Networks of spiking neurons: a review of tools and strategies (Brette et al. 2007)

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This package provides a series of codes that simulate networks of spiking neurons (excitatory and inhibitory, integrate-and-fire or Hodgkin-Huxley type, current-based or conductance-based synapses; some of them are event-based). The same networks are implemented in different simulators (NEURON, GENESIS, NEST, NCS, CSIM, XPP, SPLIT, MVAspike; there is also a couple of implementations in SciLab and C++). The codes included in this package are benchmark simulations; see the associated review paper (Brette et al. 2007). The main goal is to provide a series of benchmark simulations of networks of spiking neurons, and demonstrate how these are implemented in the different simulators overviewed in the paper. See also details in the enclosed file Appendix2.pdf, which describes these different benchmarks. Some of these benchmarks were based on the Vogels-Abbott model (Vogels TP and Abbott LF 2005).
1 . Vogels TP, Abbott LF (2005) Signal propagation and logic gating in networks of integrate-and-fire neurons. J Neurosci 25:10786-95 [PubMed]
2 . Brette R, Rudolph M, Carnevale T, Hines M, Beeman D, Bower JM, Diesmann M, Morrison A, Goodman PH, Harris FC, Zirpe M, Natschläger T, Pecevski D, Ermentrout B, Djurfeldt M, Lansner A, Rochel O, Vieville T, Muller E, Davison AP, El Boustani S, Destexhe A (2007) Simulation of networks of spiking neurons: a review of tools and strategies. J Comput Neurosci 23:349-98 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism:
Cell Type(s): Abstract integrate-and-fire leaky neuron;
Gap Junctions:
Simulation Environment: NEURON; GENESIS; NEST; C or C++ program; XPP; CSIM; NCS; SPLIT; MVASpike; SciLab; Brian; PyNN; Python;
Model Concept(s): Activity Patterns; Methods;
Implementer(s): Carnevale, Ted [Ted.Carnevale at]; Hines, Michael [Michael.Hines at]; Davison, Andrew [Andrew.Davison at]; Destexhe, Alain [Destexhe at]; Ermentrout, Bard []; Brette R; Bower, James; Beeman, Dave; Diesmann M; Morrison A ; Goodman PH; Harris Jr, FC; Zirpe M ; Natschlager T ; Pecevski D ; Djurfeldt M; Lansner, Anders [ala at]; Rochel O ; Vieville T ; Muller E ; El Boustani, Sami [elboustani at]; Rudolph M ;
  A GENESIS GUI for network models, with a  control panel, a graph with
  axis scaling, and a network view to visualize Vm in each cell

//      Function definitions used by GUI

function overlaytoggle(widget)
    str widget
    setfield /##[TYPE=xgraph] overlay {getfield {widget} state}

function change_stepsize(dialog)
   str dialog
   dt =  {getfield {dialog} value}
   setclock 0 {dt}
   echo "Changing step size to "{dt}

function change_runtime(dialog)
   str dialog
   tmax =  {getfield {dialog} value}

function inj_toggle // toggles current injection ON/OFF
    if ({getfield /control/injtoggle state} == 1)
        setfield /injectpulse level1 1.0        // ON
        setfield /injectpulse level1 0.0        // OFF

function add_injection
   int cell_no
   cell_no = ({getfield /control/cell_no value})
   if (cell_no > {Ex_NX*Ex_NY-1})
      echo "There are only "{Ex_NX*Ex_NY}" excitatory cells - numbering begins with 0"
   InjCell = cell_no
   if (({getmsg /injectpulse/injcurr -outgoing -count}) > 0)
      deletemsg /injectpulse/injcurr  0 -outgoing      // only outgoing message
   addmsg /injectpulse/injcurr /Ex_layer/Ex_cell[{cell_no}]/soma INJECT output
   echo "Current injection is to cell number "{cell_no}

function set_injection
   str dialog = "/control"
   set_inj_timing {getfield {dialog}/injectdelay value}  \
       {getfield {dialog}/width value} {getfield {dialog}/interval value}
   setfield /injectpulse/injcurr gain {getfield {dialog}/inject value}
   echo "Injection current = "{getfield {dialog}/inject value}
   echo "Injection pulse delay = "{getfield {dialog}/injectdelay value}" sec"
   echo "Injection pulse width = "{getfield {dialog}/width value}" sec"
   echo "Injection pulse interval = "{getfield {dialog}/interval value}" sec"

/*  A subset of the functions defined in genesis/startup/xtools.g
    These are used to provide a "scale" button to graphs.
    "makegraphscale path_to_graph" creates the button and the popup
     menu to change the graph scale.

function setgraphscale(graph)
    str graph
    str form = graph @ "_scaleform"
    str xmin = {getfield {form}/xmin value}
    str xmax = {getfield {form}/xmax value}
    str ymin = {getfield {form}/ymin value}
    str ymax = {getfield {form}/ymax value}
    setfield {graph} xmin {xmin} xmax {xmax} ymin {ymin} ymax {ymax}
    xhide {form}

function showgraphscale(form)
    str form
    str x, y
    // find the parent form
    str parent = {el {form}/..}
    while (!{isa xform {parent}})
        parent = {el {parent}/..}
    x = {getfield {parent} xgeom}
    y = {getfield {parent} ygeom}
    setfield {form} xgeom {x} ygeom {y}
    xshow {form}

function makegraphscale(graph)
    if ({argc} < 1)
        echo usage: makegraphscale graph
    str graph
    str graphName = {getpath {graph} -tail}
    float x, y
    str form = graph @ "_scaleform"
    str parent = {el {graph}/..}
    while (!{isa xform {parent}})
        parent = {el {parent}/..}

    x = {getfield {graph} x}
    y = {getfield {graph} y}

    create xbutton {graph}_scalebutton  \
        [{getfield {graph} xgeom},{getfield {graph} ygeom},50,25] \
           -title scale -script "showgraphscale "{form}
    create xform {form} [{x},{y},180,170] -nolabel

    disable {form}
    pushe {form}
    create xbutton DONE [10,5,55,25] -script "setgraphscale "{graph}
    create xbutton CANCEL [70,5,55,25] -script "xhide "{form}
    create xdialog xmin [10,35,160,25] -value {getfield {graph} xmin}
    create xdialog xmax [10,65,160,25] -value {getfield {graph} xmax}
    create xdialog ymin [10,95,160,25] -value {getfield {graph} ymin}
    create xdialog ymax [10,125,160,25] -value {getfield {graph} ymax}

/* Add some interesting colors to any widgets that have been created */
function colorize
    setfield /##[ISA=xlabel] fg white bg blue3
    setfield /##[ISA=xbutton] offbg rosybrown1 onbg rosybrown1
    setfield /##[ISA=xtoggle] onfg red offbg cadetblue1 onbg cadetblue1
    setfield /##[ISA=xdialog] bg palegoldenrod
    setfield /##[ISA=xgraph] bg ivory

//    Functions to set up the GUI

function make_control
    create xform /control [0,50,270,540]
    pushe /control
    create xlabel label -hgeom 25 -bg cyan -label "CONTROL PANEL"
    create xbutton RESET -wgeom 25%       -script reset
    create xbutton RUN  -xgeom 0:RESET -ygeom 0:label -wgeom 25% \
         -script step_tmax
    create xbutton STOP  -xgeom 0:RUN -ygeom 0:label -wgeom 25% \
         -script stop
    create xbutton QUIT -xgeom 0:STOP -ygeom 0:label -wgeom 25% -script quit
    create xdialog stepsize -title "dt (sec)" -value {dt} \
                -script "change_stepsize <widget>"
    create xdialog runtime -title "runtime (sec)" -value {tmax} \
                -script "change_runtime <widget>"
    create xtoggle overlay   -script "overlaytoggle <widget>"
    setfield overlay offlabel "Overlay OFF" onlabel "Overlay ON" state 0
    create xlabel connlabel -label "Connection Parameters"
    // Assume Ex_cell and Inh_cell have the same ex and inh gmax
    create xdialog Ex_gmax -label "Ex gmax (nS)" \
         -value {Ex_ex_gmax*1e9} -script "set_ex_gmax  <v>"
    create xdialog Inh_gmax -label "Inh gmax (nS)" \
          -value {Ex_inh_gmax*1e9} -script "set_inh_gmax  <v>"
    create xdialog weight -label "Weight" inject  \
	-value {syn_weight} -script "set_weights <v>"
    create xdialog propdelay -label "Prop delay (sec/m)" \
	-value {prop_delay}  -script "set_delays <v>"
    create xlabel stimlabel -label "Stimulation Parameters"
    create xtoggle injtoggle -label "" -script inj_toggle
    setfield injtoggle offlabel "Current Injection OFF"
    setfield injtoggle onlabel "Current Injection ON" state 0
    inj_toggle     // initialize
    create xlabel numbering -label "Lower Left = 0; Center = "{middlecell}
    create xdialog cell_no -label "Inject Cell:" \
	-value {InjCell} -script "add_injection"
    create xdialog inject -label "Injection (Amp)" -value {injcurrent}  \
        -script "set_injection"
    create xdialog injectdelay -label "Delay (sec)" \
	 -value {injdelay}   -script "set_injection"
    create xdialog width -label "Width (sec)" \
	-value {injwidth}  -script "set_injection"
    create xdialog interval -label "Interval (sec)" -value {injinterval}  \
        -script "set_injection"
    create xlabel randact -label "Random background activation"
    create xdialog randfreq -label "Frequency (Hz)" -value 0 \
	-script "set_frequency <v>"
    xshow /control

function make_Vmgraph
    float vmin = -0.1
    float vmax = 0.15
    create xform /data [275,50,400,540]
    create xlabel /data/label -hgeom 5% -label {graphlabel}
    create xgraph /data/voltage -hgeom 70% -title "Ex_cell Membrane Potential" -bg white
    setfield ^ XUnits sec YUnits V
    setfield ^ xmax {tmax} ymin {vmin} ymax {vmax}
    makegraphscale /data/voltage

    create xgraph /data/Inh_voltage -hgeom 25% -ygeom 0:voltage \
	-title "Inh_cell Membrane Potential" -bg white
    setfield ^ XUnits sec YUnits V
    setfield ^ xmax {tmax} ymin {vmin} ymax {vmax}
    makegraphscale /data/Inh_voltage

    /* Set up plotting messages, with offsets */
    // middlecell is a middle point (exactly, if NX and NY are odd)
    addmsg /Ex_layer/Ex_cell[{middlecell}]/soma /data/voltage PLOTSCALE \
	Vm *"center "{middlecell} *black 1 0
    addmsg /Ex_layer/Ex_cell[{{round {(Ex_NY-1)/2}}*Ex_NX}/soma  /data/voltage \
        PLOTSCALE Vm *"R edge "{{round {(Ex_NY-1)/2}}*Ex_NX} *blue  1 0.05
    addmsg /Ex_layer/Ex_cell[0]/soma /data/voltage PLOTSCALE \
	Vm *"LL corner 0" *red 1 0.1

    // this is a temporary hack
    addmsg /Inh_layer/Inh_cell[0]/soma /data/Inh_voltage PLOT \
	Vm *"LL corner 0" *magenta
    xshow /data

function make_netview  // sets up xview widget to display Vm of each cell
    // Adjust the aspect ratio for rectangular networks of width around 400
    // Make view for Ex_cell[]
    int npixels = {trunc {400/Ex_NX}}
    int Ex_view_width = npixels*Ex_NX
    int Ex_view_height = npixels*Ex_NY

    create xform /Ex_netview [680,50,{Ex_view_width}, {Ex_view_height}]
    create xdraw /Ex_netview/draw [0%,0%,100%, 100%]
    // Make the display region a little larger than the cell array
    setfield /Ex_netview/draw xmin {-Ex_SEP_X} xmax {Ex_NX*Ex_SEP_X} \
	ymin {-Ex_SEP_Y} ymax {Ex_NY*Ex_SEP_Y}
    create xview /Ex_netview/draw/view
    setfield /Ex_netview/draw/view path /Ex_layer/Ex_cell[]/soma field Vm \
	value_min -0.08 value_max 0.03 viewmode colorview sizescale {Ex_SEP_X}
    xshow /Ex_netview

    int Inh_view_width = npixels*Inh_NX
    int Inh_view_height = npixels*Inh_NY
    create xform /Inh_netview [680,{70 + Ex_view_height}, \
	{Inh_view_width + npixels}, {Inh_view_height}]
    create xdraw /Inh_netview/draw [0%,0%,100%, 100%]
    // Make the display region a little larger than the cell array
    setfield /Inh_netview/draw xmin {-Inh_SEP_X} xmax {Inh_NX*Inh_SEP_X} \
	ymin {-Inh_SEP_Y} ymax {Inh_NY*Inh_SEP_Y}

    create xview /Inh_netview/draw/view
    setfield /Inh_netview/draw/view path /Inh_layer/Inh_cell[]/soma field Vm \
	value_min -0.08 value_max 0.03 viewmode colorview sizescale {Inh_SEP_X}
    xshow /Inh_netview


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