"... We here present the electrodiffusive neuron-extracellular-glia (edNEG) model, which we believe is the first model to combine compartmental neuron modeling with an electrodiffusive framework for intra- and extracellular ion concentration dynamics in a local piece of neuro-glial brain tissue. The edNEG model (i) keeps track of all intraneuronal, intraglial, and extracellular ion concentrations and electrical potentials, (ii) accounts for action potentials and dendritic calcium spikes in neurons, (iii) contains a neuronal and glial homeostatic machinery that gives physiologically realistic ion concentration dynamics, (iv) accounts for electrodiffusive transmembrane, intracellular, and extracellular ionic movements, and (v) accounts for glial and neuronal swelling caused by osmotic transmembrane pressure gradients. The edNEG model accounts for the concentration-dependent effects on ECS potentials that the standard models neglect. Using the edNEG model, we analyze these effects by splitting the extracellular potential into three components: one due to neural sink/source configurations, one due to glial sink/source configurations, and one due to extracellular diffusive currents ..."
Sætra MJ, Einevoll GT, Halnes G (2021) An electrodiffusive neuron-extracellular-glia model for exploring the genesis of slow potentials in the brain PLoS Comput Biol 17(7):e1008143 [PubMed]