Optimal deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus-a computational study (Feng et al. 2007)

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Accession:93449
Here, we use a biophysically-based model of spiking cells in the basal ganglia (Terman et al., Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 2963-2976, 2002; Rubin and Terman, Journal of Computational Neuroscience, 16, 211-235, 2004) to provide computational evidence that alternative temporal patterns of DBS inputs might be equally effective as the standard high-frequency waveforms, but require lower amplitudes. Within this model, DBS performance is assessed in two ways. First, we determine the extent to which DBS causes Gpi (globus pallidus pars interna) synaptic outputs, which are burstlike and synchronized in the unstimulated Parkinsonian state, to cease their pathological modulation of simulated thalamocortical cells. Second, we evaluate how DBS affects the GPi cells' auto- and cross-correlograms.
References:
1 . Terman D, Rubin JE, Yew AC, Wilson CJ (2002) Activity patterns in a model for the subthalamopallidal network of the basal ganglia. J Neurosci 22:2963-76 [PubMed]
2 . Rubin JE, Terman D (2004) High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus eliminates pathological thalamic rhythmicity in a computational model. J Comput Neurosci 16:211-35 [PubMed]
3 . Feng XJ, Shea-Brown E, Greenwald B, Kosut R, Rabitz H (2007) Optimal deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus--a computational study. J Comput Neurosci 23:265-82 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Basal ganglia;
Cell Type(s): Globus pallidus neuron;
Channel(s): I T low threshold; I Sodium; I Potassium;
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): Glutamate; Gaba;
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s): Gaba; Glutamate;
Simulation Environment: C or C++ program;
Model Concept(s): Parkinson's; Deep brain stimulation;
Implementer(s): Feng, Xiao-Jiang [xfeng at mahler.princeton.edu];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Glutamate; Gaba; I T low threshold; I Sodium; I Potassium; Gaba; Glutamate;
/* CAUTION: This is the ANSI C (only) version of the Numerical Recipes
   utility file nrutil.c.  Do not confuse this file with the same-named
   file nrutil.c that is supplied in the 'misc' subdirectory.
   *That* file is the one from the book, and contains both ANSI and
   traditional K&R versions, along with #ifdef macros to select the
   correct version.  *This* file contains only ANSI C.               */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#define NR_END 1
#define FREE_ARG char*

void nrerror(char error_text[])
/* Numerical Recipes standard error handler */
{
	fprintf(stderr,"Numerical Recipes run-time error...\n");
	fprintf(stderr,"%s\n",error_text);
	fprintf(stderr,"...now exiting to system...\n");
	exit(1);
}

float *vector(long nl, long nh)
/* allocate a float vector with subscript range v[nl..nh] */
{
	float *v;

	v=(float *)malloc((size_t) ((nh-nl+1+NR_END)*sizeof(float)));
	if (!v) nrerror("allocation failure in vector()");
	return v-nl+NR_END;
}

int *ivector(long nl, long nh)
/* allocate an int vector with subscript range v[nl..nh] */
{
	int *v;

	v=(int *)malloc((size_t) ((nh-nl+1+NR_END)*sizeof(int)));
	if (!v) nrerror("allocation failure in ivector()");
	return v-nl+NR_END;
}

unsigned char *cvector(long nl, long nh)
/* allocate an unsigned char vector with subscript range v[nl..nh] */
{
	unsigned char *v;

	v=(unsigned char *)malloc((size_t) ((nh-nl+1+NR_END)*sizeof(unsigned char)));
	if (!v) nrerror("allocation failure in cvector()");
	return v-nl+NR_END;
}

unsigned long *lvector(long nl, long nh)
/* allocate an unsigned long vector with subscript range v[nl..nh] */
{
	unsigned long *v;

	v=(unsigned long *)malloc((size_t) ((nh-nl+1+NR_END)*sizeof(long)));
	if (!v) nrerror("allocation failure in lvector()");
	return v-nl+NR_END;
}

double *dvector(long nl, long nh)
/* allocate a double vector with subscript range v[nl..nh] */
{
	double *v;

	v=(double *)malloc((size_t) ((nh-nl+1+NR_END)*sizeof(double)));
	if (!v) nrerror("allocation failure in dvector()");
	return v-nl+NR_END;
}

float **matrix(long nrl, long nrh, long ncl, long nch)
/* allocate a float matrix with subscript range m[nrl..nrh][ncl..nch] */
{
	long i, nrow=nrh-nrl+1,ncol=nch-ncl+1;
	float **m;

	/* allocate pointers to rows */
	m=(float **) malloc((size_t)((nrow+NR_END)*sizeof(float*)));
	if (!m) nrerror("allocation failure 1 in matrix()");
	m += NR_END;
	m -= nrl;

	/* allocate rows and set pointers to them */
	m[nrl]=(float *) malloc((size_t)((nrow*ncol+NR_END)*sizeof(float)));
	if (!m[nrl]) nrerror("allocation failure 2 in matrix()");
	m[nrl] += NR_END;
	m[nrl] -= ncl;

	for(i=nrl+1;i<=nrh;i++) m[i]=m[i-1]+ncol;

	/* return pointer to array of pointers to rows */
	return m;
}

double **dmatrix(long nrl, long nrh, long ncl, long nch)
/* allocate a double matrix with subscript range m[nrl..nrh][ncl..nch] */
{
	long i, nrow=nrh-nrl+1,ncol=nch-ncl+1;
	double **m;

	/* allocate pointers to rows */
	m=(double **) malloc((size_t)((nrow+NR_END)*sizeof(double*)));
	if (!m) nrerror("allocation failure 1 in matrix()");
	m += NR_END;
	m -= nrl;

	/* allocate rows and set pointers to them */
	m[nrl]=(double *) malloc((size_t)((nrow*ncol+NR_END)*sizeof(double)));
	if (!m[nrl]) nrerror("allocation failure 2 in matrix()");
	m[nrl] += NR_END;
	m[nrl] -= ncl;

	for(i=nrl+1;i<=nrh;i++) m[i]=m[i-1]+ncol;

	/* return pointer to array of pointers to rows */
	return m;
}

int **imatrix(long nrl, long nrh, long ncl, long nch)
/* allocate a int matrix with subscript range m[nrl..nrh][ncl..nch] */
{
	long i, nrow=nrh-nrl+1,ncol=nch-ncl+1;
	int **m;

	/* allocate pointers to rows */
	m=(int **) malloc((size_t)((nrow+NR_END)*sizeof(int*)));
	if (!m) nrerror("allocation failure 1 in matrix()");
	m += NR_END;
	m -= nrl;


	/* allocate rows and set pointers to them */
	m[nrl]=(int *) malloc((size_t)((nrow*ncol+NR_END)*sizeof(int)));
	if (!m[nrl]) nrerror("allocation failure 2 in matrix()");
	m[nrl] += NR_END;
	m[nrl] -= ncl;

	for(i=nrl+1;i<=nrh;i++) m[i]=m[i-1]+ncol;

	/* return pointer to array of pointers to rows */
	return m;
}

float **submatrix(float **a, long oldrl, long oldrh, long oldcl, long oldch,
	long newrl, long newcl)
/* point a submatrix [newrl..][newcl..] to a[oldrl..oldrh][oldcl..oldch] */
{
	long i,j,nrow=oldrh-oldrl+1,ncol=oldcl-newcl;
	float **m;

	/* allocate array of pointers to rows */
	m=(float **) malloc((size_t) ((nrow+NR_END)*sizeof(float*)));
	if (!m) nrerror("allocation failure in submatrix()");
	m += NR_END;
	m -= newrl;

	/* set pointers to rows */
	for(i=oldrl,j=newrl;i<=oldrh;i++,j++) m[j]=a[i]+ncol;

	/* return pointer to array of pointers to rows */
	return m;
}

float **convert_matrix(float *a, long nrl, long nrh, long ncl, long nch)
/* allocate a float matrix m[nrl..nrh][ncl..nch] that points to the matrix
declared in the standard C manner as a[nrow][ncol], where nrow=nrh-nrl+1
and ncol=nch-ncl+1. The routine should be called with the address
&a[0][0] as the first argument. */
{
	long i,j,nrow=nrh-nrl+1,ncol=nch-ncl+1;
	float **m;

	/* allocate pointers to rows */
	m=(float **) malloc((size_t) ((nrow+NR_END)*sizeof(float*)));
	if (!m) nrerror("allocation failure in convert_matrix()");
	m += NR_END;
	m -= nrl;

	/* set pointers to rows */
	m[nrl]=a-ncl;
	for(i=1,j=nrl+1;i<nrow;i++,j++) m[j]=m[j-1]+ncol;
	/* return pointer to array of pointers to rows */
	return m;
}

float ***f3tensor(long nrl, long nrh, long ncl, long nch, long ndl, long ndh)
/* allocate a float 3tensor with range t[nrl..nrh][ncl..nch][ndl..ndh] */
{
	long i,j,nrow=nrh-nrl+1,ncol=nch-ncl+1,ndep=ndh-ndl+1;
	float ***t;

	/* allocate pointers to pointers to rows */
	t=(float ***) malloc((size_t)((nrow+NR_END)*sizeof(float**)));
	if (!t) nrerror("allocation failure 1 in f3tensor()");
	t += NR_END;
	t -= nrl;

	/* allocate pointers to rows and set pointers to them */
	t[nrl]=(float **) malloc((size_t)((nrow*ncol+NR_END)*sizeof(float*)));
	if (!t[nrl]) nrerror("allocation failure 2 in f3tensor()");
	t[nrl] += NR_END;
	t[nrl] -= ncl;

	/* allocate rows and set pointers to them */
	t[nrl][ncl]=(float *) malloc((size_t)((nrow*ncol*ndep+NR_END)*sizeof(float)));
	if (!t[nrl][ncl]) nrerror("allocation failure 3 in f3tensor()");
	t[nrl][ncl] += NR_END;
	t[nrl][ncl] -= ndl;

	for(j=ncl+1;j<=nch;j++) t[nrl][j]=t[nrl][j-1]+ndep;
	for(i=nrl+1;i<=nrh;i++) {
		t[i]=t[i-1]+ncol;
		t[i][ncl]=t[i-1][ncl]+ncol*ndep;
		for(j=ncl+1;j<=nch;j++) t[i][j]=t[i][j-1]+ndep;
	}

	/* return pointer to array of pointers to rows */
	return t;
}

void free_vector(float *v, long nl, long nh)
/* free a float vector allocated with vector() */
{
	free((FREE_ARG) (v+nl-NR_END));
}

void free_ivector(int *v, long nl, long nh)
/* free an int vector allocated with ivector() */
{
	free((FREE_ARG) (v+nl-NR_END));
}

void free_cvector(unsigned char *v, long nl, long nh)
/* free an unsigned char vector allocated with cvector() */
{
	free((FREE_ARG) (v+nl-NR_END));
}

void free_lvector(unsigned long *v, long nl, long nh)
/* free an unsigned long vector allocated with lvector() */
{
	free((FREE_ARG) (v+nl-NR_END));
}

void free_dvector(double *v, long nl, long nh)
/* free a double vector allocated with dvector() */
{
	free((FREE_ARG) (v+nl-NR_END));
}

void free_matrix(float **m, long nrl, long nrh, long ncl, long nch)
/* free a float matrix allocated by matrix() */
{
	free((FREE_ARG) (m[nrl]+ncl-NR_END));
	free((FREE_ARG) (m+nrl-NR_END));
}

void free_dmatrix(double **m, long nrl, long nrh, long ncl, long nch)
/* free a double matrix allocated by dmatrix() */
{
	free((FREE_ARG) (m[nrl]+ncl-NR_END));
	free((FREE_ARG) (m+nrl-NR_END));
}

void free_imatrix(int **m, long nrl, long nrh, long ncl, long nch)
/* free an int matrix allocated by imatrix() */
{
	free((FREE_ARG) (m[nrl]+ncl-NR_END));
	free((FREE_ARG) (m+nrl-NR_END));
}

void free_submatrix(float **b, long nrl, long nrh, long ncl, long nch)
/* free a submatrix allocated by submatrix() */
{
	free((FREE_ARG) (b+nrl-NR_END));
}

void free_convert_matrix(float **b, long nrl, long nrh, long ncl, long nch)
/* free a matrix allocated by convert_matrix() */
{
	free((FREE_ARG) (b+nrl-NR_END));
}

void free_f3tensor(float ***t, long nrl, long nrh, long ncl, long nch,
	long ndl, long ndh)
/* free a float f3tensor allocated by f3tensor() */
{
	free((FREE_ARG) (t[nrl][ncl]+ndl-NR_END));
	free((FREE_ARG) (t[nrl]+ncl-NR_END));
	free((FREE_ARG) (t+nrl-NR_END));
}

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