Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons (Pashut et al. 2011)

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely applied tool for probing cognitive function in humans and is one of the best tools for clinical treatments and interfering with cognitive tasks. Surprisingly, while TMS has been commercially available for decades, the cellular mechanisms underlying magnetic stimulation remain unclear. Here we investigate these mechanisms using compartmental modeling. We generated a numerical scheme allowing simulation of the physiological response to magnetic stimulation of neurons with arbitrary morphologies and active properties. Computational experiments using this scheme suggested that TMS affects neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) primarily by somatic stimulation.
1 . Pashut T, Wolfus S, Friedman A, Lavidor M, Bar-Gad I, Yeshurun Y, Korngreen A (2011) Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons. PLoS Comput Biol 7:e1002022 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Neuron or other electrically excitable cell;
Brain Region(s)/Organism:
Cell Type(s): Neocortex L5/6 pyramidal GLU cell; Squid axon;
Gap Junctions:
Simulation Environment: NEURON; MATLAB;
Model Concept(s): Action Potential Initiation; Magnetic stimulation;
Implementer(s): Korngreen, Alon [alon.korngreen at]; Pashut, Tamar [tamar.pashut at];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Neocortex L5/6 pyramidal GLU cell;
•	Open the folder "fieldCalc".
•	Open the file "fieldGUI.m" with MATLAB program. 
•	type "fieldGUI" in the commend window and press enter.
•	A window named "fieldGUI" will appear. Enter the coil parameters into the three text boxes: 
o	Coil radius in meters.
o	Number of coiling (loops).
o	Distance of the cell from the coil (Z) in meters. 
•	Press the "show graph" bottom and two graphs will appear below, the induced electric field in x direction (Ex) on the left and the induced electric field in the y direction of the left (Ey). This will take 60-90 minutes. The matrixes of the two graph will also be saved in the folder "fieldCalc" as text files.
•	Copy the text files (ex.txt and ey.txt) into the folder named "Neuron".
•	Open the file " BACModel_mag.hoc" located in the "Neuron" folder.
•	The first figure that opens shows the soma membrane potential as a function of time. The second shows the pulse shape. 
•	To run the program press the "Init & Run" bottom in the "RunControl" panel.
•	You can control the electrical circuit and stimulation parameters in the Magnetic Coil Current window. Changing the stimulation amplitude to a value higher than 1900 volt will present a superthreshold activity.
•	To manufacture a shape plot:
o	 go to NEURON main menu
o	 click on graph - shape plot. A window showing the cell morphology will appear.  
o	Right click in the window and chose the option shape plot.
•	The cell in the window will be colored according to the membrane potential in every location. A scale bar will also appear next to it, presenting the voltage matching the different colors. To start the movie press the "Init & Run" bottom in the "RunControl" panel.

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