Oscillating neurons in the cochlear nucleus (Bahmer Langner 2006a, b, and 2007)

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"Based on the physiological and anatomical data, we propose a model consisting of a minimum network of two choppers that are interconnected with a synaptic delay of 0.4 ms (Bahmer and Langner 2006a) . Such minimum delays have been found in different systems and in various animals (e.g. Hackett, Jackson, and Rubel 1982; Borst, Helmchen, and Sakmann 1995). The choppers receive input from both the auditory nerve and an onset neuron. This model can reproduce the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation of the ISI and the dynamic features of AM coding of choppers."
1 . Bahmer A, Langner G (2006) Oscillating neurons in the cochlear nucleus: II. Simulation results. Biol Cybern 95:381-92 [PubMed]
2 . Bahmer A, Langner G (2006) Oscillating neurons in the cochlear nucleus: I. Experimental basis of a simulation paradigm. Biol Cybern 95:371-9 [PubMed]
3 . Bahmer A, Langner G (2007) Simulation of oscillating neurons in the cochlear nucleus: a possible role for neural nets, onset cells, and synaptic delays Hearing - from basic research to applications (Proc. of International Symp. of Hearing), Kollmeier B, Klump G, Hohmann V, Langemann U, Mauermann M, Uppenkamp S, Verhey J, ed.
4 . Bahmer A, Langner G (2009) A simulation of chopper neurons in the cochlear nucleus with wideband input from onset neurons. Biol Cybern 100:21-33 [PubMed]
5 . Bahmer A, Langner G (2010) Parameters for a model of an oscillating neuronal network in the cochlear nucleus defined by genetic algorithms. Biol Cybern 102:81-93 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Realistic Network;
Brain Region(s)/Organism:
Cell Type(s): Cochlear ganglion cell Type II; CN stellate cell; Ventral cochlear nucleus T stellate (chopper) neuron; Abstract integrate-and-fire leaky neuron;
Gap Junctions:
Simulation Environment: NEURON; MATLAB;
Model Concept(s): Audition;
Implementer(s): Bahmer, Andreas [Andreas.Bahmer at kgu.de];
TITLE kht.mod  The high threshold conductance of cochlear nucleus neurons


NEURON implementation of Jason Rothman's measurements of VCN conductances.

This file implements the high threshold potassium current found in several brainstem
 nuclei of the auditory system, including the spherical and globular bushy cells
  (Manis and Marx, 1991; Rothman and Manis, 2003a,b) and multipolar (stellate) 
  cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus, principal cells of the medial 
  nucleus of the trapzoid body (Brew and Forsythe, 1995, Wang and Kaczmarek, 
  1997) and neurons of the medial superior olive. The current is likely mediated by 
  Kv3.1  potassium channel subunits. The specific 
  implementation is described in Rothman and Manis, J. Neurophysiol. 2003, in the 
  appendix. Measurements were made from isolated neurons from adult guinea pig, 
  under reasonably stringent voltage clamp conditions. The measured current is 
  sensitive to 4-aminopyridine and TEA, but is spared by mamba snake toxi
  dendrotoxin I.

Similar conductrances are found in the homologous neurons of the avian auditory 
system (Reyes and Rubel; Zhang and Trussell; Rathouz and Trussell), and the 
conductance described here, in the absence of more detailed kinetic measurements
, is probably suitable for use in modeling that system.

Original implementation by Paul B. Manis, April (JHU) and Sept, (UNC)1999.

File split implementation, February 28, 2004.

Contact: pmanis@med.unc.edu


        (mA) = (milliamp)
        (mV) = (millivolt)
        (nA) = (nanoamp)

        SUFFIX kht
:        USEION k READ ek WRITE ik
        USEION k WRITE ik
        RANGE gkhtbar, gkht, ik
        GLOBAL ninf, pinf, ntau, ptau


        v (mV)
        celsius = 22 (degC)  : model is defined on measurements made at room temp in Baltimore
        dt (ms)
        ek = -77 (mV)
        gkhtbar = 0.01592 (mho/cm2) <0,1e9>
		nf = 0.85 <0,1> :proportion of n vs p kinetics

        n p

    ik (mA/cm) 
    gkht (mho/cm2)
    pinf ninf
    ptau (ms) ntau (ms)

LOCAL nexp, pexp

	SOLVE states
	gkht = gkhtbar*(nf*(n^2) + (1-nf)*p)
    ik = gkht*(v - ek)



    p = pinf
    n = ninf

PROCEDURE states() {  :Computes state variables m, h, and n
	trates(v)      :             at the current v and dt.
	n = n + nexp*(ninf-n)
	p = p + pexp*(pinf-p)
	return 0;


PROCEDURE rates(v) {  :Computes rate and other constants at current v.
                      :Call once from HOC to initialize inf at resting v.

	q10 = 3^((celsius - 22)/10) : if you don't like room temp, it can be changed!

    ninf =   (1 + exp(-(v + 15) / 5))^-0.5
    pinf =  1 / (1 + exp(-(v + 23) / 6))

	ntau =  (100 / (11*exp((v+60) / 24) + 21*exp(-(v+60) / 23))) + 0.7
    ptau = (100 / (4*exp((v+60) / 32) + 5*exp(-(v+60) / 22))) + 5

PROCEDURE trates(v) {  :Computes rate and other constants at current v.
                      :Call once from HOC to initialize inf at resting v.
	LOCAL tinc
	TABLE ninf, nexp, pinf, pexp
	DEPEND dt, celsius FROM -150 TO 150 WITH 300

    rates(v)    : not consistently executed from here if usetable_hh == 1
        : so don't expect the tau values to be tracking along with
        : the inf values in hoc

	tinc = -dt * q10
	nexp = 1 - exp(tinc/ntau)
	pexp = 1 - exp(tinc/ptau)

FUNCTION vtrap(x,y) {  :Traps for 0 in denominator of rate eqns.
        if (fabs(x/y) < 1e-6) {
                vtrap = y*(1 - x/y/2)
                vtrap = x/(exp(x/y) - 1)


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