Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006)

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Accession:94845
This is a model of the visual cortex of freshwater turtles that is based upon the known anatomy and physiology of individual neurons. The model was published in three papers (Nenadic et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2006), which should be consulted for full details on its construction. The model has also been used in several papers (Robbins and Senseman, 2004; Du et al., 2005; Du et al., 2006). It is implemented in GENESIS (Bower and Beeman, 1998).
Reference:
1 . Nenadic Z, Ghosh BJ, Ulinski P (2003) Propagating Waves in Visual Cortex: A Large-Scale Model of Turtle Visual Cortex Journal of Computational Neuroscience 14:161-184 [PubMed]
2 . Nenadic Z, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2002) Modeling and estimation problems in the turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 49:753-62 [PubMed]
3 . Robbins KA, Senseman DM (2004) Extracting wave structure from biological data with application to responses in turtle visual cortex. J Comput Neurosci 16:267-98 [PubMed]
4 . Wang W, Campaigne C, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2005) Two cortical circuits control propagating waves in visual cortex. J Comput Neurosci 19:263-89 [PubMed]
5 . Wang W (2006) Dynamics of the turtle visual cortex and design of sensor networks D.Sc. Thesis
6 . Wang W, Luo S, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2006) Generation of the receptive fields of subpial cells in turtle visual cortex. J Integr Neurosci 5:561-93 [PubMed]
7 . Du X, Ghosh BK, Ulinski P (2006) Encoding of motion targets by waves in turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 53:1688-95 [PubMed]
8 . Du X, Ghosh BK, Ulinski P (2005) Encoding and decoding target locations with waves in the turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 52:566-77 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism: Turtle cortex;
Cell Type(s): Turtle dorsal cortex lateral pyramidal cell; Turtle dorsal cortex medial pyramidal cell; Turtle dorsal cortex subpial cell; Turtle dorsal cortex stellate cell; Turtle dorsal cortex horizontal cell;
Channel(s): I Na,t; I L high threshold; I K; I K,Ca;
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): GabaA; GabaB; AMPA; NMDA;
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s):
Simulation Environment: GENESIS;
Model Concept(s): Spatio-temporal Activity Patterns;
Implementer(s): Robbins, Kay [krobbins at cs.utsa.edu];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  GabaA; GabaB; AMPA; NMDA; I Na,t; I L high threshold; I K; I K,Ca;
  
/
TurtleVisCortex
coords
lib
models
output
README.html
README
TurtleVisCortex-descrip.pdf
                            
GENESIS Turtle Cortex Model README file
=======================================

This is the large scale model of turtle visual cortex (the "NGU model")
described in:

Nenadic, Z., Ghosh, B.K. and Ulinski. P. (2003)
Propagating Waves in Visual Cortex: A Large Scale Model of Turtle Visual
Cortex", J. Computational Neuroscience 14:161-184.

and

Nenadic, Z., Ghosh, B.K. and Ulinski. P. (2002) Modeling and Estimation
Problems in the Turtle Visual Cortex, IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Eng., 49:753-762

It is also described in considerable detail in the file
TurtleVisCortex-descrip.pdf, which is included in this archive.
This README file tells how to run the simulation with GENESIS.

To run the simulation
---------------------

1. If you do not have the GENESIS simulator installed, download it from
   the GENESIS web site at http://genesis-sim.org/GENESIS.  It is available
   in source and binary versions for UNIX/Linux, MAC OSX, and Windows with
   Cygwin.  Follow the installation instructions provided with the
   GENESIS distribution.

2. Unpack the archive TurtleVisCortex.tar.gz or TurtleVisCortex.zip.
   It will unpack to the directory TurtleVisCortex/.

3. In a console window, change to the directory TurtleVisCortex/models

4. Start genesis

5. In genesis, type "TurtleVisCortex"

With the default settings in the main simulation script
TurtleVisCortex.g, a simple graphical interface appears, after a few
minutes of setup time for the network.  It's use is optional, and the
main script may be modified to perform the simulation with no graphics,
as for doing long simulation runs in batch mode.  In either case, output
is generated to plain text files in subdirectories of TurtleVisCortex/output.

6. Click on RUN in the CONTROL PANEL

The default stimulus applied is the "diffuse light flash", simulated
with a 0.15 sec pulse of 0.2 nA injection current to the soma of all 201
LGN neurons.  The four graphs show the network response by plotting the
soma membrane potential of the medial and lateral layer pyramidal cell
neurons /network_lateral/cell321, /network_medial/cell279,
/network_lateral/cell1, and /network_medial/cell1.  The window under the
control panel shows the locations of the lateral (represented by
squares) and medial (represented by triangles) pyramidal cells.  During
the simulation, they change color to represent the soma membrane
potenial of the cells cells.  For the first 0.6 seconds of the
simulation, you will see the spreading wave of activation, due to the
flash.

Further notes on the simulation scripts
---------------------------------------

The TurtleVisCortex.g script includes various GENESIS scripts in ../lib
that define functions that are used in the main script for setting up
the network.  It defines several global variables that may be changed to
alter the simulation behavior.  Some of the more important ones are:

Simulation duration and integration step size in seconds:

float tmax = 1.50   // Time in seconds for the simulation to run
float dt = 0.00005  // Internal time stepsize

The stimulation flags:

int DIFFUSE_LIGHT_FLASH = 1
int STATIONARY_LIGHT_SPOT = 0
int MOVING_LIGHT_SPOT = 0
int DIRECT_NEURON_STIM_REC = 0
int DIRECT_NEURON_STIM_CIR = 0

These are for

1. Diffuse light flash (the default)
2. Stationary spot flash
3. Moving spot stimulation
4. Direct neuron stimulation -- rectangular area
5. Direct neuron stimulation -- circular area

The functions can be used individually, or in combinations. In fact, you
can stimulate all five ways in the same run if you want to.  Details for
changing the stimulus are provided in TurtleVisCortex.g and in
TurtleVisCortex/lib/stimulus.g.

The default name of the data directory for the output response files is 
defined in TurtleVisCortex.g as:

str responseName  = "TurtleVisCortex_diffuse_" 

Change this name for each different run.  If files in a directory with
this name exist, they will be overwritten the next time the simulation
is run.

../lib/utilities_control.g defines the functions that are used to run
the simulation with or without graphics.  It can be used as the starting
point for more sophisticated graphical interfaces to the simulation.

../coords contains plain text data files with the coordinates
of neurons in the seven layers of the model.  The figure in
TurtleVisCortex/coords/Distribution_of_Neurons_Cortex.pdf shows the
locations of the 368 lateral neurons (blue), 311 medial neurons
(yellow), 20 horizontal neurons (green), 45 stellate neurons (red), and
44 subpial neurons (magenta) in a simulated 1.6 x 1.6 mm piece of
cortex.  There are also 201 LGN input neurons, represented as a line of
equally spaced cells.
 
Displaying simulation results with DAVIS
----------------------------------------

Davis (Data Viewing System) is a general-purpose data viewer designed
for the simultaneous display of a large number of dynamic data sets.
Davis was inspired by the need to explore computational models of the
cerebral cortex, and may be used to provide a variety of visualizations
of the output from this model.

You may find more about Davis from  http:/visual.cs.utsa.edu/davis/
and instructions for using webstart to run it directly from a browser
in order to further analyze the output of this model.

Nenadic Z, Ghosh BJ, Ulinski P (2003) Propagating Waves in Visual Cortex: A Large-Scale Model of Turtle Visual Cortex Journal of Computational Neuroscience 14:161-184[PubMed]

References and models cited by this paper

References and models that cite this paper

Ammermuller J, Muller JF, Kolb H (1995) The organization of the turtle inner retina. II. Analysis of color-coded and directionally selective cells. J Comp Neurol 358:35-62

Baker TI, Ulinski PS (2001) Models of direction selective and nondirection selective turtle retinal ganglion cells Soc Neurosci Abstr

Blanton MG, Kriegstein AR (1992) Properties of amino acid neurotransmitter receptors of embryonic cortical neurons when activated by exogenous and endogenous agonists. J Neurophysiol 67:1185-200 [Journal]

Blanton MG, Shen JM, Kriegstein AR (1987) Evidence for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid in aspiny and sparsely spiny nonpyramidal neurons of the turtle dorsal cortex. J Comp Neurol 259:277-97

Block J, Colombe JB, Ulinski PS (2002) Physiology of identified stellate cells from turtle visual cortex. Soc Neurosci Abstr

Boiko VP (2003) Responses to visual stimuli in thalamic neurons of the turtle Emys orbicularis. Neurosci Behav Physiol 10:183-8 [PubMed]

Bower JM, Beeman D (1998) The Book Of Genesis: Exploring Realistic Neural Models With The General Neural Simulation System

Bringuier V, Chavane F, Glaeser L, Fregnac Y (1999) Horizontal propagation of visual activity in the synaptic integration field of area 17 neurons. Science 283:695-9

Chagnac-Amitai Y, Connors BW (1989) Horizontal spread of synchronized activity in neocortex and its control by GABA-mediated inhibition. J Neurophysiol 61:747-58 [Journal] [PubMed]

Chervin RD, Pierce PA, Connors BW (1988) Periodicity and directionality in the propagation of epileptiform discharges across neocortex. J Neurophysiol 60:1695-713 [Journal] [PubMed]

Colombe JB, Ulinski PS (2003) Temporal dispersion windows in cortical neurons. J Comput Neurosci 7:71-87 [Journal]

Connors BW, Kriegstein AR (1986) Cellular physiology of the turtle visual cortex: distinctive properties of pyramidal and stellate neurons. J Neurosci 6:164-77

Contreras D, Llinas R (2001) Voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neocortical spatiotemporal dynamics to afferent activation frequency. J Neurosci 21:9403-13 [PubMed]

Cosans CE, Ulinski PS (1990) Spatial organization of axons in turtle visual cortex: intralamellar and interlamellar projections. J Comp Neurol 296:548-58

Desan PH (1994) The organization of the cerebral cortex of the pond turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans.

Ermentrout GB, Kleinfeld D (2001) Traveling electrical waves in cortex: insights from phase dynamics and speculation on a computational role. Neuron 29:33-44 [PubMed]

Feldman ML, Peters A (1979) A technique for estimating total spine numbers on Golgi-impregnated dendrites. J Comp Neurol 188:527-42 [Journal] [PubMed]

Fowler M (1994) Analysis of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic potentials from pyramidal cells of turtle visual cortex Ph.D. dissertation

Ghazanfar AA, Nicolelis MA (1999) Spatiotemporal properties of layer V neurons of the rat primary somatosensory cortex. Cereb Cortex 9:348-61

Granda AM, Fulbrook JE (1989) Classification of turtle retinal ganglion cells. J Neurophysiol 62:723-37 [Journal]

Grinvald A, Lieke EE, Frostig RD, Hildesheim R (1994) Cortical point-spread function and long-range lateral interactions revealed by real-time optical imaging of macaque monkey primary visual cortex. J Neurosci 14:2545-68 [PubMed]

Heller SB, Ulinski PS (1987) Morphology of geniculocortical axons in turtles of the genera Pseudemys and Chrysemys. Anat Embryol (Berl) 175:505-15

Jahr CE, Stevens CF (1990) A quantitative description of NMDA receptor-channel kinetic behavior. J Neurosci 10:1830-7 [PubMed]

Jensen RJ, DeVoe RD (1983) Comparisons of directionally selective with other ganglion cells of the turtle retina: intracellular recording and staining. J Comp Neurol 217:271-87

Khatri V, Ulinski PS (2000) Functional significance of inhibitory interactions between inhibitory interneurons in visual cortex Neurocomputing 32:425-432

Kriegstein AR (1987) Synaptic responses of cortical pyramidal neurons to light stimulation in the isolated turtle visual system. J Neurosci 7:2488-92

Larson-Prior LJ, Ulinski PS, Slater NT (1991) Excitatory amino acid receptor-mediated transmission in geniculocortical and intracortical pathways within visual cortex. J Neurophysiol 66:293-306 [Journal]

Madison DV, Nicoll RA (1984) Control of the repetitive discharge of rat CA 1 pyramidal neurones in vitro. J Physiol 354:319-31 [PubMed]

Mancilla JG, Fowler M, Ulinski PS (2003) Responses of regular spiking and fast spiking cells in turtle visual cortex to light flashes. Vis Neurosci 15:979-93

Mancilla JG, Ulinski PS (1996) Temporal structure of compound postsynaptic potentials in visual cortex Proceedings of the Fourth Computation and Neural Systems Conference, Bower JM, ed. pp.227

Mancilla JG, Ulinski PS (2003) Role of GABA(A)-mediated inhibition in controlling the responses of regular spiking cells in turtle visual cortex. Vis Neurosci 18:9-24

Marchiafava PL (1983) The organization of inputs establishes two functional and morphologically identifiable classes of ganglion cells in the retina of the turtle. Vision Res 23:325-38

Marchiafava PL, Weiler R (1980) Intracellular analysis and structural correlates of the organization of inputs to ganglion cells in the retina of the turtle. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 208:103-13

Mazurskaya PZ (2003) Organization of receptive fields in the forebrain of Emys orbicularis. Neurosci Behav Physiol 6:311-8

Millonas MM, Ulinski PS (1997) The dendritic origins of fast prepotentials in pyramidal cells Proceedings of Computational Neuroscience

Mulligan KA, Ulinski PS (1990) Organization of geniculocortical projections in turtles: isoazimuth lamellae in the visual cortex. J Comp Neurol 296:531-47

Nenadic Z, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2000) Spatiotemporal dynamics in a model of turtle visual cortex. Neurocomputing 32:479-486

Nenadic Z, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2002) Modeling and estimation problems in the turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 49:753-62 [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Nicolaus JM, Ulinski PS (1991) Medial and lateral differences in populations of GABAergic neurons in layer 3 of turtle visual cortex Soc Neurosci Abstr 16:114

Nicolaus JM, Ulinski PS (1994) Inward rectifying conductances in inhibitory neurons in turtle visual cortex Neural Systems: Analysis and Modelling, Eeckman F, ed. pp.91

Prechtl JC (1994) Visual motion induces synchronous oscillations in turtle visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:12467-71

Prechtl JC, Bullock TH, Kleinfeld D (2000) Direct evidence for local oscillatory current sources and intracortical phase gradients in turtle visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:877-82

Prechtl JC, Cohen LB, Pesaran B, Mitra PP, Kleinfeld D (1997) Visual stimuli induce waves of electrical activity in turtle cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:7621-6

Rainey WT, Ulinski PS (1986) Morphology of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate complex in turtles of the genera Pseudemys and Chrysemys. J Comp Neurol 253:440-65

Robbins KA, Senseman DM (1998) Visualizing differences in movies of cortical activity IEEE Visualization 98:217-224

Seidemann E, Arieli A, Grinvald A, Slovin H (2002) Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal. Science 295:862-5 [PubMed]

Senseman DM (2003) Correspondence between visually evoked voltage-sensitive dye signals and synaptic activity recorded in cortical pyramidal cells with intracellular microelectrodes. Vis Neurosci 13:963-77

Senseman DM (2003) Spatiotemporal structure of depolarization spread in cortical pyramidal cell populations evoked by diffuse retinal light flashes. Vis Neurosci 16:65-79

Senseman DM, Robbins KA (1999) Modal behavior of cortical neural networks during visual processing. J Neurosci 19:RC3-79

Senseman DM, Robbins KA (2002) High-speed VSD imaging of visually evoked cortical waves: decomposition into intra- and intercortical wave motions. J Neurophysiol 87:1499-514 [Journal]

Smith LM, Ebner FF, Colonnier M (1980) The thalamocortical projection in Pseudemys turtles: a quantitative electron microscopic study. J Comp Neurol 190:445-61

Stratford KJ, Mason AJR, Larkman AU, Major G, Jack JJB (1989) The modelling of pyramidal neurones in the visual cortex The Computing Neuron, Durbin R:Miall C:Mitchison G, ed. pp.296

Strogatz SH (1994) Nonlinear Dynamics And Chaos With Applications To Physics, Biology, Chemistry, And Engineering

Traub RD, Wong RK, Miles R, Michelson H (1991) A model of a CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neuron incorporating voltage-clamp data on intrinsic conductances. J Neurophysiol 66:635-50 [Journal] [PubMed]

Ulinski P (1990) The cerebral cortex of reptiles. Cerebral Cortex, Jones FG:Peters A, ed. pp.139

Ulinski PS (1986) Organization of corticogeniculate projections in the turtle, Pseudemys scripta. J Comp Neurol 254:529-42

Ulinski PS (1999) Neural mechanisms underlying the analysis of moving visual stimuli Models of Cortical Circuitry, Ulinski PS:Jones EG:Peters A, ed. pp.283

Ulinski PS, Larson-prior LU, Slater NT (1991) Cortical circuitry underlying visual motion analysis in turtles Visual Structures and Integrated Functions :307-324

Ulinski PS, Nautiyal J (1988) Organization of retinogeniculate projections in turtles of the genera Pseudemys and Chrysemys. J Comp Neurol 276:92-112

Brette R, Rudolph M, Carnevale T, Hines M, Beeman D, Bower JM, Diesmann M, Morrison A, et al. (2007) Simulation of networks of spiking neurons: A review of tools and strategies. J Comp Neurosci 23:349-98 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Networks of spiking neurons: a review of tools and strategies (Brette et al. 2007) [Model]

Du X, Ghosh BK, Ulinski P (2005) Encoding and decoding target locations with waves in the turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 52:566-77 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Du X, Ghosh BK, Ulinski P (2006) Encoding of motion targets by waves in turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 53:1688-95 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Nenadic Z, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2002) Modeling and estimation problems in the turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 49:753-62 [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Robbins KA, Senseman DM (2004) Extracting wave structure from biological data with application to responses in turtle visual cortex. J Comput Neurosci 16:267-98 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Rulkov NF, Timofeev I, Bazhenov M (2004) Oscillations in large-scale cortical networks: map-based model. J Comput Neurosci 17:203-23 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Large cortex model with map-based neurons (Rulkov et al 2004) [Model]

Wang W, Campaigne C, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2005) Two cortical circuits control propagating waves in visual cortex. J Comput Neurosci 19:263-89 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Wang W, Luo S, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2006) Generation of the receptive fields of subpial cells in turtle visual cortex. J Integr Neurosci 5:561-93 [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

(67 refs)

Nenadic Z, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2002) Modeling and estimation problems in the turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 49:753-62[PubMed]

References and models cited by this paper

References and models that cite this paper

Bower JM, Beeman D (1998) The Book Of Genesis: Exploring Realistic Neural Models With The General Neural Simulation System

Colombe JB, Ulinski PS (2003) Temporal dispersion windows in cortical neurons. J Comput Neurosci 7:71-87 [Journal]

Cosans CE, Ulinski PS (1990) Spatial organization of axons in turtle visual cortex: intralamellar and interlamellar projections. J Comp Neurol 296:548-58

Delcomyn F (1998) Foundations of Neurobiology

Dellnitz M, Golubitsky M, Nicol M (1994) Symmetry of attractors andthe Karhunen Loeve decomposition Trends and Perspectives in Applied Mathematics, Sirovich L, ed. pp.73

Ermentrout GB, Kleinfeld D (2001) Traveling electrical waves in cortex: insights from phase dynamics and speculation on a computational role. Neuron 29:33-44 [PubMed]

Holmes P, Lumley JL, Berkooz G (1996) Turbulence, Coherent Structure, Dynamical Systems and Symmetry

Kriegstein AR, Connors BW (1986) Cellular physiology of the turtle visual cortex: synaptic properties and intrinsic circuitry. J Neurosci 6:178-91 [PubMed]

Larson-Prior LJ, Ulinski PS, Slater NT (1991) Excitatory amino acid receptor-mediated transmission in geniculocortical and intracortical pathways within visual cortex. J Neurophysiol 66:293-306 [Journal]

Mancilla JG, Fowler M, Ulinski PS (2003) Responses of regular spiking and fast spiking cells in turtle visual cortex to light flashes. Vis Neurosci 15:979-93

Mancilla JG, Ulinski PS (2003) Role of GABA(A)-mediated inhibition in controlling the responses of regular spiking cells in turtle visual cortex. Vis Neurosci 18:9-24

Mazurskaya PZ (2003) Organization of receptive fields in the forebrain of Emys orbicularis. Neurosci Behav Physiol 6:311-8

Mulligan KA, Ulinski PS (1990) Organization of geniculocortical projections in turtles: isoazimuth lamellae in the visual cortex. J Comp Neurol 296:531-47

Nenadic Z (2001) Signal processing, computation and estimation in biologicalneural networks PhD Dissertation Washington University

Nenadic Z, Ghosh BJ, Ulinski P (2003) Propagating Waves in Visual Cortex: A Large-Scale Model of Turtle Visual Cortex Journal of Computational Neuroscience 14:161-184 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Prechtl JC, Cohen LB, Pesaran B, Mitra PP, Kleinfeld D (1997) Visual stimuli induce waves of electrical activity in turtle cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:7621-6

Rao KR, Yip PC (2001) The Transform And Data Compression Handbook

Robbins KA, Senseman DM (1998) Visualizing differences in movies of cortical activity IEEE Visualization 98:217-224

Salin PA, Prince DA (1996) Electrophysiological mapping of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in adult rat somatosensory cortex. J Neurophysiol 75:1589-600

Senseman DM (2003) Correspondence between visually evoked voltage-sensitive dye signals and synaptic activity recorded in cortical pyramidal cells with intracellular microelectrodes. Vis Neurosci 13:963-77

Senseman DM (2003) Spatiotemporal structure of depolarization spread in cortical pyramidal cell populations evoked by diffuse retinal light flashes. Vis Neurosci 16:65-79

Senseman DM, Robbins KA (1999) Modal behavior of cortical neural networks during visual processing. J Neurosci 19:RC3-79

Senseman DM, Robbins KA (2002) High-speed VSD imaging of visually evoked cortical waves: decomposition into intra- and intercortical wave motions. J Neurophysiol 87:1499-514 [Journal]

Smith LM, Ebner FF, Colonnier M (1980) The thalamocortical projection in Pseudemys turtles: a quantitative electron microscopic study. J Comp Neurol 190:445-61

van Trees HL (1968) Detection, estimation, and modulation theory: Part I.

Du X, Ghosh BK, Ulinski P (2005) Encoding and decoding target locations with waves in the turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 52:566-77 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Du X, Ghosh BK, Ulinski P (2006) Encoding of motion targets by waves in turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 53:1688-95 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Nenadic Z, Ghosh BJ, Ulinski P (2003) Propagating Waves in Visual Cortex: A Large-Scale Model of Turtle Visual Cortex Journal of Computational Neuroscience 14:161-184 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Robbins KA, Senseman DM (2004) Extracting wave structure from biological data with application to responses in turtle visual cortex. J Comput Neurosci 16:267-98 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Rulkov NF, Timofeev I, Bazhenov M (2004) Oscillations in large-scale cortical networks: map-based model. J Comput Neurosci 17:203-23 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Large cortex model with map-based neurons (Rulkov et al 2004) [Model]

Wang W, Campaigne C, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2005) Two cortical circuits control propagating waves in visual cortex. J Comput Neurosci 19:263-89 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Wang W, Luo S, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2006) Generation of the receptive fields of subpial cells in turtle visual cortex. J Integr Neurosci 5:561-93 [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

(32 refs)

Robbins KA, Senseman DM (2004) Extracting wave structure from biological data with application to responses in turtle visual cortex. J Comput Neurosci 16:267-98[PubMed]

References and models cited by this paper

References and models that cite this paper

Bringuier V, Chavane F, Glaeser L, Fregnac Y (1999) Horizontal propagation of visual activity in the synaptic integration field of area 17 neurons. Science 283:695-9

Buzsaki G (2002) Theta oscillations in the hippocampus. Neuron 33:325-40 [PubMed]

Colombe JB, Ulinski PS (2003) Temporal dispersion windows in cortical neurons. J Comput Neurosci 7:71-87 [Journal]

Connors BW, Kriegstein AR (1986) Cellular physiology of the turtle visual cortex: distinctive properties of pyramidal and stellate neurons. J Neurosci 6:164-77

Contreras D, Llinas R (2001) Voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neocortical spatiotemporal dynamics to afferent activation frequency. J Neurosci 21:9403-13 [PubMed]

Cosans CE, Ulinski PS (1990) Spatial organization of axons in turtle visual cortex: intralamellar and interlamellar projections. J Comp Neurol 296:548-58

Du X, Ghosh BK, Ulinski P (2005) Encoding and decoding target locations with waves in the turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 52:566-77 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Ermentrout GB (1998) The analysis of synaptically generated traveling waves. J Comp Neurosci 5:191-208 [Journal]

Ermentrout GB, Kleinfeld D (2001) Traveling electrical waves in cortex: insights from phase dynamics and speculation on a computational role. Neuron 29:33-44 [PubMed]

Ghazanfar AA, Nicolelis MA (1999) Spatiotemporal properties of layer V neurons of the rat primary somatosensory cortex. Cereb Cortex 9:348-61

Grinvald A, Lieke EE, Frostig RD, Hildesheim R (1994) Cortical point-spread function and long-range lateral interactions revealed by real-time optical imaging of macaque monkey primary visual cortex. J Neurosci 14:2545-68 [PubMed]

Kirby M (2001) Geometric Data Analysis

Kriegstein AR (1987) Synaptic responses of cortical pyramidal neurons to light stimulation in the isolated turtle visual system. J Neurosci 7:2488-92

Mazurskaya PZ (2003) Organization of receptive fields in the forebrain of Emys orbicularis. Neurosci Behav Physiol 6:311-8

Medvedev GS, Kopell N (2001) Synchronization and transient dynamics in the chains of electrically coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators Siam J Appl Mat 61:1762-1801

Mulligan KA, Ulinski PS (1990) Organization of geniculocortical projections in turtles: isoazimuth lamellae in the visual cortex. J Comp Neurol 296:531-47

Nenadic Z, Ghosh BJ, Ulinski P (2003) Propagating Waves in Visual Cortex: A Large-Scale Model of Turtle Visual Cortex Journal of Computational Neuroscience 14:161-184 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Nenadic Z, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2000) Spatiotemporal dynamics in a model of turtle visual cortex. Neurocomputing 32:479-486

Nenadic Z, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2002) Modeling and estimation problems in the turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 49:753-62 [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

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Wang W, Campaigne C, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2005) Two cortical circuits control propagating waves in visual cortex. J Comput Neurosci 19:263-89 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Wang W, Luo S, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2006) Generation of the receptive fields of subpial cells in turtle visual cortex. J Integr Neurosci 5:561-93 [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

(37 refs)

Wang W, Campaigne C, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2005) Two cortical circuits control propagating waves in visual cortex. J Comput Neurosci 19:263-89[PubMed]

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Wang W (2006) Dynamics of the turtle visual cortex and design of sensor networks D.Sc. Thesis

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Du X, Ghosh BK, Ulinski P (2006) Encoding of motion targets by waves in turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 53:1688-95 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

Wang W, Luo S, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2006) Generation of the receptive fields of subpial cells in turtle visual cortex. J Integr Neurosci 5:561-93 [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

(39 refs)

Wang W (2006) Dynamics of the turtle visual cortex and design of sensor networks D.Sc. Thesis

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Wang W, Campaigne C, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2005) Two cortical circuits control propagating waves in visual cortex. J Comput Neurosci 19:263-89 [Journal] [PubMed]

   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

(1 refs)

Wang W, Luo S, Ghosh BK, Ulinski PS (2006) Generation of the receptive fields of subpial cells in turtle visual cortex. J Integr Neurosci 5:561-93[PubMed]

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(38 refs)

Du X, Ghosh BK, Ulinski P (2006) Encoding of motion targets by waves in turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 53:1688-95[PubMed]

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Du X, Ghosh BK, Ulinski P (2005) Encoding and decoding target locations with waves in the turtle visual cortex. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 52:566-77[PubMed]

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   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

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   Turtle visual cortex model (Nenadic et al. 2003, Wang et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2006) [Model]

(34 refs)