Spine fusion and branching effects synaptic response (Rusakov et al 1996, 1997)

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Accession:18502
This compartmental model of a hippocampal granule cell has spinous synapses placed on the second-order dendrites. Changes in shape and connectivity of the spines usually does not effect the synaptic response of the cell unless active conductances are incorporated into the spine membrane (e.g. voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels). With active conductances, spines can generate spike-like events. We showed that changes like fusion and branching, or in fact any increase in the equivalent spine neck resistance, could trigger a dramatic increase in the spine's influence on the dendritic shaft potential.
References:
1 . Rusakov DA, Richter-Levin G, Stewart MG, Bliss TV (1997) Reduction in spine density associated with long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus suggests a spine fusion-and-branching model of potentiation. Hippocampus 7:489-500 [PubMed]
2 . Rusakov DA, Stewart MG, Korogod SM (1996) Branching of active dendritic spines as a mechanism for controlling synaptic efficacy. Neuroscience 75:315-23 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Synapse;
Brain Region(s)/Organism:
Cell Type(s): Dentate gyrus granule cell;
Channel(s): I Na,t; I K; I K,Ca; I Sodium; I Calcium; I Potassium;
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): AMPA; NMDA;
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s):
Simulation Environment: NEURON;
Model Concept(s): Dendritic Action Potentials; Active Dendrites; Influence of Dendritic Geometry; Detailed Neuronal Models; Synaptic Plasticity; Long-term Synaptic Plasticity;
Implementer(s): Rusakov, DA [D.Rusakov at ion.ucl.ac.uk];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Dentate gyrus granule cell; AMPA; NMDA; I Na,t; I K; I K,Ca; I Sodium; I Calcium; I Potassium;
: Calcium activated K channel.
: From Moczydlowski and Latorre (1983) J. Gen. Physiol. 82

UNITS {
	(molar) = (1/liter)
	(mV) =	(millivolt)
	(mA) =	(milliamp)
	(mM) =	(millimolar)
	FARADAY = (faraday)  (kilocoulombs)
	R = (k-mole) (joule/degC)
}

NEURON {
	SUFFIX cagk
	USEION ca READ cai
	USEION k READ ek WRITE ik
	RANGE gkbar
	GLOBAL oinf, tau
}

PARAMETER {
	celsius		(degC) : 20
	v		(mV)
	gkbar=.01	(mho/cm2)	: Maximum Permeability
	cai		(mM) : 1e-3
	ek		(mV)

	d1 = .84
	d2 = 1.
	k1 = .18	(mM)
	k2 = .011	(mM)
	bbar = .28	(/ms)
	abar = .48	(/ms)
}

ASSIGNED {
	ik		(mA/cm2)
	oinf
	tau		(ms)
}

STATE {	o }		: fraction of open channels

BREAKPOINT {
	SOLVE state METHOD cnexp
	ik = gkbar*o*(v - ek)
}

DERIVATIVE state {
	rate(v, cai)
	o' = (oinf - o)/tau
}

INITIAL {
	rate(v, cai)
	o = oinf
}

FUNCTION alp(v (mV), ca (mM)) (1/ms) { :callable from hoc
	alp = abar/(1 + exp1(k1,d1,v)/ca)
}

FUNCTION bet(v (mV), ca (mM)) (1/ms) { :callable from hoc
	bet = bbar/(1 + ca/exp1(k2,d2,v))
}

FUNCTION exp1(k (mM), d, v (mV)) (mM) { :callable from hoc
	exp1 = k*exp(-2*d*FARADAY*v/R/(273.15 + celsius))
}

PROCEDURE rate(v (mV), ca (mM)) { :callable from hoc
	LOCAL a
	a = alp(v,ca)
	tau = 1/(a + bet(v, ca))
	oinf = a*tau
}

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