Parallel network simulations with NEURON (Migliore et al 2006)

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Accession:64229
The NEURON simulation environment has been extended to support parallel network simulations. The performance of three published network models with very different spike patterns exhibits superlinear speedup on Beowulf clusters.
Reference:
1 . Migliore M, Cannia C, Lytton WW, Markram H, Hines ML (2006) Parallel Network Simulations with NEURON. J Comp Neurosci 21:110-119 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism:
Cell Type(s):
Channel(s):
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s):
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s):
Simulation Environment: NEURON;
Model Concept(s): Methods;
Implementer(s): Hines, Michael [Michael.Hines at Yale.edu];
/
netmod
parscalebush
AMPA.mod *
arhRT03.mod *
cadecay.mod
cadRT03.mod
cah.mod
calRT03.mod
catRT03.mod *
GABAa.mod *
GABAb.mod *
intf.mod
k2RT03.mod *
kahpRT03.mod
kaRT03.mod *
kca.mod *
kcRT03.mod
kdr.mod
kdrp.mod
kdrRT03.mod *
kmRT03.mod *
misc.mod
myfit.mod
na.mod
nafRT03.mod *
nap.mod
napRT03.mod *
NMDA.mod *
nstim.mod
stats.mod
vecst.mod
batch.hoc
bg
bg_cvode.inc
boltz_cvode.inc
geneval_cvode.inc
geom.hoc
init.hoc
netcon.inc
network.hoc
nqsnet.hoc
nspike.dat
params.hoc
parnetwork.hoc
parnqsnet.hoc
perfrun.hoc
prebatch_.hoc
run.hoc
spkplt.hoc *
x_vs_nspike.hoc
                            
: $Id: vecst.mod,v 1.5 2006/02/14 13:11:29 hines Exp $
 
:* COMMENT
COMMENT
thresh   turns analog vec to BVBASE,1 vec separating at thresh (scalar or vec)
triplet  return location of a triplet in a vector
onoff    turns state vec on or off depending on values in other vecs
bpeval   used by backprop: vo=outp*(1-outp)*del
w        like where but sets chosen nums // modified from .wh in 1.23
dest.xing(src,tvec,thresh) determines where vector crosses in a positive direction 
src.updown(thresh,destlist) determines crossings in both directions+peaks
dest.snap(src,tvec,dt) interpolate src with tvec to prior dt step, saves only highest value
xzero    count 0 crossings by putting in a 1 or -1
negwrap  wrap negative values around to pos (with flag just set to 0)
indset(ind,val) sets spots indexed by ind to val
ismono([arg]) checks if a vector is monotonically increaseing (-1 decreasing)
count(num) count the number of nums in vec
scr.fewind(ind,veclist) // uses ind as index into other vecs
ind.findx(vecAlist,vecBlist) // uses ind as index into vecA's to load in vecB's
ind.sindx(vecAlist,vecBlist) // replace ind elements in vecA's with vecB's values
ind.sindv(vecAlist,valvec) // replace ind elements in vecA's with vals
scr.nind(ind,vec1,vec2[,vec3,vec4]) // uses ind to elim elems in other vecs
ind.keyind(key,vec1,vec2[,vec3,vec4]) // pick out bzw. values from vectors
ind.slct(key,args,veclist) // pick out bzw. values from vectors
ind.slor(key,args,veclist) // do OR rather than AND function of slct
vdest.intrp(flag) // interpolate numbers replacing numbers given as flag
v.insct(v1,v2)   // return v1 intersect v2
vdest.cull(vsrc,key)   // remove values found in key
vdest.redundout(vsrc[,INDFLAG])  // remove repeat values, with flag return indices
ind.mredundout(veclistA[,INDFLAG,veclistB]) // remove repeats from parallel vectors
v.cvlv(v1,v2)   // convolve v1 with v2
v2d      copy into a double block
d2v      copy out of a double block NB: same as vec.from_double()
smgs     rewrite of sumgauss form ivovect.cpp
smsy     sum syn potentials off a tvec
iwr      write integers
ird      read integers
ident     give pointer addresses and sizes
lcat     concatentate all vectors from a list
fread2   like vec.fread but uses flag==6 for unsigned int
vfill    fill vdest with multiple instances of vsrc until reach size
inv    return inverse of number multiplied by optional num
slone(src,val) select indices where ==VAL from sorted vector SRC
piva.join(pivb,veclista,veclistb) copies values from one set of vecs to other
Non-vector routines
isojt    compare 2 objects to see if they're of the same type
eqojt    compare 2 object pointers to see if they point to same thing
sumabs   return sum of absolute values
rnd    round off to nearest integer
ENDCOMMENT

NEURON {
  SUFFIX nothing
  : BVBASE is bit vector base number (typically 0 or -1)
  GLOBAL BVBASE, RES, VECST_INSTALLED, SHM_UPDOWN, DEBUG_VECST
}

PARAMETER {
  BVBASE = -1.
  VECST_INSTALLED=0
  DEBUG_VECST=0
  : misc
  ERR=-1.3479e121

  : 0 args
  ALL=-1.3479e120
  NEG=-1.3478e120
  POS=-1.3477e120
  CHK=-1.3476e120
  NOZ=-1.3475e120
  : 1 arg
  GTH=-1.3474e120
  GTE=-1.3473e120
  LTH=-1.3472e120
  LTE=-1.3471e120
  EQU=-1.3470e120
  EQV=-1.3469e120 : value equal to same row value in parallel vector
  EQW=-1.3468e120 : value found in other vector
  NEQ=-1.3467e120
  SEQ=-1.3466e120
  RXP=-1.3465e120
  : 2 args
  IBE=-1.3464e120
  EBI=-1.3463e120
  IBI=-1.3462e120
  EBE=-1.3461e120

  SHM_UPDOWN=4   : used in updown() for measuring sharpness
}

ASSIGNED { RES }

VERBATIM
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>
// #include <values.h> // contains MAXLONG 
#include <limits.h> // contains MAXLONG
#include <sys/time.h> 
extern double* hoc_pgetarg();
extern double hoc_call_func(Symbol*, int narg);
extern FILE* hoc_obj_file_arg(int narg);
extern Object** hoc_objgetarg();
extern void vector_resize();
extern int vector_instance_px();
extern void* vector_arg();
extern double* vector_vec();
extern double hoc_epsilon;
extern double chkarg();
extern void set_seed();
extern int ivoc_list_count(Object*);
extern Object* ivoc_list_item(Object*, int);
extern int hoc_is_double_arg(int narg);
extern char* hoc_object_name(Object*);
static int ismono1();
int list_vector_px();
int list_vector_px2();
int list_vector_resize();
static double sc[6];
static void hxe() { hoc_execerror("",0); }

typedef struct BVEC {
 int size;
 int bufsize;
 short *x;
 Object* o;
} bvec;

#define VRRY 50

#define BYTEHEADER int _II__;  char *_IN__; char _OUT__[16]; int BYTESWAP_FLAG=0;
#define BYTESWAP(_X__,_TYPE__) \
    if (BYTESWAP_FLAG == 1) { \
	_IN__ = (char *) &(_X__); \
	for (_II__=0;_II__<sizeof(_TYPE__);_II__++) { \
		_OUT__[_II__] = _IN__[sizeof(_TYPE__)-_II__-1]; } \
	(_X__) = *((_TYPE__ *) &_OUT__); \
    }

#define UNCODE(_X_,_J_,_Y_) {(_Y_)=floor((_X_)/sc[(_J_)])/sc[4]; \
                             (_Y_)=floor(sc[4]*((_Y_)-floor(_Y_))+0.5);}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v1.ident() gives addresses and sizes
VERBATIM
static double ident(void* vv) {
  int nx,bsz; double* x;
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  bsz=vector_buffer_size(vv);
  printf("Obj*%x Dbl*%x Size: %d Bufsize: %d\n",vv,x,nx,bsz);
}
ENDVERBATIM
 
:* v1.indset(ind,x[,y]) sets indexed values to x and other values to optional y
VERBATIM
static double indset(void* vv) {
	int i, nx, ny, nz, flag;
	double* x, *y, *z, val, val2 ;
	nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
	ny = vector_arg_px(1, &y);
        if (hoc_is_object_arg(2)) { 
          flag=1;
          nz = vector_arg_px(2, &z); 
          if (ny!=nz) { hoc_execerror("v.indset: Vector sizes don't match.", 0); }
        } else { flag=0; val=*getarg(2); }
        if (ifarg(3)) { 
          val2 = *getarg(3); 
          for (i=0; i<nx; i++) { x[i]=val2; }
        }
	for (i=0; i<ny; i++) {
	  if (y[i] > nx) { hoc_execerror("v.indset: Index exceeds vector size", 0); }
          if (flag) x[(int)y[i]]=z[i]; else x[(int)y[i]]=val;
        }
	return i;
}
ENDVERBATIM
 
VERBATIM
/* Maintain parallel int vector to avoid slowness of repeated casts  */
static unsigned int scrsz=0;
static unsigned int bufsz=0;
static unsigned int *scr;
static double dcr[100]; /* scratch area for doubles */
ENDVERBATIM

:* tmp.fewind(ind,veclist)
: picks out numbers from multiple vectors using index ind
VERBATIM
static double fewind (void* vv) {
  int i, j, nx, ni, nv[VRRY], num;
  Object* ob;
  double *x, *ind, *vvo[VRRY];
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  ni = vector_arg_px(1, &ind);
  ob = *hoc_objgetarg(2);
  num = ivoc_list_count(ob);
  if (num>VRRY) hoc_execerror("ERR: fewind can only handle VRRY vectors", 0);
  for (i=0;i<num;i++) { 
    nv[i] = list_vector_px(ob, i, &vvo[i]);
    if (nx!=nv[i]) { printf("fewind ERR %d %d %d\n",i,nx,nv[i]);
      hoc_execerror("Vectors must all be same size: ", 0); }
  }
  if (ni>scrsz) { 
    if (scrsz>0) { free(scr); scr=(unsigned int *)NULL; }
    scrsz=ni+10000;
    scr=(unsigned int *)ecalloc(scrsz, sizeof(int));
  }
  for (i=0;i<ni;i++) { scr[i]=(int)ind[i]; /* copy into integer array  */
    if (scr[i]>=nx || scr[i]<0) { printf("fewind ERR1 %d %d\n",scr[i],nx);
    hoc_execerror("Index vector out-of-bounds", 0); }
  }
  for (j=0;j<num;j++) {
    for (i=0;i<ni;i++) x[i]=vvo[j][scr[i]];    
    for (i=0;i<ni;i++) vvo[j][i]=x[i];   
    list_vector_resize(ob, j, ni);
  }
  return ni;
}
ENDVERBATIM


:* ind.findx(vecAlist,vecBlist) 
: uses ind as index into vecA's to load in vecB's (for select); a nondestructive fewind()
VERBATIM
static double findx (void* vv) {
  int i, j, ni, nx, av[VRRY], bv[VRRY], num;
  Object *ob1, *ob2;
  double *ind, *avo[VRRY], *bvo[VRRY];
  ni = vector_instance_px(vv, &ind);
  ob1 = *hoc_objgetarg(1);
  ob2 = *hoc_objgetarg(2);
  num = ivoc_list_count(ob1);
  i = ivoc_list_count(ob2);
  if (i!=num) hoc_execerror("findx ****ERRA****: lists have different counts", 0);
  if (num>VRRY) hoc_execerror("findx ****ERRB****: can only handle VRRY vectors", 0);
  for (i=0;i<num;i++) { 
    av[i]=list_vector_px(ob1, i, &avo[i]); /* source vectors */
    if (av[0]!=av[i]) { printf("findx ****ERRC**** %d %d %d\n",i,av[0],av[i]);
      hoc_execerror("Src vectors must all be same size: ", 0); }
  }
  nx=av[0]; /* size of source vecs */
  for (i=0;i<num;i++) { 
    bv[i]=list_vector_px2(ob2, i, &bvo[i], &vv); /* dest vectors  */
    if (vector_buffer_size(vv)<ni) { 
      printf("findx ****ERRD**** arg#%d need:%d sz:%d\n",num+i+1,ni,vector_buffer_size(vv));
      hoc_execerror("Destination vector with insufficient size: ", 0); 
    } else {
      vector_resize(vv, ni);
    }
  }
  if (ni>scrsz) { 
    if (scrsz>0) { free(scr); scr=(unsigned int *)NULL; }
    scrsz=ni+10000;
    scr=(unsigned int *)ecalloc(scrsz, sizeof(int));
  }
  for (i=0;i<ni;i++) { scr[i]=(int)ind[i]; /* copy into integer array */
    if (scr[i]>=nx || scr[i]<0) { printf("findx ****ERRE**** **** IND:%d SZ:%d\n",scr[i],nx);
      hoc_execerror("Index vector out-of-bounds", 0); }
  }
  for (j=0,i=0;j<num;j++) for (i=0;i<ni;i++) bvo[j][i]=avo[j][scr[i]];    
  return ni;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* ind.sindx(vecAlist,vecBlist)
: uses ind as index into vecA's to replace with elements from vecB's
VERBATIM
static double sindx (void* vv) {
  int i, j, ni, nx, av[VRRY], bv[VRRY], num;
  Object *ob1, *ob2;
  double *ind, *avo[VRRY], *bvo[VRRY];
  ni = vector_instance_px(vv, &ind);
  ob1 = *hoc_objgetarg(1);
  ob2 = *hoc_objgetarg(2);
  num = ivoc_list_count(ob1);
  i = ivoc_list_count(ob2);
  if (num!=i) hoc_execerror("sindx ****ERRA****: two vec lists have different counts", 0);
  if (num>VRRY) hoc_execerror("sindx ****ERRB****: can only handle VRRY vectors", 0);
  for (i=0;i<num;i++) { 
    av[i]=list_vector_px(ob1, i, &avo[i]); /* dest vectors */
    if (av[0]!=av[i]) { printf("sindx ****ERRC**** %d %d %d\n",i,av[0],av[i]);
      hoc_execerror("Dest. vectors must all be same size: ", 0); }
  }
  nx=av[0]; /* size of dest vecs */
  for (i=0;i<num;i++) { 
    bv[i]=list_vector_px(ob2, i, &bvo[i]); /* source vectors  */
  if (bv[i]!=ni) { 
    printf("sindx ****ERRD**** arg#%d does note match ind length %d vs %d\n",num+i+1,ni,bv[i]);
    hoc_execerror("Source vector with insufficient size: ", 0); }
  }
  if (ni>scrsz) { 
    if (scrsz>0) { free(scr); scr=(unsigned int *)NULL; }
    scrsz=ni+10000;
    scr=(unsigned int *)ecalloc(scrsz, sizeof(int));
  }
  for (i=0;i<ni;i++) { scr[i]=(int)ind[i]; /* copy into integer array */
    if (scr[i]>=nx || scr[i]<0) { 
      printf("sindx ****ERRE**** IND:%d SZ:%d\n",scr[i],nx);
      hoc_execerror("Index vector out-of-bounds", 0); }
  }
  for (j=0,i=0;j<num;j++) for (i=0;i<ni;i++) avo[j][scr[i]]=bvo[j][i];
  return ni;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* ind.sindv(vecAlist,valvec)
: uses ind as index into vecA's to replace with values in valvec
VERBATIM
static double sindv(void* vv) {
  int i, j, ni, nx, av[VRRY], bv, num;
  Object* ob;
  double *ind, *avo[VRRY], *bvo;
  ni = vector_instance_px(vv, &ind);
  ob = *hoc_objgetarg(1);
  bv=vector_arg_px(2, &bvo); /* source vector */
  num = ivoc_list_count(ob);
  if (num>VRRY) hoc_execerror("sindv ****ERRA****: can only handle VRRY vectors", 0);
  for (i=0;i<num;i++) { 
    av[i]=list_vector_px(ob, i, &avo[i]); /* dest vectors */
    if (av[0]!=av[i]) { printf("sindv ****ERRC**** %d %d %d\n",i,av[0],av[i]);
      hoc_execerror("Dest. vectors must all be same size: ", 0); }
  }
  nx=av[0]; /* size of source vecs */
  if (bv!=num) { 
    printf("sindv ****ERRD**** Vector arg does note match list count %d vs %d\n",num,bv);
    hoc_execerror("Source vector is wrong size: ", 0); }
  if (ni>scrsz) { 
    if (scrsz>0) { free(scr); scr=(unsigned int *)NULL; }
    scrsz=ni+10000;
    scr=(unsigned int *)ecalloc(scrsz, sizeof(int));
  }
  for (i=0;i<ni;i++) { scr[i]=(int)ind[i]; /* copy into integer array */
    if (scr[i]>=nx || scr[i]<0) { 
      printf("sindv ****ERRE**** IND:%d SZ:%d\n",scr[i],nx);
      hoc_execerror("Index vector out-of-bounds", 0); }
  }
  for (j=0,i=0;j<num;j++) for (i=0;i<ni;i++) avo[j][scr[i]]=bvo[j];
  return ni;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* ind.slct(key,args,veclist)
: picks out indices of numbers in key from multiple vectors
VERBATIM
static double slct (void* vv) {
  int i, j, k, m, n, p, ni, nk, na, nv[VRRY], num, fl, lc, field[VRRY];
  Object* lob;
  double *ind, *key, *arg, *vvo[VRRY], val;

  ni = vector_instance_px(vv, &ind); /* vv is ind */
  nk = vector_arg_px(1, &key);
  na = vector_arg_px(2, &arg);
  lob = *hoc_objgetarg(3);
  num = ivoc_list_count(lob);
  if (num>VRRY) hoc_execerror("ERR: vecst::slct can only handle VRRY vectors", 0);

  for (i=0,j=0,k=0;i<num;i++,j++) { 
    nv[i] = list_vector_px(lob, i, &vvo[i]);
    if (ni!=nv[i] && (key[j]!=EQW || k!=1)) {
      printf("vecst::slct ERR %d %d %d %d %d\n",i,j,k,ni,nv[i]);
      hoc_execerror("index and searched vectors must all be same size: ", 0); 
    }
    if (key[j]==EQW || key[j]==EQV) if (k==0){j--;k++;} else k=0; /* EQW,EQV take 2 vector args  */
  }
  for (j=0;j<nk;j++) { /* look for fields in a mkcode() coded double */
    field[j]=-1;
    if (key[j]<=EBE && key[j]>=ALL) { field[j]=0;
    } else for (m=1;m<=5;m++) {
      if (key[j]<=EBE*(m+1) && key[j]>=ALL*(m+1)) { /* m is is field key 1-5 */
        key[j]/=(m+1);
        field[j]=m;
      }
    }
    if (field[j]==-1) {printf("vecst::slct ERRF %d %g\n",j,key[j]); hxe(); }
  }
  if (2*nk!=na) { printf("vecst::slct ERR3 %d %d\n",nk,na); 
    hoc_execerror("Arg vector must be double key length",0); }
  for (i=0,n=0;i<nk;i++) if (key[i]==EQV || key[i]==EQW) n++; /* special cases take 2 vec args */
  if (nk+n!=num) { 
    printf("vecst::slct ERR2 %d(keys)+%d(EQV/W)!=%d(vecs)\n",nk,n,num); 
    hoc_execerror("Key length must be number of vecs + num of EQV/W",0); }
  for (j=0,k=0,m=0;j<ni;j++) { /* j steps through elements of vectors */
    for (i=0,m=0,n=0,fl=1;i<num;i++,n++,m+=2) { /* i steps thru key, m thru args */
      if (field[n]==0) val=vvo[i][j]; else UNCODE(vvo[i][j],field[n],val);
      if (key[n]==ALL) continue; /* OK - do nothing */
      if (key[n]==NOZ)        { if (val==0.) {fl=0; break;} else continue; 
      } else if (key[n]==POS) { if (val<=0.) {fl=0; break;} else continue; 
      } else if (key[n]==NEG) { if (val>=0.) {fl=0; break;} else continue; 
      } else if (key[n]==GTH) { if (val<=arg[m]) {fl=0; break;} else continue; 
      } else if (key[n]==GTE) { if (val< arg[m]) {fl=0; break;} else continue; 
      } else if (key[n]==LTH) { if (val>=arg[m]) {fl=0; break;} else continue; 
      } else if (key[n]==LTE) { if (val> arg[m]) {fl=0; break;} else continue; 
      } else if (key[n]==EQU) { if (val!=arg[m]) {fl=0; break;} else continue; 
      } else if (key[n]==EQV) { if (val!=vvo[i+1][j]) { 
          fl=0; break;} else { i++; continue; }
      } else if (key[n]==EQW) {  /* check value against values in following vec */
        fl=0; /* assume it's not going to match */
        for (p=0;p<nv[i+1];p++) if (val==vvo[i+1][p]) {fl=1; break;}
        if (fl==0) break; else { i++; continue; }
      } else if (key[n]==NEQ) { if (val==arg[m]) {fl=0; break;} else continue; 
      } else if (key[n]==IBE) { if ((val< arg[m])||(val>=arg[m+1])) {
          fl=0; break; } else continue;  /* IBE="[)" include-bracket-exclude */
      } else if (key[n]==EBI) { if ((val<=arg[m])||(val> arg[m+1])) { 
          fl=0; break; } else continue;   /* "(]" : exclude-bracket-include */
      } else if (key[n]==IBI) { if ((val< arg[m])||(val> arg[m+1])) {
          fl=0; break; } else continue;   /* "[]" : include-bracket-include */
      } else if (key[n]==EBE) { if ((val<=arg[m])||(val>=arg[m+1])) {
          fl=0; break; } else continue;   /* "()" : exclude-bracket-exclude */
      } else {printf("vecst::slct ERR4 %g\n",key[n]); hoc_execerror("Unknown key",0);}
    }
    if (fl) ind[k++]=j; /* all equal */
  }
  vector_resize(vv, k);
  return k;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* ind.slor(key,args,vec1,vec2[,vec3,vec4,...])
: picks out indices of numbers in key from multiple vectors
VERBATIM
static double slor(void* vv) {
  int i, j, k, m, n, p, ni, nk, na, nv[VRRY], num, fl, field[VRRY];
  Object* lob;
  double *ind, *key, *arg, *vvo[VRRY], val;

  ni = vector_instance_px(vv, &ind); /* vv is ind */
  nk = vector_arg_px(1, &key);
  na = vector_arg_px(2, &arg);
  lob = *hoc_objgetarg(3);
  num = ivoc_list_count(lob);
  if (num>VRRY) hoc_execerror("ERR: vecst::slor can only handle VRRY vectors", 0);

  for (i=0,j=0,k=0;i<num;i++,j++) { 
    nv[i] = list_vector_px(lob, i, &vvo[i]);
    if (ni!=nv[i] && (key[j]!=EQW || k!=1)) {
      printf("vecst::slct ERR %d %d %d %d %d\n",i,j,k,ni,nv[i]);
      hoc_execerror("index and searched vectors must all be same size: ", 0); 
    }
    if (key[j]==EQW || key[j]==EQV) if (k==0){j--;k++;} else k=0; /* k counts 2 vecs */
  }
  for (j=0;j<num;j++) { /* look for fields */
    field[j]=-1;
    if (key[j]<=EBE && key[j]>=ALL) { field[j]=0;
    } else for (m=1;m<=5;m++) {
      if (key[j]<=EBE*(m+1) && key[j]>=ALL*(m+1)) { /* m is is field key 1-5 */
        key[j]/=(m+1);
        field[j]=m;
      }
    }
    if (field[j]==-1) {printf("vecst::slct ERRF %g\n",key[j]); hxe(); }
  }
  if (2*nk!=na) { printf("vecst::slor ERR3 %d %d\n",nk,na); 
    hoc_execerror("Arg vector must be double key length",0); }
  for (i=0,n=0;i<nk;i++) if (key[i]==EQV || key[i]==EQW) n++; /* special case takes 2 vec args */
  if (nk+n!=num) { 
    printf("vecst::slor ERR2 %d(keys)+%d(EQV)!=%d(vecs)\n",nk,n,num); 
    hoc_execerror("Key length must be number of vecs + num of EQV",0); }
  for (j=0,k=0,m=0;j<ni;j++) { /* j steps through elements of vectors */
    for (i=0,m=0,n=0,fl=0;i<num;i++,n++,m+=2) { /* i steps thru key, m thru args */
      if (field[n]==0) val=vvo[i][j]; else UNCODE(vvo[i][j],field[n],val);
      if (key[n]==ALL) {fl=1; break;} /* OK - do nothing */
      if (key[n]==NOZ)        { if (val==0.) continue; else {fl=1; break;} 
      } else if (key[n]==POS) { if (val<=0.) continue; else {fl=1; break;} 
      } else if (key[n]==NEG) { if (val>=0.) continue; else {fl=1; break;} 
      } else if (key[n]==GTH) { if (val<=arg[m]) continue; else {fl=1; break;} 
      } else if (key[n]==GTE) { if (val< arg[m]) continue; else {fl=1; break;} 
      } else if (key[n]==LTH) { if (val>=arg[m]) continue; else {fl=1; break;} 
      } else if (key[n]==LTE) { if (val> arg[m]) continue; else {fl=1; break;} 
      } else if (key[n]==EQU) { if (val!=arg[m]) continue; else {fl=1; break;} 
      } else if (key[n]==EQV) { if (val!=vvo[i+1][j]) continue; else { 
          i++; fl=1; break; }
      } else if (key[n]==EQW) {  /* check value against values in following vec */
        fl=0; /* assume it's not going to match */
        for (p=0;p<nv[i+1];p++) if (val==vvo[i+1][p]) {fl=1; break;}
        if (fl==1) break; else { i++; continue; }
      } else if (key[n]==NEQ) { if (val==arg[m]) continue; else {fl=1; break;} 
      } else if (key[n]==IBE) { if ((val< arg[m])||(val>=arg[m+1])) {
          continue; } else {fl=1; break;}  /* IBE="[)" include-bracket-exclude */
      } else if (key[n]==EBI) { if ((val<=arg[m])||(val> arg[m+1])) { 
          continue; } else {fl=1; break;}   /* "(]" : exclude-bracket-include */
      } else if (key[n]==IBI) { if ((val< arg[m])||(val> arg[m+1])) {
          continue; } else {fl=1; break;}   /* "[]" : include-bracket-include */
      } else if (key[n]==EBE) { if ((val<=arg[m])||(val>=arg[m+1])) {
          continue; } else {fl=1; break;}   /* "()" : exclude-bracket-exclude */
      } else {printf("vecst::slor ERR4 %g\n",key[n]); hoc_execerror("Unknown key",0);}
    }
    if (fl) ind[k++]=j; /* all equal */
  }
  vector_resize(vv, k);
  return k;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v.iwr()
VERBATIM
static double iwr(void* vv) {
  int i, j, nx;
  double *x;
  FILE* f, *hoc_obj_file_arg();
  f = hoc_obj_file_arg(1);
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  if (nx>scrsz) { 
    if (scrsz>0) { free(scr); scr=(unsigned int *)NULL; }
    scrsz=nx+10000;
    scr=(unsigned int *)ecalloc(scrsz, sizeof(int));
  }
  for (i=0;i<nx;i++) scr[i]=(int)x[i]; /* copy into integer array  */
  fwrite(&nx,sizeof(int),1,f);  /* write out the size */
  fwrite(scr,sizeof(int),nx,f);
  return nx;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v.ird()
VERBATIM
static double ird(void* vv) {
  int i, j, nx, n;
  double *x;
  FILE* f, *hoc_obj_file_arg();
  f = hoc_obj_file_arg(1);
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  fread(&n,sizeof(int),1,f);  /* size */
  if (n>scrsz) { 
    if (scrsz>0) { free(scr); scr=(unsigned int *)NULL; }
    scrsz=n+10000;
    scr=(unsigned int *)ecalloc(scrsz, sizeof(int));
  }
  if (n!=nx) { 
    nx=vector_buffer_size(vv);
    if (n<=nx) {
      vector_resize(vv, n); nx=n; 
    } else {
      printf("%d > %d :: ",n,nx);
      hoc_execerror("Vector max capacity too small for ird ", 0);
    }
  }
  fread(scr,sizeof(int),n,f);
  for (i=0;i<nx;i++) x[i]=(double)scr[i];
  return n;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v.fread2()
VERBATIM
static double fread2(void* vv) {
  int i, j, nx, n, type, maxsz;
  double *x;
  FILE* fp, *hoc_obj_file_arg();
  BYTEHEADER

  fp = hoc_obj_file_arg(1);
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  maxsz=vector_buffer_size(vv);
  n = (int)*getarg(2);
  type = (int)*getarg(3);
  if (n>maxsz) {
    printf("%d > %d :: ",n,maxsz);
    hoc_execerror("Vector max capacity too small for fread2 ", 0);
  } else {
    vector_resize(vv, n);
  }
  if (type==6 || type==16) {         /* unsigned ints */
    unsigned int *xs;
    if (n>scrsz) { 
      if (scrsz>0) { free(scr); scr=(unsigned int *)NULL; }
      scrsz=n+10000;
      scr=(unsigned int *)ecalloc(scrsz, sizeof(int));
    }
    xs=(unsigned int*)scr;
    fread(xs,sizeof(int),n,fp);
    if (type==16) BYTESWAP_FLAG=1;
    for (i=0;i<n;i++) {
      BYTESWAP(scr[i],int)
      x[i]=(double)scr[i];
    }
    return n;
  } if (type==3 || type==13) { /* straight float reads */
    float *xf = (float *)malloc(n * (unsigned)sizeof(float));
    fread(xf,sizeof(float),n,fp);
    if (type==13) BYTESWAP_FLAG=1;
    for (i=0;i<n;i++) {
      BYTESWAP(xf[i],float)
      x[i]=(double)xf[i];
    }
    free((char *)xf);    
  } else hoc_execerror("Type unsupported in fread2 ", 0);
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* ind.insct(v1,v2)
: return v1 intersect v2
VERBATIM
static double insct (void* vv) {
	int i, j, k, nx, nv1, nv2, maxsz;
	double *x, *v1, *v2;
	nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
        maxsz=vector_buffer_size(vv);
        vector_resize(vv, maxsz);
	nv1 = vector_arg_px(1, &v1);
	nv2 = vector_arg_px(2, &v2);
        for (i=0,k=0;i<nv1;i++) for (j=0;j<nv2;j++) if (v1[i]==v2[j]) {
          if (k<maxsz) { x[k++]=v1[i]; } else {k++;}}  /* v1[i] found in both vectors  */
        if (k>maxsz) { 
          printf("\tinsct WARNING: ran out of room: %d<%d\n",maxsz,k);
        } else { vector_resize(vv, k); }
	return (double)k;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* vdest.vfill(vsrc)
: fill vdest with multiple instances of vsrc until reach size
VERBATIM
static double vfill (void* vv) {
	int i, nx, nv1;
	double *x, *v1;
	nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
	nv1 = vector_arg_px(1, &v1);
        for (i=0;i<nx;i++) x[i]=v1[i%nv1];
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* vec.cull(src,key)
: remove numbers in vec that are found in the key
VERBATIM
static double cull (void* vv) {
	int i, j, k, nx, nv1, nv2, maxsz, flag;
	double *x, *v1, *v2;
	nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
        maxsz=vector_buffer_size(vv);
        vector_resize(vv, maxsz);
	nv1 = vector_arg_px(1, &v1);
	nv2 = vector_arg_px(2, &v2);
        for (i=0,k=0;i<nv1;i++) {
          flag=1;
          for (j=0;j<nv2;j++) if (v1[i]==v2[j]) flag=0;
          if (flag) {if (k<maxsz) { x[k++]=v1[i]; } else { k++; }}
        }
        if (k>maxsz) { 
          printf("\tcull WARNING: ran out of room: %d<%d\n",maxsz,k);
        } else { vector_resize(vv, k); }
	return (double)k;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* dest.redundout(src[,INDFLAG])
: flag redundant numbers; must sort src first
: with indflag set just returns indices of locations rather than values
VERBATIM
static double redundout (void* vv) {
  int i, j, nx, nv1, maxsz, ncntr, indflag, cntflag;
  double *x, *v1, *cntr, val;
  void *vc;
  if (ifarg(2)) indflag=(int)*getarg(2); else indflag=0; 
  if (ifarg(3)) { cntflag=1; 
    ncntr = vector_arg_px(3, &cntr);  vc=vector_arg(3); 
    ncntr = vector_buffer_size(vc);   vector_resize(vc, ncntr);
    for (i=0;i<ncntr;i++) cntr[i]=1.; /* will be at least 1 of each # */
  } else cntflag=0;
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  maxsz=vector_buffer_size(vv);  vector_resize(vv, maxsz);
  nv1 = vector_arg_px(1, &v1);
  val=v1[0]; x[0]=(indflag?0:val);
  if (cntflag) {
    for (j=1,i=1;i<nv1&&j<maxsz&&j<ncntr;i++) {
      if (v1[i]!=val) { val=v1[i]; x[j++]=(indflag?i:val); } else cntr[j-1]+=1;
    }
  } else {
    for (j=1,i=1;i<nv1&&j<maxsz;i++) if (v1[i]!=val) { val=v1[i]; x[j++]=(indflag?i:val); }
  }
  if (j>=maxsz) { 
    printf("\tredundout WARNING: ran out of room: %d<needed\n",maxsz);
  } else { vector_resize(vv, j); }
  if (cntflag) if (j>=ncntr) { 
    printf("\tredundout WARNING: cntr ran out of room: %d<needed\n",ncntr);
  } else { vector_resize(vc, j); }
  return (double)j;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* ind.mredundout(veclistA[,INDFLAG,veclistB])
: check redundancy across multiple parallel vectors veclistA
: with indflag 1, returns index of matchs in ind but does not alter vecs in veclistA
: will also remove from veclistB in parallel 
: leaves the last of a series of matches 
: with indflag set just returns indices of locations rather than values
: NB using indices will to .remove match items will give results that differ from 
: direct use (last vs first of a series -- will be seen in the other columns -- ie veclistB)
VERBATIM
static double mredundout (void* vv) {
  int i, j, k, m, p, q, maxsz, ns, nx, av[VRRY], bv[VRRY], num, numb, indflag, match;
  Object *ob, *ob2;
  double *x, *avo[VRRY], *bvo[VRRY], val[VRRY];
  void *vva[VRRY],*vvb[VRRY];
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  ob = *hoc_objgetarg(1);
  if (ifarg(2)) indflag=(int)*getarg(2); else indflag=0; 
  if (ifarg(3)) { 
    ob2 = *hoc_objgetarg(3);
    numb = ivoc_list_count(ob2);
  } else numb=0;
  maxsz=vector_buffer_size(vv);
  if (indflag) vector_resize(vv, maxsz); /* else vector is not used */
  num = ivoc_list_count(ob);
  if (num>VRRY) hoc_execerror("mredundout ****ERRA****: can only handle VRRY vectors", 0);
  for (i=0;i<num;i++) { 
    av[i]=list_vector_px2(ob, i, &avo[i], &vva[i]);
    if (av[0]!=av[i]) { printf("mredundout ****ERRC**** %d %d %d\n",i,av[0],av[i]);
      hoc_execerror("Vectors must all be same size: ", 0); }
  }
  ns=av[0]; /* size of source vecs */
  for (i=0;i<numb;i++) { 
    bv[i]=list_vector_px2(ob2, i, &bvo[i], &vvb[i]);
    if (ns!=bv[i]) { printf("mredundout ****ERRC2**** %d %d %d\n",i,ns,bv[i]);
      hoc_execerror("Vectors must all be same size: ", 0); }
  }
  if (ns/4>scrsz) { 
    if (scrsz>0) { free(scr); scr=(unsigned int *)NULL; }
    scrsz=ns/4+10000;
    scr=(unsigned int *)ecalloc(scrsz, sizeof(int));
  }
  for (j=0;j<num;j++) val[j]=avo[j][0]; /* initialize the val array */
  for (i=1,k=0;i<ns;i++) { 
    for (j=0,match=1;j<num;j++) {
      if (val[j]!=avo[j][i]) { match=0; break; } /* if no match say so */
    }
    if (match) { /* add this one to the list */
      if (k>=scrsz){printf("mredundout****ERRD**** over scr size %d\n",k);hxe();}
      scr[k++]=i; /* flag to get rid of this one */
    } else for (j=0;j<num;j++) val[j]=avo[j][i]; /* copy next set of vals */
  }
  if (indflag) { /* just fill ind with indices of the repeats */
    if (k>maxsz){printf("mredundout****ERRE**** vec overflow %d>%d\n",k,maxsz);hxe();}
    for (i=0;i<k;i++) x[i]=(double)scr[i];
    vector_resize(vv, k);
  } else { /* remove all the repeat rows */
if (k == 0) { return k; }
    for (i=0,p=scr[0]; i<k-1; i++) { /* iter thru the inds to remove */
      for (m=scr[i],p--; m<scr[i+1]; m++,p++) { /* move everything down till next ind */
        for (j=0;j<num; j++) avo[j][p]=avo[j][m]; /* go through all the A list vecs */
        for (j=0;j<numb;j++) bvo[j][p]=bvo[j][m]; /* go through B list vecs */
      }
    }
    for (m=scr[i],p--; m<ns; m++,p++) { /* finish up by moving down from last ind to end */
      for (j=0;j<num; j++) avo[j][p]=avo[j][m]; 
      for (j=0;j<numb;j++) bvo[j][p]=bvo[j][m]; 
    }
    for (j=0;j<num; j++) vector_resize(vva[j], ns-k); /* resize all the vectors */
    for (j=0;j<numb;j++) vector_resize(vvb[j], ns-k);
  }
  return k;
}
ENDVERBATIM


:* PIVOTA.join(PIVOTB,VECLISTA,VECLISTB)
:  NB must sort both pivots before use
VERBATIM
static double join (void* vv) {
  int i, j, k, m, p, q, maxsz, npiva, npivb, av[VRRY], bv[VRRY], num, numb, indflag, match;
  Object *ob, *ob2;
  double *piva, *pivb, *avo[VRRY], *bvo[VRRY], val[VRRY];
  void *vva[VRRY],*vvb[VRRY];
  npiva = vector_instance_px(vv, &piva);
  npivb = vector_arg_px(1, &pivb);
  ob = *hoc_objgetarg(2);
  ob2 = *hoc_objgetarg(3);
  num = ivoc_list_count(ob);
  numb = ivoc_list_count(ob2);
  if (num>VRRY) hoc_execerror("join ****ERRA****: can only handle VRRY vectors", 0);
  if (num!=numb) hoc_execerror("join ****ERRB****: different #of vecs in lists", 0);
  for (i=0;i<num;i++) { 
    av[i]=list_vector_px2(ob, i, &avo[i], &vva[i]);
    if (av[0]!=av[i]) { printf("join ****ERRC**** %d %d %d\n",i,av[0],av[i]);
      hoc_execerror("Vectors must all be same size: ", 0); }
  }
  for (i=0;i<numb;i++) { 
    bv[i]=list_vector_px2(ob2, i, &bvo[i], &vvb[i]);
    if (bv[0]!=bv[i]) { printf("join ****ERRC2**** %d %d %d\n",i,bv[0],bv[i]);
      hoc_execerror("Vectors must all be same size: ", 0); }
  }
  for (i=0,j=0;i<npiva;i++) {
    for (;piva[i]!=pivb[j] && j<npivb;j++); /* move forward to find matching pivb[j] */
    if (j==npivb) { printf("%g not found in PivotB\n",piva[i]);hxe();}
    for (k=0;k<num;k++) avo[k][i]=bvo[k][j];
  }
  return k;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* vscl() will scale a vector to -1,1
VERBATIM
static double vscl(double *x, double n) {
  int i; 
  double max,min,r,sf,b,a;
  max=-1e9; min=1e9; a=-1; b=1; 
  for (i=0;i<n;i++) { 
    if (x[i]>max) max=x[i];
    if (x[i]<min) min=x[i];
  }
  r=max-min;  /* range */
  sf = (b-a)/r; /* scaling factor */
  for (i=0;i<n;i++) x[i]=(x[i]-min)*sf+a;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* vdest.scl(vsrc) nondestructive scaling
VERBATIM
static double scl(void* vv) {
  int i, j, k, nx, nsrc, nfilt, ntmp;
  double *x, *src, *filt, *tmp, sum, lpad, rpad;
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  nsrc = vector_arg_px(1, &src);
  if (nx!=nsrc) { hoc_execerror("scl:Vectors not same size: ", 0); }
  for (i=0;i<nx;i++) x[i]=src[i];
  vscl(x,nx);
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* vdest.sccvlv(vsrc,vfilt,tmp) /* NOT CORRECT -- see scxing() */
: scaled convolution -- scale section to -1,1 before multiplying by filter
VERBATIM
static double sccvlv(void* vv) {
  int i, j, k, nx, nsrc, nfilt, ntmp;
  double *x, *src, *filt, *tmp, sum, lpad, rpad;
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  nsrc = vector_arg_px(1, &src);
  nfilt = vector_arg_px(2, &filt);
  ntmp = vector_arg_px(3, &tmp);
  if (nx!=nsrc) { hoc_execerror("sccvlv:Vectors not same size: ", 0); }
  if (nfilt>nsrc) { hoc_execerror("sccvlv:Filter bigger than source ", 0); }
  if (nfilt!=ntmp){hoc_execerror("sccvlv:Filter (arg2) and tmp vector (arg3) diff size", 0);}
  for (i=0;i<nx;i++) {
    x[i]=0.0;
    for (j=0,k=i-(int)(nfilt/2);j<nfilt&&k>0&&k<nsrc;j++,k++) tmp[j]=src[k];
    vscl(tmp,j-1);
    for (k=0;k<j;k++) x[i]+=filt[k]*tmp[k];
  }
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* vdest.scxing(vsrc,tmp)
: scaled xing -- scale each section to -1,1 before checking # of 0-xing's
VERBATIM
static double scxing (void* vv) {
  int i, j, k, nx, nsrc, f, ntmp, maxsz;
  double *x, *src, *filt, *tmp, sum, maxsum, th;
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  nsrc = vector_arg_px(1, &src);
  ntmp = vector_arg_px(2, &tmp);
  if (nx!=nsrc) { hoc_execerror("scxing:Vectors not same size: ", 0); }
  th=0.0; 
  maxsum=-1e9;
  for (i=0;i<nx;i++) x[i]=0.; /* clear */
  for (i=ntmp/2+1;i<nx-ntmp/2-1;i++) {
    for (j=0,k=i-(int)(ntmp/2);j<ntmp;k++,j++) tmp[j]=src[k];
    vscl(tmp,j-1); /* scale from -1 to 1 */
    for (k=0,f=0,sum=0.; k<nsrc; k++) {
      if (tmp[k]>th) { /* ? passing thresh */
        if (f==0) { 
          sum+=1; /* just count the 0xing */
          f=1; 
        }
      } else {       /* below thresh  */
        if (f==1) {
          f=0; /* just passed going down  */
          sum+=1;
        }
      }
    }
    if (sum>maxsum) maxsum=sum;
    x[i]=sum;
  }
  return maxsum;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* vdest.cvlv(vsrc,vfilt)
: convolution
VERBATIM
static double cvlv (void* vv) {
  int i, j, k, nx, nsrc, nfilt;
  double *x, *src, *filt, sum, lpad, rpad;
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  nsrc = vector_arg_px(1, &src);
  nfilt = vector_arg_px(2, &filt);
  if (nx!=nsrc) { hoc_execerror("Vectors not same size: ", 0); }
  if (nfilt>nsrc) { hoc_execerror("Filter bigger than source ", 0); }
  for (i=0;i<nx;i++) {
    x[i]=0.0;
    for (j=0,k=i-(int)(nfilt/2);j<nfilt;j++,k++) {
      if (k>0 && k<nsrc-1) x[i]+=filt[j]*src[k];
    }
  }
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* vdest.intrp(flag)
: interpolate numbers replacing numbers given as flag
VERBATIM
static double intrp(void* vv) {
  int i, la, lb, nx;
  double *x, fl, a, b;
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  fl = *getarg(1);
  i=0; a=x[0]; la=0;
  if (a==fl) a=0;
  while (i<nx-1) {
    for (i=la+1;x[i]==fl && i<nx-1; i++) ; /* find the next one  */
    b=x[i]; lb=i;
    for (i=la+1; i<lb; i++) x[i]= a + (b-a)/(lb-la)*(i-la);
    a=b; la=lb;
  }
  return (double)fl;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* vec.sumabs()
: return sum of abs values
VERBATIM
static double sumabs(void* vv) {
  int i, nx;
  double *x, sum;
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  for (sum=0,i=0;i<nx; i++) sum+=fabs(x[i]);
  return sum;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* vec.inv([NUMERATOR])
: element=NUMERATOR/element
VERBATIM
static double inv (void* vv) {
  int i, nx;
  double *x, nume;
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  if (ifarg(1)) nume=*getarg(1); else nume=1.; 
  for (i=0;i<nx; i++) x[i]=nume/x[i];
  return i;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* tmp.nind(ind,vec1,vec2[,vec3,vec4,...])
: picks out numbers not in ind from multiple vectors
: ind must be sorted
VERBATIM
static double nind(void* vv) {
	int i, j, k, m, nx, ni, nv[VRRY], num, c, last;
	double *x, *ind, *vvo[VRRY];
	nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
        for (i=0;ifarg(i);i++);
	if (i>VRRY) hoc_execerror("ERR: nind can only handle VRRY vectors", 0);
	num = i-2; /* number of vectors to be picked apart  */
        for (i=0;i<num;i++) { 
          nv[i] = vector_arg_px(i+2, &vvo[i]);
          if (nx!=nv[i]) { printf("nind ERR %d %d %d\n",i,nx,nv[i]);
            hoc_execerror("Vectors must all be same size: ", 0); }
        }
        ni = vector_arg_px(1, &ind);
        c = nx-ni; /* the elems indexed are to be eliminated  */
        if (ni>scrsz) { 
          if (scrsz>0) { free(scr); scr=(unsigned int *)NULL; }
          scrsz=ni+10000;
          scr=(unsigned int *)ecalloc(scrsz, sizeof(int));
        }
        for (i=0,last=-1;i<ni;i++) { 
          scr[i]=(int)ind[i]; /* copy into integer array  */
          if (scr[i]<0 || scr[i]>=nx) hoc_execerror("nind(): Index out of bounds", 0);
          if (scr[i]<=last) hoc_execerror("nind(): indices should mono increase", 0);
          last=scr[i];
        }
        for (j=0;j<num;j++) { /* each output vec  */
          for (i=0,last=-1,m=0;i<ni;i++) { /* the indices of ind  */
            for (k=last+1;k<scr[i];k++) { x[m++]=vvo[j][k]; }
            last=scr[i];
          }
          for (k=last+1;k<nx;k++,m++) { x[m]=vvo[j][k]; }
          for (i=0;i<c;i++) vvo[j][i]=x[i];   
          vv=vector_arg(j+2); vector_resize(vv, c);
        }
	return c;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* ind.keyind(key,vec1,vec2[,vec3,vec4,...])
: picks out indices of numbers in key from multiple vectors
VERBATIM
static double keyind(void* vv) {
  int i, j, k, ni, nk, nv[VRRY], num;
  double *ind, *key, *vvo[VRRY];
  ni = vector_instance_px(vv, &ind); /* vv is ind */
  for (i=0;ifarg(i);i++); i--; /* drop back by one to get numarg() */
  if (i>VRRY) hoc_execerror("ERR: keyind can only handle VRRY vectors", 0);
  num = i-1; /* number of vectors to be picked apart  */
  for (i=0;i<num;i++) { 
    nv[i] = vector_arg_px(i+2, &vvo[i]);
    if (ni!=nv[i]) { printf("keyind ERR %d %d %d\n",i,ni,nv[i]);
    hoc_execerror("Non-key vectors must be same size: ", 0); }
  }
  nk = vector_arg_px(1, &key);
  if (nk!=num) { printf("keyind ERR2 %d %d\n",nk,num); 
    hoc_execerror("Key length must be number of vecs",0); }
  k=0;
  for (j=0;j<ni;j++) { /* j steps through elements of vectors */
    for (i=0;i<nk;i++) { /* i steps through the key */
      if (key[i]==ALL) continue; /* OK - do nothing */
      if (key[i]==NOZ)        { if (vvo[i][j]==0.) break; else continue; 
      } else if (key[i]==POS) { if (vvo[i][j]<=0.) break; else continue; 
      } else if (key[i]==NEG) { if (vvo[i][j]>=0.) break; else continue; 
      } else if (key[i]!=vvo[i][j]) break; /* default */
    }
    if (i==nk) ind[k++]=j; /* all equal */
  }
  vector_resize(vv, k);
  return k;
}
ENDVERBATIM
 
:* v1.thresh() threshold above and below thresh
VERBATIM
static double thresh(void* vv) {
  int i, nx, ny, cnt;
  double *x, *y, th;
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  cnt=0;
  if (hoc_is_object_arg(1)) { 
    ny = vector_arg_px(1, &y); th=0;
    if (nx!=ny) { hoc_execerror("Vector sizes don't match in thresh.", 0); }
    for (i=0; i<nx; i++) { if (x[i]>=y[i]) { x[i]= 1.; cnt++;} else { x[i]= BVBASE; } }
  } else { th = *getarg(1);
    for (i=0; i<nx; i++) { if (x[i] >= th) { x[i]= 1.; cnt++;} else { x[i]= BVBASE; } }
  }
  return cnt;
}
ENDVERBATIM
 
:* v1.triplet() return location of a triplet
VERBATIM
static double triplet(void* vv) {
  int i, nx;
  double *x, *y, a, b;
  nx = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  a = *getarg(1); b = *getarg(2);
  for (i=0; i<nx; i+=3) if (x[i]==a&&x[i+1]==b) break;
  if (i<nx) return (double)i; else return -1.;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* state.onoff(volts,OBon,thresh,dur,refr)
:  looks at volts vector to decide if have reached threshold thresh
:  OBon takes account of burst dur and refractory period
VERBATIM
static double onoff(void* vv) {
  int i, j, n, nv, non, nt, nd, nr, num;
  double *st, *vol, *obon, *thr, *dur, *refr;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &st);
  nv   = vector_arg_px(1, &vol);
  non  = vector_arg_px(2, &obon);
  nt   = vector_arg_px(3, &thr);
  nd   = vector_arg_px(4, &dur);
  nr   = vector_arg_px(5, &refr);
  if (n!=nv||n!=non||n!=nt||n!=nd||n!=nr) {
    hoc_execerror("v.onoff: vectors not all same size", 0); }
  for (i=0,num=0;i<n;i++) {
    obon[i]--;
    if (obon[i]>0.) { st[i]=1.; continue; } /* cell must fire  */
    if (vol[i]>=thr[i] && obon[i]<= -refr[i]) { /* past refractory period  */
        st[i]=1.; obon[i]=dur[i]; num++;
    } else { st[i]= BVBASE; }
  }
  return num;
}
ENDVERBATIM
 
:* vo.bpeval(outp,del)
:  service routine for back-prop: vo=outp*(1-outp)*del
VERBATIM
static double bpeval(void* vv) {
  int i, n, no, nd, flag=0;
  double add,div;
  double *vo, *outp, *del;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &vo);
  no   = vector_arg_px(1, &outp);
  nd   = vector_arg_px(2, &del);
  if (ifarg(3) && ifarg(4)) { add= *getarg(3); div= *getarg(4); flag=1;}
  if (n!=no||n!=nd) hoc_execerror("v.bpeval: vectors not all same size", 0);
  if (flag) {
    for (i=0;i<n;i++) vo[i]=((outp[i]+add)/div)*(1.-1.*((outp[i]+add)/div))*del[i];
  } else {
    for (i=0;i<n;i++) vo[i]=outp[i]*(1.-1.*outp[i])*del[i];
  }
}
ENDVERBATIM
 
:* v1.sedit() string edit
VERBATIM
static double sedit(void* vv) {
  int i, n, ni, f=0;
  double *x, *ind, th, val;
  Symbol* s; char *op;
  op = gargstr(1);
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  sprintf(op,"hello world");
  return (double)n;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v1.w() a .where that sets elements in source vector
VERBATIM
static double w (void* vv) {
  int i, n, ni, f=0;
  double *x, *ind, th, val;
  Symbol* s; char *op;
  if (! ifarg(1)) { 
    printf("v1.w('op',thresh[,val,v2])\n"); 
    printf("  a .where that sets elements in v1 to val (default 0), if v2 => only look at these elements\n");
    printf("  'op'=='function name' is a .apply targeted by v2 called as func(x[i],thresh,val)\n");
    return -1.;
  }
  op = gargstr(1);
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  th = *getarg(2);
  if (ifarg(3)) { val = *getarg(3); } else { val = 0.0; }
  if (ifarg(4)) {ni = vector_arg_px(4, &ind); f=1;} /* just look at the spots indexed */
  if (!strcmp(op,"==")) { 
    if (f==1) {for (i=0; i<ni;i++) {if (x[(int)ind[i]]==th) { x[(int)ind[i]] = val;}}
    } else {for (i=0; i<n; i++) {if (x[i]==th) { x[i] = val;}}}
  } else if (!strcmp(op,"!=")) {
    if (f==1) {for (i=0; i<ni;i++) {if (x[(int)ind[i]]!=th) { x[(int)ind[i]] = val;}}
    } else {for (i=0; i<n; i++) {if (x[i]!=th) { x[i] = val;}}}
  } else if (!strcmp(op,">")) {
    if (f==1) {for (i=0; i<ni;i++) {if (x[(int)ind[i]]>th) { x[(int)ind[i]] = val;}}
    } else {for (i=0; i<n; i++) {if (x[i]>th) { x[i] = val;}}}
  } else if (!strcmp(op,"<")) {
    if (f==1) {for (i=0; i<ni;i++) {if (x[(int)ind[i]]<th) { x[(int)ind[i]] = val;}}
    } else {for (i=0; i<n; i++) {if (x[i]<th) { x[i] = val;}}}
  } else if (!strcmp(op,">=")) {
    if (f==1) {for (i=0; i<ni;i++) {if (x[(int)ind[i]]>=th) { x[(int)ind[i]] = val;}}
    } else {for (i=0; i<n; i++) {if (x[i]>=th) { x[i] = val;}}}
  } else if (!strcmp(op,"<=")) {
    if (f==1) {for (i=0; i<ni;i++) {if (x[(int)ind[i]]<=th) { x[(int)ind[i]] = val;}}
    } else {for (i=0; i<n; i++) {if (x[i]<=th) { x[i] = val;}}}
  } else if ((s=hoc_lookup(op))) { /* same as .apply but only does indexed ones */
    if (f==1) {for (i=0; i<ni;i++) {
        hoc_pushx(x[(int)ind[i]]); hoc_pushx(th); hoc_pushx(val);
      x[(int)ind[i]]=hoc_call_func(s, 3);}
    } else {for (i=0; i<n;i++) {hoc_pushx(x[i]); hoc_pushx(th); hoc_pushx(val);
        x[i]=hoc_call_func(s, 3);}}
  }
  return (double)i;
}
ENDVERBATIM
 
:* ind.slone(SRC,VAL) select indices where ==VAL from sorted vector SRC
VERBATIM
static double slone (void* vv) {
  int i, j, n, ni, nsrc, maxsz;
  double *x, *src, val, max, min;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  maxsz=vector_buffer_size(vv);  vector_resize(vv, maxsz);
  nsrc = vector_arg_px(1, &src);
  val = *getarg(2);
  if (ifarg(3)) ni=(int)*getarg(3); else {
    min=src[0];  max=src[nsrc-1];
    ni=(int)(val-min)/(max-min)*(double)(nsrc-1); /* where expect to find it */
  }
  if (src[ni]<val) {
    for (i=ni;src[i]!=val&&i<nsrc;i++); 
  } else {
    for (i=ni;src[i]!=val&&i>=0;i--); 
    for (    ;src[i]==val&&i>=0;i--); 
    i++; /* go back to the first one */
  }
  for (j=0;src[i]==val && j<maxsz && i<nsrc;i++,j++) x[j]=i;
  if (j==maxsz) printf("vecst slone WARN: OOR %d %d\n",j,maxsz);
  vector_resize(vv, j);
  return (double)(i-1);
}
ENDVERBATIM
  
:* dest.xing(src,tvec,thresh) 
:  dest.xing(src,thresh)  -- returns indices, change into time by .mul(tstep)
:  dest.xing(src)  -- default thresh=0; returns indices
: a .where that looks for threshold crossings and then doesn't pick another till
: comes back down again; places values from tvec in dest; interpolates
VERBATIM
static double xing (void* vv) {
  int i, j, nsrc, ndest, ntvec, f, maxsz, tvf;
  double *src, *dest, *tvec, th;
  tvf=0;
  ndest = vector_instance_px(vv, &dest);
  nsrc = vector_arg_px(1, &src);
  if (ifarg(3)) {
    ntvec = vector_arg_px(2, &tvec);
    th = *getarg(3);
    tvf=1; /* flag that tvec being used */
  } else if (ifarg(2)) {
    th = *getarg(2);
  } else th=0.0; /* default threshold */
  maxsz=vector_buffer_size(vv);
  vector_resize(vv, maxsz);
  if (tvf && nsrc!=ntvec) hoc_execerror("v.xing: vectors not all same size", 0);
  for (i=0,f=0,j=0; i<nsrc; i++) {
    if (src[i]>th) { /* ? passing thresh  */
      if (f==0) { 
        if (j>=maxsz) {
          printf("(%d) :: ",maxsz);
          hoc_execerror("Dest vec too small in xing ", 0);
        }
        if (i>0) { /* don't record if first value is above thresh  */
          if (tvf) {
            dest[j++] = tvec[i-1] + (tvec[i]-tvec[i-1])*(th-src[i-1])/(src[i]-src[i-1]);
          } else {
            dest[j++] = (i-1) + (th-src[i-1])/(src[i]-src[i-1]);
          }
        }
        f=1; 
      }
    } else {       /* below thresh  */
      if (f==1) { f=0; } /* just passed going down  */
    }
  }
  vector_resize(vv, j);
  return (double)i;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* src.updown(thresh,dlist)  -- returns indices, change into time by .mul(tstep)
:  dest.updown(src)  -- default thresh=0; returns indices
: a .where that looks for threshold crossings and then doesn't pick another till
: comes back down again; places values from tvec in dest; interpolates
VERBATIM
#define UDSL 50
#define UDNQ 10
static double updown (void* vv) {
  int i, k, m, n, nsrc, jj[UDSL], f[UDSL], lc, dsz[UDSL], nqsz[UDNQ], thsz, lc2, done, dbn;
  double *src, *tvec, *th, *dest[UDSL], *nq[UDNQ], *tmp, *dbx, lt, thdist;
  Object *ob, *ob2;
  void *vvd[UDSL], *vvth, *vnq[UDNQ];
  nsrc = vector_instance_px(vv, &src);
  thsz = vector_arg_px(1, &th);
  ob =  *hoc_objgetarg(2);
  ob2 = *hoc_objgetarg(3);
  tmp = (double *)ecalloc(nsrc, sizeof(double));  
  lc =  ivoc_list_count(ob);
  lc2 = ivoc_list_count(ob2);
  if (lc>UDSL) {printf("updown ERRF mismatch: max slice list:%d %d\n",UDSL,lc); hxe();}
  if (lc2>UDNQ) {printf("updown ERRG mismatch: max nq sz:%d %d\n",UDNQ,lc2); hxe();}
  /* nq=new NQS("LOC","PEAK","WIDTH","BASE","HEIGHT","START","SLICES","SHARP","INDEX","FILE") */
  if (lc2!=10)  {printf("updown ERRB mismatch: nq sz should be 10:%d\n",lc2); hxe();}
  if (nsrc<lc) {printf("updown ERRC mismatch: %d %d\n",lc,nsrc); hxe();}
  if (lc!=thsz) {printf("updown ERRA mismatch: %d %d\n",lc,thsz); hxe();}
  if (!ismono1(th,thsz,-1)) {printf("updown ERRD: not mono dec %g %d\n",th[0],thsz); hxe();}
  /* thdist=(th[thsz-2]-th[thsz-1])/2; // NOT BEING USED: the smallest spike we will accept */
  for (k=0;k<lc;k++) { 
    list_vector_px2(ob, k, &dest[k], &vvd[k]);
    dsz[k]=vector_buffer_size(vvd[k]);
    vector_resize(vvd[k], dsz[k]);
  }
  for (k=0;k<lc2;k++) { 
    list_vector_px2(ob2, k, &nq[k], &vnq[k]);
    nqsz[k]=vector_buffer_size(vnq[k]);
    vector_resize(vnq[k], nqsz[k]);
    if (nqsz[k]!=nqsz[0]) {printf("updown ERRE mismatch: %d %d %d\n",k,nqsz[0],nqsz[k]); hxe();}
  }

  /* dest vectors will store crossing points and midpoints at each th[k] slice location */
  /* as triplets: up/max/down */
  for (k=0; k<lc; k++) {     
    jj[k]=f[k]=0;
    for (i=0;i<nsrc && src[i]>th[k];i++) {} /* make sure start below thresh */
    for (; i<nsrc; i++) {
      if (src[i]>th[k]) { 
        if (f[k]==0) { /* ? passing thresh  */
          if (jj[k]>=dsz[k]){printf("(%d,%d,%d) :: ",k,jj[k],dsz[k]);
            hoc_execerror("Dest vec too small in updown ", 0); }
          dest[k][jj[k]++] = (i-1) + (th[k]-src[i-1])/(src[i]-src[i-1]);
          f[k]=1; 
          tmp[k]=-1e9; dest[k][jj[k]]=-1.;
        }
        if (f[k]==1 && src[i]>tmp[k]) { /* use tmp[] temporarily */
          tmp[k]=src[i]; /* pick out max */
          dest[k][jj[k]] = (double)i; /* location of this peak */
        }
      } else {       /* below thresh  */
        if (f[k]==1) {  /* just passed going down  */
          jj[k]++;
          dest[k][jj[k]++] = (i-1) + (src[i-1]-th[k])/(src[i-1]-src[i]);
          f[k]=0; 
        }
      }
    }
  }
  /* truncate vectors to multiples of 3: */
  for (k=0;k<lc;k++) vector_resize(vvd[k],(int)(floor((double)jj[k]/3.)*3.));
  for (i=0; i<nsrc; i++) tmp[i]=0.; /* clear temp space */
  /* go through all the slices to find identical peaks and save widths and locations */
  /* tmp[] uses triplets centered around a location corresponding to a max loc in the */
  /* original vector; the widest flanks for each are then on either side of this loc */
  for (k=0;k<lc;k++) { /* need to go from top to bottom to widen flanks */
    for (i=1;i<jj[k];i+=3) { /* through centers */
      m=(int)dest[k][i]; /* hash: place center at location */
      if (tmp[m-2]<0 || tmp[m-1]<0 || tmp[m+1]<0 || tmp[m+2]<0) continue; /* too crowded */
      tmp[m]--;  /* how many slices have found this peak -- use negative */
      tmp[m-1]=dest[k][i-1]; tmp[m+1]=dest[k][i+1]; /* flanks */
    }
  }
  /* 1st of 2 loops through tmp[] */
  /* step through tmp[] looking for negatives which indicate the slice count and pick up  */
  /* flanks from these */
  /* nq=new NQS("LOC","PEAK","WIDTH","BASE","HEIGHT","START","SLICES","SHARP","INDEX","FILE") */
  for (i=0,k=0; i<nsrc; i++) if (tmp[i]<0.) {
    if (k>=nqsz[0]) { printf("updown OOR: %d %d\n",k,nqsz[0]); hxe(); }
    nq[0][k]=(double)i; /* approx location of the peak of the spike */
    nq[2][k]=tmp[i+1]; /* location of right side */
    nq[5][k]=tmp[i-1]; /* start of spike */
    nq[6][k]=tmp[i]; /* neg of # of slices */
    k++;
  }
  if (DEBUG_VECST && ifarg(4)) { dbn = vector_arg_px(4, &dbx); /* DEBUG */
    if (dbn<nsrc) printf("Insufficient room in debug vec\n"); else {
      for (i=0;i<nsrc;i++) dbx[i]=tmp[i]; }}
  /* use nq vecs to search through flanks comparing to neighboring centers */
  /* making sure that the flanks do not overlap the centers on LT or RT side */
  /* where they do overlap correct them by reference to original dest info */
  for (i=0;i<k;i++) {
    if ((i-1)>0 && nq[5][i]<nq[0][i-1]) { /* look at LT side */
      if (DEBUG_VECST) printf("LT problem %d %g %g<%g\n",i,nq[0][i],nq[5][i],nq[0][i-1]);
      for (m=lc-1,done=0;m>=0 && !done;m--) { /* go from bottom to top */
        for (n=1;n<jj[m] && !done;n+=3) { /* through centers */
          if (floor(dest[m][n])==nq[0][i] && dest[m][n-1]>nq[0][i-1]) {
            /* nq[6][i]=nq[5][i]; /// overwrite #of slices with end of overlap */
            nq[5][i]=dest[m][n-1]; nq[2][i]=dest[m][n+1]; done=1;
          }
        }
      }
    }
    if ((i+1)<k && nq[2][i]>nq[0][i+1]) { /* look at RT side */
      if (DEBUG_VECST) printf("RT problem %d %g %g>%g\n",i,nq[0][i],nq[2][i],nq[0][i+1]);
      for (m=lc-1,done=0;m>=0 && !done;m--) { /* go from bottom to top */
        for (n=1;n<jj[m] && !done;n+=3) { /* through centers */
          if (floor(dest[m][n])==nq[0][i] && dest[m][n+1]<nq[0][i+1]) {
            /* nq[6][i]=nq[2][i]; // overwrite #of slices with end of overlap */
            nq[5][i]=dest[m][n-1]; nq[2][i]=dest[m][n+1]; done=1;
          }
        }
      }        
    }
  }
  /* 2nd loop through tmp[] */
  /* needed to split into 2 loops so that could check for overlaps and correct those */
  /* before filling in the rest of nq */
  /* nq=new NQS("LOC","PEAK","WIDTH","BASE","HEIGHT","START","SLICES","SHARP","INDEX","FILE") */
  for (i=0,k=0; i<nsrc; i++) if (tmp[i]<0.) {
    /* calculate base voltage lt as interpolated value on left side */
    lt=src[(int)floor(nq[5][k])]+(nq[5][k]-floor(nq[5][k]))*\
      (src[(int)floor(nq[5][k]+1.)]-src[(int)floor(nq[5][k])]);
    nq[1][k]=src[i]; /* peak voltage */
    nq[2][k]-=nq[5][k]; /* width */
    nq[3][k]=lt; /* base voltage */
    nq[4][k]=src[i]-lt; /* height */
    nq[7][k]=(src[i]-src[i-(int)SHM_UPDOWN])-(src[i+(int)SHM_UPDOWN]-src[i]); /* sharpness */
    nq[8][k]=(double)k;  /* index */
    k++;
  }
  for (i=0;i<lc2;i++) vector_resize(vnq[i], k);
  free(tmp);
  return jj[0];
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* dest.snap(src,tvec,dt) 
: interpolate src with tvec to prior dt step, saves only highest value in each interval
: an .interpolate that doesn't loose spikes
VERBATIM
static double snap(void* vv) {
  int i, j, nsrc, ndest, ntvec, f, maxsz, size;
  double *src, *dest, *tvec, dtt, tstop, tt, val;
  ndest = vector_instance_px(vv, &dest);
  nsrc = vector_arg_px(1, &src);
  ntvec = vector_arg_px(2, &tvec);
  dtt = *getarg(3);
  maxsz=vector_buffer_size(vv);
  tstop = tvec[nsrc-1];
  size=(int)tstop/dtt;
  if (size>maxsz) { 
    printf("%g > %g\n",size,maxsz);
    hoc_execerror("v.snap: insufficient room in dest", 0); }
  vector_resize(vv, size);
  if (nsrc!=ntvec) hoc_execerror("v.snap: src and tvec not same size", 0);
  for (tt=0,i=0;i<size && tt<=tvec[0];i++,tt+=dtt) dest[i]=src[0];
  for (j=1, i--, tt-=dtt; i<size; i++, val=-1e9, tt+=dtt) {
    if (tvec[j]>tt) dest[i]=src[j-1]; else {
      for (;j<nsrc && tvec[j]<=tt;j++) if (src[j]>val) val=src[j];
      if (val==-1e9) printf("vecst:snap() internal ERROR\n");
      dest[i]=val;
    }
  }
  return (double)size;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v1.xzero() looks for zero crossings 
VERBATIM
static double xzero(void* vv) {
  int i, n, nv, up;
  double *x, *vc, th, cnt=0.;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  nv = vector_arg_px(1, &vc);
  if (ifarg(2)) { th = *getarg(2); } else { th=0.0;}
  if (vc[0]<th) up=0; else up=1;  /* F or T  */
  if (nv!=n) hoc_execerror("Vector size doesn't match.", 0);
  for (i=0; i<nv; i++) {
    x[i]=0.;
    if (up) { /* look for passing down  */
      if (vc[i]<th) { x[i]=-1; up=0; cnt++; }
    } else if (vc[i]>th) { up=x[i]=1; cnt++; }
  }
  return cnt;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v1.negwrap([FLAG]) wrap neg values to pos, FLAG==0 set them to 0
VERBATIM
static double negwrap(void* vv) {
  int i, n, flag;
  double *x, cnt;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  if (ifarg(1)) flag = (int)*getarg(1); else flag=1; /* default: do wrap */
  for (i=0,cnt=0; i<n; i++) if (x[i]<0) { 
    x[i]=(flag?-x[i]:0.); 
    cnt++; 
  }
  return cnt;
}
ENDVERBATIM
  
:* v1.sw(FROM,TO) switchs all FROMs to TO
VERBATIM
static double sw(void* vv) {
  int i, n;
  double *x, fr, to;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  fr = *getarg(1);
  to = *getarg(2);
  for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
    if (x[i]==fr) { x[i] = to;}
  }
  return n;
}
ENDVERBATIM
 
:* v.b2v(bytevec) copies from vector to bytevec
VERBATIM
static double b2v(void* vv) {
  int i, n, num;
  double *x; bvec* to; Object *ob;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  ob = *(hoc_objgetarg(1));
  to = (bvec*)ob->u.this_pointer; /* doesn't check that this is actually a bvec */
  if (to->size!=n) { hoc_execerror("Vector and bytevec sizes don't match.", 0); }
  for (i=0; i<n; i++) x[i] = (double)to->x[i];
  return n;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v.v2d(&x) copies from vector to double area -- a seg error waiting to happen
VERBATIM
static double v2d(void* vv) {
  int i, n, num;
  double *x, *to;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  to = hoc_pgetarg(1);
  if (ifarg(2)) { num = *getarg(2); } else { num=-1;}
  if (num>-1 && num!=n) { hoc_execerror("Vector size doesn't match.", 0); }
  for (i=0; i<n; i++) {to[i] = x[i];}
  return n;
}
ENDVERBATIM
 
:* v.d2v(&x) copies from double area to vector -- a seg error waiting to happen
VERBATIM
static double d2v(void* vv) {
  int i, n, num;
  double *x, *fr;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  fr = hoc_pgetarg(1);
  if (ifarg(2)) { num = *getarg(2); } else { num=-1;}
  if (num>-1 && num!=n) { hoc_execerror("Vector size doesn't match.", 0); }
  for (i=0; i<n; i++) {x[i] = fr[i];}
  return n;
}
ENDVERBATIM
 
:* v.lcat(LIST)
VERBATIM
static double lcat(void* vv) {
  int i, j, k, n, lc, cap, maxsz;
  Object *ob1;
  double *x, *fr; 
  void *vw;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  vector_resize(vv,maxsz=vector_buffer_size(vv)); /* open it up fully */
  ob1 = *hoc_objgetarg(1);
  lc = ivoc_list_count(ob1);
  for (i=0,j=0;i<lc && j<maxsz;i++) {
    cap = list_vector_px2(ob1, i, &fr, &vw);
    for (k=0;k<cap && j<maxsz;k++,j++) x[j]=fr[k];
  }
  if (i<lc || k<cap) printf("vecst lcat WARN: not all vecs copied\n");
  vector_resize(vv,j);
  return (double)j;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v.mkcode(LIST,BITS) -- put together integer vectors from list by bit concatenating
VERBATIM
static double mkcode(void* vv) {
  int i, j, k, n, num, bits;
  Object *ob;
  double *x, *vvo[5];
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  ob = *hoc_objgetarg(1);
  if (ifarg(2)) bits = *getarg(2); else bits=3;
  num = ivoc_list_count(ob);
  if (num!=5) hoc_execerror("mkcode ****ERRA****: can only handle 5 vectors", 0);
  for (i=0;i<num;i++) {  j=list_vector_px(ob, i, &vvo[i]);
    if (n!=j) { printf("mkcode ****ERRC**** %d %d %d\n",i,n,j);
      hoc_execerror("Vectors must all be same size: ", 0); }}
  for (i=0;i<n;i++) { /* go through the vec length */
    for (j=0,x[i]=0;j<5;j++) {
      if (vvo[j][i]<0. || vvo[j][i]>=sc[4] || floor(vvo[j][i]+0.5)!=vvo[j][i]) {
        printf("vec.mkcode OOB %g>%g in vec[%d].x[%d]\n",vvo[j][i],sc[4],j,i); hxe(); }
        x[i]+=vvo[j][i]*sc[j+1];
    }
  }
  return (double)i;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v.uncode(val) -- take apart val and place in vector
: v.uncode(VECLIST) -- take apart vector items and place in vectors in list (cf uncodf)
: v.uncode(vec,field) -- take apart v entries and place requested field in vec
: v.uncode(field,val) -- replace field in v with val (cf recodf)
: v.uncode(field,vec) -- replace field in v with values from vec
VERBATIM
static double uncode (void* vv) {
  int i, j, n, ny, num, field;
  Object *ob;
  double *x, *y, *vvo[5], val, old;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  field=0;
  if (!ifarg(1)) { /* numarg()==0 */
    printf("\tv.uncode(val) -- take apart val and place in vector\n\tv.uncode(VECLIST) -- take apart vector items and place in vectors in list (cf uncodf)\n\tv.uncode(vec,field) -- take apart vector items and place requested field in vector\n\tv.uncode(field,val) -- replace field in v with val (cf recodf)\n\tv.uncode(field,vec) -- replace field in v with values from vec\n"); return 0.;
  } else if (!ifarg(2)) { /* numarg()==1 */
    if (hoc_is_double_arg(1)) {
      val = *getarg(1);
      if (vector_buffer_size(vv)<5) {
        hoc_execerror("uncode ****ERRA****: vector too small to resize(5)", 0);}
      vector_resize(vv,5);
      for (i=1;i<=5;i++) UNCODE(val,i,x[i-1])
      return x[0];
    } else {
      ob = *hoc_objgetarg(1);
      num = ivoc_list_count(ob);
      if (num!=5) hoc_execerror("uncode ****ERRA****: can only handle 5 vectors", 0);
      for (i=0;i<num;i++) {  j=list_vector_px(ob, i, &vvo[i]);
        if (n!=j) { printf("uncode ****ERRC**** %d %d %d\n",i,n,j);
          hoc_execerror("Vectors must all be same size: ", 0); }
      }
      for (i=0;i<n;i++) for (j=1;j<=5;j++) UNCODE(x[i],j,vvo[j-1][i]);
      return (double)i;
    }
  } else { /* numarg()==2 */
    if (hoc_is_double_arg(1)) { /* replace values */
      field = (int)chkarg(1,1.,5.);
      ny=-1;
      if (hoc_is_double_arg(2)) {
        val=chkarg(2,0.,sc[4]-1); 
        if (floor(val+0.5)!=val) hoc_execerror("uncode(vec) ****ERRG****: non-int val", 0);
      } else {
        ny=vector_arg_px(2, &y);
        if (ny!=n) hoc_execerror("uncode(vec) ****ERRH****: diff sized vecs", 0);
      }
      for (i=0;i<n;i++) {
        UNCODE(x[i],field,old)
        if (ny>0)  {
          if (y[i]<0.||y[i]>=sc[4]||floor(y[i]+0.5)!=y[i]) {
            printf("vec.uncode ERRJ OOB %g (%g max) at %d\n",y[i],sc[4],i);hxe();}
          x[i] += sc[field]*(y[i]-old);
        } else {
          x[i] += sc[field]*(val -old);
        }
      }
      return (double)i;
    } else {  /* fill single vector with values */
      ny = vector_arg_px(1, &y);
      field = (int)chkarg(2,1.,5.);
      if (ny!=n) hoc_execerror("uncode(vec) ****ERRI****: diff sized vecs", 0);
      for (i=0;i<n;i++) UNCODE(x[i],field,y[i])
      return (double)i;
    }
  }
}
ENDVERBATIM
 
VERBATIM
/* list_vector_px(LIST,ITEM#,DOUBLE PTR ADDRESS)  */
/* modeled on vector_arg_px() picks up a vec from a list */
int list_vector_px(Object *ob, int i, double** px) {
  Object* obv;
  int sz;
  obv = ivoc_list_item(ob, i);
  sz = vector_capacity(obv->u.this_pointer);
  *px = vector_vec(obv->u.this_pointer);
  return sz;
}

/** list_vector_px(LIST,ITEM#,DOUBLE PTR ADDRESS,VEC POINTER ADDRESS)  */
/*  returns the vector pointer as well as the double pointer */
int list_vector_px2 (Object *ob, int i, double** px, void** vv) {
  Object* obv;
  int sz;
  obv = ivoc_list_item(ob, i);
  sz = vector_capacity(obv->u.this_pointer);
  *px = vector_vec(obv->u.this_pointer);
  *vv = (void*) obv->u.this_pointer;
  return sz;
}

/** list_vector_resize(LIST,ITEM#,NEW SIZE) */
int list_vector_resize (Object *ob, int i, int sz) {
  Object* obv;
  int maxsz;
  obv = ivoc_list_item(ob, i);
  maxsz = vector_buffer_size(obv->u.this_pointer);
  if (sz>maxsz) {
    printf("max:%d request:%d ",maxsz,sz);
    hoc_execerror("Can't grow vector in list_vector_resize ", 0);
    return -1;
  }
  vector_resize(obv->u.this_pointer,sz);
  return sz;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v1.ismono([arg]) asks whether is monotonically increasing, with arg==-1 - decreasing
:  with arg==0:all same; 2:no consec ==; 3: incrementing by 1
VERBATIM
static int ismono1 (double *x, int n, int flag) {
  int i; double last;
  last=x[0]; 
  if (flag==1) {
    for (i=1; i<n && x[i]>=last; i++) last=x[i];
  } else if (flag==-1) {
    for (i=1; i<n && x[i]<=last; i++) last=x[i];
  } else if (flag==0) {
    for (i=1; i<n && x[i]==last; i++) ;
  } else if (flag==2) {
    for (i=1; i<n && x[i]>last; i++) last=x[i];
  } else if (flag==-2) {
    for (i=1; i<n && x[i]<last; i++) last=x[i];
  } else  if (flag==3) {
    for (i=1; i<n && x[i]==last+1; i++) last=x[i];
  } else  if (flag==-3) {
    for (i=1; i<n && x[i]==last-1; i++) last=x[i];
  }
  if (i==n) return 1; else return 0;
}

static double ismono(void* vv) {
  int i, n, flag;
  double *x,last;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  if (ifarg(1)) { flag = (int)*getarg(1); } else { flag = 1; }
  return (double)ismono1(x,n,flag);
}
ENDVERBATIM
 
:* v1.count(num) returns number of instances of num
VERBATIM
static double count(void* vv) {
  int i, n, cnt=0;
  double *x,num;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  num = *getarg(1);
  for (i=0; i<n; i++) if (x[i]==num) cnt++;
  return cnt;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v1.rnd() rounds off to nearest integer
VERBATIM
static double rnd(void* vv) {
  int i, n;
  double *x;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  for (i=0; i<n; i++) x[i]=floor(x[i]+0.5);
  return (double)i;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* v1.pop() removes last entry and shortens vector
VERBATIM
static double pop(void* vv) {
  int n;
  double *x;
  n = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  if (n==0) {printf("vec.pop ERR: empty vec\n");hxe();}
  vector_resize(vv,n-1);
  return x[n-1];
}
ENDVERBATIM

PROCEDURE Expo (x) {
  TABLE RES FROM -20 TO 0 WITH 5000
  RES = exp(x)
}

FUNCTION AAA (x) {
  Expo(x)
  AAA = RES
}

:* dest.smgs(src,low,high,step,var)
:  rewrite of v.sumgauss() in nrn5.3::ivoc/ivocvect.cpp:1078
VERBATIM
static double smgs (void* vv) {	
  int i, j, nx, xv, nsum, points, maxsz;
  double *x, *sum;
  double  low , high , step , var , svar , scale , arg;

  nsum = vector_instance_px(vv, &sum);
  nx = vector_arg_px(1,&x);
  low = *getarg(2);
  high = *getarg(3);
  step = *getarg(4);
  var = *getarg(5);

  points = (int)((high-low)/step+hoc_epsilon);
  if (nsum!=points) { 
    maxsz=vector_buffer_size(vv);
    if (points<=maxsz) {
      nsum=points;  vector_resize(vv, nsum); 
    } else {
      printf("%d > %d :: ",points,maxsz);
      hoc_execerror("Vector max capacity too small in smgs ", 0);
    }
  }

  svar = -2.*var*var/step/step;
  scale = 1./sqrt(2.*M_PI)/var;

  for (j=0; j<points;j++) sum[j] = 0.;
  for (i=0;i<nx;i++) {
    xv = (int)((x[i]-low)/step + 0.5);
    for (j=xv; j<points && (arg=(j-xv)*(j-xv)/svar)>-20;j++) {
      Expo(arg);
      sum[j] += RES;
    }
    for (j=xv-1; j>=0 && (arg=(j-xv)*(j-xv)/svar)>-20;j--) {
      Expo(arg);
      sum[j] += RES;
    }
  }
  for (j=0; j<points;j++) sum[j] *= scale;
  return svar;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* dest.smsy(tvec,CVLV_VEC,tstop[,dt,del])
:  sum CVLV_VEC starting at each point given in tvec with optional delay
:  used for summing up syn potentials
VERBATIM
static double smsy (void* vv) {	
  int i, j, k, nx, nc, nsum, points, maxsz;
  double *x, *sum, *c;
  double del,tstop,dtt;

  if (! ifarg(1)) { printf("dest.smsy(tvec,CVLV_VEC,tstop[,dtt,del])\n"); return -1.; }

  del=0.; dtt=0.2;
  nsum = vector_instance_px(vv, &sum);
  nx = vector_arg_px(1,&x);
  nc = vector_arg_px(2,&c);
  tstop = *getarg(3);
  if (ifarg(4)) dtt = *getarg(4);
  if (ifarg(5)) del = *getarg(5);

  points=(int)(tstop/dtt+hoc_epsilon);
  if (nsum!=points) { 
    maxsz=vector_buffer_size(vv);
    if (points<=maxsz) {
      vector_resize(vv, points); points=nsum; 
    } else {
      printf("%d > %d :: ",points,maxsz);
      hoc_execerror("Dest vector too small in smsy ", 0);
    }
  }

  /* don't zero out dest vec */
  for (i=0;i<nx;i++) for (j=0,k=(x[i]+del)/dtt;j<nc && k<nsum;j++,k++) sum[k] += c[j];
  return points;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* int.vrdh(FILE,veclist,code)
: vector read header will read the headers from vecs saved with vread()
: needs to be generalized so reads code as well, also should do BYTESWAP
VERBATIM 
static double vrdh (void* vv) {	
  int code, i, num, n[2], maxsz;
  double *x;
  FILE* f;

  num = vector_instance_px(vv, &x);
  maxsz=vector_buffer_size(vv);
  f =     hoc_obj_file_arg(1);
  num = (int)*getarg(2); /* number of vectors to look for */

  if (maxsz<2*num){printf("vrdh ERR0 need %d room in vec\n",2*num);hxe();}
  vector_resize(vv, 2*num);

  for (i=0;i<num;i++) { 
    fread(&n,sizeof(int),2,f); /* n[1] is type */
    if (n[1]!=3){printf("vrdh ERRA code 3 only implemented %d:%d\n",i,n[1]);hxe();}
    x[2*i]=(double)n[0]; /* size */
    x[2*i+1]=(double)n[1];
    fseek(f,(long)n[1],SEEK_CUR);
  }
  return num;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* rdmany(FILE,{veclist or vec},code[,num])
VERBATIM
static double rdmany (void* vv) {	
  int code, i, j, ni, vsz, ny, nv, num, cnt, n[2], sz, hd, vflag, iflag, last;
  Object* ob;
  double *vvo[100], sf[2], *ind, *y;
  FILE* f;

  vflag=iflag=0;
  ni = vector_instance_px(vv, &ind);
  f =     hoc_obj_file_arg(1);
  ob =   *hoc_objgetarg(2);
  if (ifarg(3)) cnt=(int)*getarg(3); else { cnt=ni; iflag=1; }
  if (strncmp(hoc_object_name(ob),"Vector",6)==0) vflag=1;
  i=2*sizeof(int) + 2*sizeof(double); /* size of header with scaling */
  j=2*sizeof(int);  /* size of header without scaling */
  fread(&n,sizeof(int),2,f);
  vsz=n[0]; code=n[1];
  fseek(f,(long)-2*sizeof(int),SEEK_CUR);  /* go back */
  if (DEBUG_VECST) printf("rdmanyDBA: %ld %d %d\n",ftell(f),vsz,code);
  switch (code) {
    /* case 1:sz=1; hd=i; break; // char */
    case 2:sz=2; hd=i; break; /* short */
    case 3:sz=4; hd=j; break; /* float */
    case 4:sz=8; hd=j; break; /* double */
    /* case 5:sz=4; hd=i; break; // int */
    default: hoc_execerror("rdmany ERRE: code not recognized", 0);
  }
  if (vflag) {
    ny = vector_arg_px(2, &y);
    num= cnt;
    if (vsz*cnt!=ny) {
      printf("rdmany ERRD: wrong size vec: %d statt (%d*%d) %d\n",ny,vsz,cnt,vsz*cnt); hxe();}
  } else {
    num = ivoc_list_count(ob);
    if (num>100) hoc_execerror("rdmany ERRA: can only handle 100 vectors", 0);
    if (num!=cnt) {printf("rdmany ERRB: %d != %d",num,cnt); hxe();}
    for (i=0;i<num;i++) { 
      nv = list_vector_px(ob, i, &vvo[i]);
      if (vsz!=nv){printf("rdmany ERRC: Vectors must all be same size %d %d %d\n",i,vsz,nv);hxe();}
    }
  }
  if (vsz*sz>bufsz) { 
    if (scrsz>0) { free(scr); scr=(unsigned int *)NULL; }
    scrsz=vsz+10;
    scr=(unsigned int *)ecalloc(scrsz, sz);
    bufsz=scrsz*sz; /* number of chars available */
  }
  if (code==2) {
    unsigned short *xs;
    xs=(unsigned short *)scr;
    for (last=-1,i=0;i<num;i++) {
      if (iflag) {  /* iflag // "i flag" not "if lag" */
        fseek(f,(long)((int)ind[i]-last-1)*(hd+vsz*sizeof(short)),SEEK_CUR); 
        if (DEBUG_VECST) printf("rdmanyDBB %ld ",ftell(f));
        last=(int)ind[i]; 
      }
      fread(&n,sizeof(int),2,f);
      fread(&sf,sizeof(double),2,f);
      if (n[0]!=vsz){printf("rdmany ERRA vec(%d) %d vs %d\n",iflag?(int)ind[i]:i,vsz,n[0]);hxe();}
      if (n[1]!=code){printf("rdmany ERRB code mismatch %d %d\n",n[1],code);hxe();}
      fread(xs,sizeof(short),n[0],f);
      for (j=0;j<vsz;j++) if (vflag) {
            y[i*vsz+j]=(double)(xs[j]/sf[0] + sf[1]);
      } else vvo[i][j]=(double)(xs[j]/sf[0] + sf[1]);
    }
  } else if (code==3) {
    float *xs;
    xs=(float *)scr;
    for (last=-1,i=0;i<num;i++) {
      if (iflag) { 
        fseek(f,(long)((int)ind[i]-last-1)*(hd+vsz*sizeof(float)),SEEK_CUR); 
        last=(int)ind[i]; 
      }
      if (DEBUG_VECST) printf("rdmanyDBC:%ld ",ftell(f));
      fread(&n,sizeof(int),2,f);
      if (n[0]!=vsz){printf("rdmany ERRA vec(%d) %d vs %d\n",iflag?(int)ind[i]:i,vsz,n[0]);hxe();}
      if (n[1]!=code){printf("rdmany ERRB code mismatch %d %d\n",n[1],code);hxe();}
      fread(xs,sizeof(float),n[0],f);
      for (j=0;j<n[0];j++) if (vflag) {
            y[i*vsz+j]=(double)xs[j];
      } else vvo[i][j]=(double)xs[j];
    }
  } else if (code==4) {
    double *xs;
    xs=(double *)scr;
    for (last=-1,i=0;i<num;i++) {
      if (iflag) { 
        fseek(f,(long)((int)ind[i]-last-1)*(hd+vsz*sizeof(double)),SEEK_CUR); 
        last=(int)ind[i]; 
      }
      if (DEBUG_VECST) printf("rdmanyDBD %ld ",ftell(f));
      fread(&n,sizeof(int),2,f);
      if (n[0]!=vsz){printf("rdmany ERRA vec(%d) %d vs %d\n",iflag?(int)ind[i]:i,vsz,n[0]);hxe();}
      if (n[1]!=code){printf("rdmany ERRB code mismatch %d %d\n",n[1],code);hxe();}
      fread(xs,sizeof(double),n[0],f); /* should just read directly into final array */
      for (j=0;j<n[0];j++) if (vflag) y[i*vsz+j]=xs[j]; else vvo[i][j]=xs[j];
    }
  } else printf("rdmany() code %d not implemented\n",code);
  return num;
}
ENDVERBATIM

:* PROCEDURE install_vecst()
PROCEDURE install_vecst () {
  if (VECST_INSTALLED==1) {
    printf("$Id: vecst.mod,v 1.5 2006/02/14 13:11:29 hines Exp $\n")
  } else {
  VECST_INSTALLED=1
VERBATIM
{
  int i,j;
  install_vector_method("indset", indset);
  install_vector_method("thresh", thresh);
  install_vector_method("triplet", triplet);
  install_vector_method("onoff", onoff);
  install_vector_method("bpeval", bpeval);
  install_vector_method("w", w);
  install_vector_method("sedit", sedit);
  install_vector_method("xing", xing);
  install_vector_method("updown", updown);
  install_vector_method("scxing", scxing);
  install_vector_method("cvlv", cvlv);
  install_vector_method("sccvlv", sccvlv);
  install_vector_method("scl", scl);
  install_vector_method("intrp", intrp);
  install_vector_method("xzero", xzero);
  install_vector_method("negwrap", negwrap);
  install_vector_method("sw", sw);
  install_vector_method("ismono", ismono);
  install_vector_method("count", count);
  install_vector_method("rnd", rnd);
  install_vector_method("fewind", fewind);
  install_vector_method("findx", findx);
  install_vector_method("sindx", sindx);
  install_vector_method("sindv", sindv);
  install_vector_method("nind", nind);
  install_vector_method("keyind", keyind);
  install_vector_method("slct", slct);
  install_vector_method("slor", slor);
  install_vector_method("insct", insct);
  install_vector_method("cull", cull);
  install_vector_method("redundout", redundout);
  install_vector_method("mredundout", mredundout);
  install_vector_method("d2v", d2v);
  install_vector_method("v2d", v2d);
  install_vector_method("b2v", b2v);
  install_vector_method("iwr", iwr);
  install_vector_method("ird", ird);
  install_vector_method("smgs", smgs);
  install_vector_method("smsy", smsy);
  install_vector_method("ident", ident);
  install_vector_method("lcat", lcat);
  install_vector_method("snap", snap);
  install_vector_method("fread2", fread2);
  install_vector_method("vfill", vfill);
  install_vector_method("vrdh", vrdh);
  install_vector_method("mkcode", mkcode);
  install_vector_method("uncode", uncode);
  install_vector_method("sumabs", sumabs);
  install_vector_method("inv", inv);
  install_vector_method("join", join);
  install_vector_method("slone", slone);
  install_vector_method("pop", pop);
  install_vector_method("rdmany", rdmany);
  for (i=0,j=5;i<=5;i++,j--) sc[i]=pow(2,10*j);
}
ENDVERBATIM
  }
}

: isojt(OB1,EXAMPLE_OBJ) return whether OB1 is an instance of EXAMPLE_OBJ
FUNCTION isojt () {
  VERBATIM
  Object *ob1, *ob2;
  ob1 = *hoc_objgetarg(1); ob2 = *hoc_objgetarg(2);
  if (!ob1) if (!ob2) return 1; else return 0;
  if (!ob2 || ob1->template != ob2->template) {
    return 0;
  }
  return 1;
  ENDVERBATIM
}

: isojn(OB1,NAME) return whether OB1 is an instance of EXAMPLE_OBJ
FUNCTION isojn () {
  VERBATIM
  Object *ob1; char* name;
  ob1 = *hoc_objgetarg(1); name = gargstr(2);
  if (strncmp(hoc_object_name(ob1),name,3)==0) _lisojn=1.; else _lisojn=0.;
  ENDVERBATIM
}

: ojtnum(OBJ) returns object number
: returns internal number of object, eg if vec[3] is Vector[432] returns 432
FUNCTION ojtnum () {
  VERBATIM
  Object *ob1;
  ob1 = *hoc_objgetarg(1);
  if (!ob1) return -1;
  return (double)ob1->index;
  ENDVERBATIM
}

: eqojt(OB1,OB2) return whether OB1 and OB2 point to same object
FUNCTION eqojt () {
  VERBATIM
  Object *ob1, *ob2;
  ob1 = *hoc_objgetarg(1); ob2 = *hoc_objgetarg(2);
  if (ob1 && ob2 && ob1==ob2) {
    return 1;
  }
  return 0;
  ENDVERBATIM
}

:* byteswap(FILE)
FUNCTION byteswap () {
  VERBATIM
  int n[2];
  double ret;
  FILE* f;
  BYTEHEADER

  f =     hoc_obj_file_arg(1);
  fread(&n,sizeof(int),2,f);
  if (n[1] < 1 || n[1] > 5) {
    BYTESWAP_FLAG = 1;
    ret = 1.; 
  } else ret = 0.;
  BYTESWAP(n[1],int)
  if (n[1] < 1 || n[1] > 5) { 
    printf("byteswap: Something wrong with location sampled: %d\n",n[1]);
    ret = -1.;
  }
  fseek(f,-2*sizeof(int),SEEK_CUR); /* go back to where we started */
  return ret;
  ENDVERBATIM
}


: mkcodf(val1,val2,val3,val4,val5) stuff 5 vals<=999 into a single double
FUNCTION mkcodf () {
  VERBATIM
  int i;
  double x,a;
  for (x=0.,i=1;i<=5;i++) { 
    a=chkarg(i,0.,sc[4]-1);
    if (floor(a+0.5)!=a) {
      printf("mkcodf restricted to integers %g\n",a);hxe();}
    x+=a*sc[i];
  }
  return x;
  ENDVERBATIM
}

: uncodf(code,i) returns field i (1-5) from code
FUNCTION uncodf () {
  VERBATIM
  int i;
  double x,ret, *ptr;
  x=*getarg(1);
  if (hoc_is_double_arg(2)) {
    i=(int)chkarg(2,1.,5.); 
    UNCODE(x,i,ret);
    return ret;
  } else {
    for (i=2;i<=6;i++) if (ifarg(i)) {
      ptr = hoc_pgetarg(i);
      UNCODE(x,i-1,*ptr);
    } else break;
    return *ptr;
  }
  ENDVERBATIM
}

: recodf(i,code,new) replaces field i (1-5) from code with new
FUNCTION recodf () {
  VERBATIM
  int i;
  double x, y, old;
  i=(int)chkarg(1,1.,5.); x=*getarg(2); y=chkarg(3,0.,sc[4]-1);
  UNCODE(x,i,old);
  return x + sc[i]*(y-old);
  ENDVERBATIM
}

: flor(val)
FUNCTION flor () {
  VERBATIM
  return floor(*getarg(1));
  ENDVERBATIM
}

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