1. Frick A, Zieglgänsberger W and Dodt HU. (2001) Glutamate receptors form hot spots on apical dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol 86:1412-21 [Journal] .

NeuronCompartmentPropertyConnectivityNotes
Neocortex L5/6 pyramidal GLU cellDistal apical dendriteGlutamate-----Recordings using infrared-guided laser stimulation combined with whole cell recordings revealed a highly nonuniform distribution. Hot spots, with amplitude and integral of glutamate-evoked responses three times larger than responses evoked at neighboring sites, were detected. It appeared that the larger responses evoked resulted from an increase in activation of both AMPA and NMDA receptors. There was no correlation with branch points (Frick A et al, 20011 ).
Neocortex L5/6 pyramidal GLU cellMiddle apical dendriteGlutamate-----Recordings using infrared-guided laser stimulation combined with whole cell recordings revealed a highly nonuniform distribution. Hot spots, with amplitude and integral of glutamate-evoked responses three times larger than responses evoked at neighboring sites, were detected. It appeared that the larger responses evoked resulted from an increase in activation of both AMPA and NMDA receptors. There was no correlation with branch points (Frick A et al, 20011 ).
Neocortex L5/6 pyramidal GLU cellProximal apical dendriteGlutamate-----Recordings using infrared-guided laser stimulation combined with whole cell recordings revealed a highly nonuniform distribution. Hot spots, with amplitude and integral of glutamate-evoked responses three times larger than responses evoked at neighboring sites, were detected. It appeared that the larger responses evoked resulted from an increase in activation of both AMPA and NMDA receptors. There was no correlation with branch points (Frick A et al, 20011 ).
Neocortex M1 L6 pyramidal corticothalamic GLU cellDistal apical dendriteGlutamate-----Recordings using infrared-guided laser stimulation combined with whole cell recordings revealed a highly nonuniform distribution. Hot spots, with amplitude and integral of glutamate-evoked responses three times larger than responses evoked at neighboring sites, were detected. It appeared that the larger responses evoked resulted from an increase in activation of both AMPA and NMDA receptors. There was no correlation with branch points (Frick A et al, 20011 ).
Neocortex M1 L6 pyramidal corticothalamic GLU cellMiddle apical dendriteGlutamate-----Recordings using infrared-guided laser stimulation combined with whole cell recordings revealed a highly nonuniform distribution. Hot spots, with amplitude and integral of glutamate-evoked responses three times larger than responses evoked at neighboring sites, were detected. It appeared that the larger responses evoked resulted from an increase in activation of both AMPA and NMDA receptors. There was no correlation with branch points (Frick A et al, 20011 ).
Neocortex M1 L6 pyramidal corticothalamic GLU cellProximal apical dendriteGlutamate-----Recordings using infrared-guided laser stimulation combined with whole cell recordings revealed a highly nonuniform distribution. Hot spots, with amplitude and integral of glutamate-evoked responses three times larger than responses evoked at neighboring sites, were detected. It appeared that the larger responses evoked resulted from an increase in activation of both AMPA and NMDA receptors. There was no correlation with branch points (Frick A et al, 20011 ).

Classical References: first publications on each compartmental property; search PubMed for complete list
1.  Frick A, Zieglgänsberger W and Dodt HU. (2001) Glutamate receptors form hot spots on apical dendrites of neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol 86:1412-21 [Journal] .