 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.5)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E33 */   	lm_thick1 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.6)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E34 */   	lm_thick2 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.6)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E35 */   	lm_thick1 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.7)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E36 */   	lm_thick2 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.7)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E37 */   	lm_thick1 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.8)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E38 */   	lm_thick2 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.8)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E39 */   	lm_thick1 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.9)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E40 */   	lm_thick2 syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.9)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		EC input
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E41 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.1)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E42 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.2)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E43 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.3)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E44 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.4)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E45 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.5)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E46 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.6)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E47 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.7)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E48 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.8)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0
  	/* E49 */   	radTmed syn_ = new MyExp2Syn(0.9)  pre_list.append(syn_)	// AMPA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tau1 = 0.5
    	syn_.tau2 = 3
    	syn_.e = 0

  	/* E50 */   	radTmed syn_ = new NMDA(0.2)  pre_list.append(syn_)		// NMDA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tcon = 2.3	
    	syn_.tcoff = 100
    	syn_.gNMDAmax = 1	// use connection weight to determine max cond

  	/* E51 */   	radTmed syn_ = new NMDA(0.4)  pre_list.append(syn_)		// NMDA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tcon = 2.3	
    	syn_.tcoff = 100
    	syn_.gNMDAmax = 1	// use connection weight to determine max cond

  	/* E52 */   	radTmed syn_ = new NMDA(0.5)  pre_list.append(syn_)		// NMDA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tcon = 2.3	
    	syn_.tcoff = 100
    	syn_.gNMDAmax = 1	// use connection weight to determine max cond

  	/* E53 */   	radTmed syn_ = new NMDA(0.6)  pre_list.append(syn_)		// NMDA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tcon = 2.3	
    	syn_.tcoff = 100
    	syn_.gNMDAmax = 1	// use connection weight to determine max cond

  	/* E54 */   	radTmed syn_ = new NMDA(0.8)  pre_list.append(syn_)		// NMDA		CA3 Schaffer collaterals	
    	syn_.tcon = 2.3	
    	syn_.tcoff = 100
    	syn_.gNMDAmax = 1	// use connection weight to determine max cond
    	
//  	/* E55 */   	lm_thick1 syn_ = new NMDA(0.5)  pre_list.append(syn_)		// NMDA		EC perforant path	
//    	syn_.tcon = 2.3	
//    	syn_.tcoff = 100
//    	syn_.gNMDAmax = 1	// use connection weight to determine max cond

//  	/* E56 */   	lm_thick2 syn_ = new NMDA(0.5)  pre_list.append(syn_)		// NMDA		EC perforant path	
//    	syn_.tcon = 2.3	
//    	syn_.tcoff = 100
//    	syn_.gNMDAmax = 1	// use connection weight to determine max cond

    	
}

func is_art() { return 0 }

endtemplate CA1PyramidalCell


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