222. Markram H, Helm PJ and Sakmann B. (1995) Dendritic calcium transients evoked by single back-propagating action potentials in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Physiol 485 ( Pt 1):1-20.

NeuronCompartmentPropertyConnectivityNotes
Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellMiddle apical dendriteI N.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ).
Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellMiddle apical dendriteI L high threshold.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ).
Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellMiddle apical dendriteI Calcium.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellProximal apical dendriteI Calcium.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellProximal apical dendriteI L high threshold.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ).
Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellProximal apical dendriteI N.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellMiddle apical dendriteI N.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellMiddle apical dendriteI L high threshold.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellMiddle apical dendriteI Calcium.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellProximal apical dendriteI Calcium.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellProximal apical dendriteI L high threshold.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellProximal apical dendriteI N.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ).

References
222. Markram H, Helm PJ and Sakmann B. (1995) Dendritic calcium transients evoked by single back-propagating action potentials in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Physiol 485 ( Pt 1):1-20.
481. Larkum ME, Watanabe S, Nakamura T, Lasser-Ross N and Ross WN. (2003) Synaptically activated Ca2+ waves in layer 2-3 and layer 5 rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Physiol 549:471-88.
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