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Excitation-contraction coupling/mitochondrial energetics (ECME) model (Cortassa et al. 2006)

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"An intricate network of reactions is involved in matching energy supply with demand in the heart. This complexity arises because energy production both modulates and is modulated by the electrophysiological and contractile activity of the cardiac myocyte. Here, we present an integrated mathematical model of the cardiac cell that links excitation-contraction coupling with mitochondrial energy generation. The dynamics of the model are described by a system of 50 ordinary differential equations. The formulation explicitly incorporates cytoplasmic ATP-consuming processes associated with force generation and ion transport, as well as the creatine kinase reaction. Changes in the electrical and contractile activity of the myocyte are coupled to mitochondrial energetics through the ATP, Ca21, and Na1 concentrations in the myoplasmic and mitochondrial matrix compartments. ..."
1 . Cortassa S, Aon MA, Marbán E, Winslow RL, O'Rourke B (2003) An integrated model of cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism and calcium dynamics. Biophys J 84:2734-55 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Neuron or other electrically excitable cell; Electrogenic pump;
Brain Region(s)/Organism:
Cell Type(s): Heart cell;
Channel(s): I L high threshold; I Sodium; I Potassium; Na/Ca exchanger; I_SERCA;
Gap Junctions:
Simulation Environment: C or C++ program;
Model Concept(s): Activity Patterns; Temporal Pattern Generation; Signaling pathways; Calcium dynamics;
Search NeuronDB for information about:  I L high threshold; I Sodium; I Potassium; Na/Ca exchanger; I_SERCA;
 *                                                                 *
 * File          : sundialsmath.c                                  *
 * Programmers   : Scott D. Cohen and Alan C. Hindmarsh @ LLNL     *
 * Version of    : 26 June 2002                                    *
 * Copyright (c) 2002, The Regents of the University of California *
 * Produced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory          *
 * All rights reserved                                             *
 * For details, see sundials/shared/LICENSE                        *
 * This is the implementation file for a C math library.           *
 *                                                                 *

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>
#include "sundialsmath.h"
#include "sundialstypes.h"

#define ZERO RCONST(0.0)
#define ONE  RCONST(1.0)
#define TWO  RCONST(2.0)

realtype UnitRoundoff(void)
  realtype u;
  volatile realtype one_plus_u;
  u = ONE;
  one_plus_u = ONE + u;
  while (one_plus_u != ONE) {
    u /=  TWO;
    one_plus_u = ONE + u;
  u *=  TWO;

realtype RPowerI(realtype base, int exponent)
  int i, expt;
  realtype prod;

  prod = ONE;
  expt = ABS(exponent);
  for(i=1; i <= expt; i++) prod *= base;
  if (exponent < 0) prod = ONE/prod;

realtype RPowerR(realtype base, realtype exponent)
  if (base <= ZERO) return(ZERO);


realtype RSqrt(realtype x)
  if (x <= ZERO) return(ZERO);

  return((realtype) sqrt((double) x));

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