1. Tepper JM, Tecuapetla F, Koós T and Ibáñez-Sandoval O. (2010) Heterogeneity and diversity of striatal GABAergic interneurons. Front Neuroanat 4:150 [Journal] .

NeuronCompartmentPropertyConnectivityNotes
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellDistal equivalent dendriteDopaminergic Receptorpallidostriatal inputD5 and D2 dopamine receptors induce "depolarization and an increase in input resistance in striatal FSI in brain slices" (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellMiddle equivalent dendriteDopaminergic Receptorpallidostriatal inputD5 and D2 dopamine receptors induce "depolarization and an increase in input resistance in striatal FSI in brain slices" (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellProximal equivalent dendriteDopaminergic Receptorpallidostriatal inputD5 and D2 dopamine receptors induce "depolarization and an increase in input resistance in striatal FSI in brain slices" (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellSomaDopaminergic Receptorpallidostriatal inputD5 and D2 dopamine receptors induce "depolarization and an increase in input resistance in striatal FSI in brain slices" (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellDistal equivalent dendriteNicotinicstriatal inputWhile nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in FSI-SPN synapses, only the nicotinic receptors are postsynaptic. (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellMiddle equivalent dendriteNicotinicstriatal inputWhile nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in FSI-SPN synapses, only the nicotinic receptors are postsynaptic. (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellProximal equivalent dendriteNicotinicstriatal inputWhile nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in FSI-SPN synapses, only the nicotinic receptors are postsynaptic. (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellSomaNicotinicstriatal inputWhile nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in FSI-SPN synapses, only the nicotinic receptors are postsynaptic. (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellDistal equivalent dendriteGabapallidostriatal inputFSIs “have GABAergic inputs originating from the GP. The pallidostriatal inputs are largely selective for FSIs (Bevan et al., 1998) and in vivo, increased firing of FSI during choice selection in a simple discrimination task coincide with a decrease in firing of GP neurons .” (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellMiddle equivalent dendriteGabapallidostriatal inputFSIs “have GABAergic inputs originating from the GP. The pallidostriatal inputs are largely selective for FSIs (Bevan et al., 1998) and in vivo, increased firing of FSI during choice selection in a simple discrimination task coincide with a decrease in firing of GP neurons .” (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellProximal equivalent dendriteGabapallidostriatal inputFSIs “have GABAergic inputs originating from the GP. The pallidostriatal inputs are largely selective for FSIs (Bevan et al., 1998) and in vivo, increased firing of FSI during choice selection in a simple discrimination task coincide with a decrease in firing of GP neurons .” (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellSomaGabapallidostriatal inputFSIs “have GABAergic inputs originating from the GP. The pallidostriatal inputs are largely selective for FSIs (Bevan et al., 1998) and in vivo, increased firing of FSI during choice selection in a simple discrimination task coincide with a decrease in firing of GP neurons .” (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellDistal equivalent dendriteDopaminergic ReceptorCortical inputPLTS interneurons receive numerous synaptic contacts on their proximal dendrites from both cholinergic and dopaminergic axons, as well as onto their distal dendrites, which receive asymmetric synaptic inputs from the cortex.” (Kubota Y et al, 19882 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellProximal equivalent dendriteDopaminergic Receptornigrostriatal inputPLTS interneurons receive numerous synaptic contacts on their proximal dendrites from both cholinergic and dopaminergic axons, as well as onto their distal dendrites, which receive asymmetric synaptic inputs from the cortex.” (Kubota Y et al, 19882 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellSomaDopaminergic Receptornigrostriatal inputPLTS interneurons receive numerous synaptic contacts on their proximal dendrites from both cholinergic and dopaminergic axons, as well as onto their distal dendrites, which receive asymmetric synaptic inputs from the cortex.” (Kubota Y et al, 19882 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellProximal equivalent dendriteCholinergic Receptorsnigrostriatal inputPLTS interneurons receive numerous synaptic contacts on their proximal dendrites from both cholinergic and dopaminergic axons, as well as onto their distal dendrites, which receive asymmetric synaptic inputs from the cortex.” (Vuillet J et al, 19923 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellSomaCholinergic Receptorsnigrostriatal inputPLTS interneurons receive numerous synaptic contacts on their proximal dendrites from both cholinergic and dopaminergic axons, as well as onto their distal dendrites, which receive asymmetric synaptic inputs from the cortex.” (Vuillet J et al, 19923 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellDistal equivalent dendriteCholinergic ReceptorsCortical inputPLTS interneurons receive numerous synaptic contacts on their proximal dendrites from both cholinergic and dopaminergic axons, as well as onto their distal dendrites, which receive asymmetric synaptic inputs from the cortex.” (Vuillet J et al, 19923 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellDistal equivalent dendriteGabapallidostriatal inputGABAergic synaptic inputs originating from the globus pallidus were also demonstrated ultrastructurally using juxtacellular labeling and NOS immunocytochemistry.” (Bevan MD et al, 19984 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellMiddle equivalent dendriteGabapallidostriatal inputGABAergic synaptic inputs originating from the globus pallidus were also demonstrated ultrastructurally using juxtacellular labeling and NOS immunocytochemistry.” (Bevan MD et al, 19984 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellProximal equivalent dendriteGabapallidostriatal inputGABAergic synaptic inputs originating from the globus pallidus were also demonstrated ultrastructurally using juxtacellular labeling and NOS immunocytochemistry.” (Bevan MD et al, 19984 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellDistal equivalent dendriteNMDAweak cortical inputAMPA and NMDA receptor mediated cortical glutamatergic inputs that were relatively weak compared to the inputs of SPNs and GABAA receptor mediated inhibitory inputs comparable to those of SPNs.” (Partridge JG et al, 20095 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellMiddle equivalent dendriteNMDAweak cortical inputAMPA and NMDA receptor mediated cortical glutamatergic inputs that were relatively weak compared to the inputs of SPNs and GABAA receptor mediated inhibitory inputs comparable to those of SPNs.” (Partridge JG et al, 20095 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellProximal equivalent dendriteNMDAweak cortical inputAMPA and NMDA receptor mediated cortical glutamatergic inputs that were relatively weak compared to the inputs of SPNs and GABAA receptor mediated inhibitory inputs comparable to those of SPNs.” (Partridge JG et al, 20095 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellDistal equivalent dendriteAMPAweak cortical inputAMPA and NMDA receptor mediated cortical glutamatergic inputs that were relatively weak compared to the inputs of SPNs and GABAA receptor mediated inhibitory inputs comparable to those of SPNs.” (Partridge JG et al, 20095 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellMiddle equivalent dendriteAMPAweak cortical inputAMPA and NMDA receptor mediated cortical glutamatergic inputs that were relatively weak compared to the inputs of SPNs and GABAA receptor mediated inhibitory inputs comparable to those of SPNs.” (Partridge JG et al, 20095 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellProximal equivalent dendriteAMPAweak cortical inputAMPA and NMDA receptor mediated cortical glutamatergic inputs that were relatively weak compared to the inputs of SPNs and GABAA receptor mediated inhibitory inputs comparable to those of SPNs.” (Partridge JG et al, 20095 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellAxon terminalGabastriatal connections to SPNsStriatal FSIs make [GABAergic] synapses onto both direct and indirect path- way SPN. The biophysical properties of the synaptic contacts do not differ and exhibit short-term depression. Further, single FSI often make synapses with both types of SPN” (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellAxon terminalGabastriatal connections to SPNsPLTS interneurons were found to evoke only sparse and relatively weak GABAergic IPSCs in SPNs.” (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellAxon terminalSomatostatinstriatal connections to SPNsPerhaps the principal function of these neurons is to release SOM, NOS, and/or NPY, all of which could exert slower neuromodulatory effects on their postsynaptic targets rather than fast synaptic effects. For example, SOM has been shown to exert a potent presynaptic inhibition on GABA release at SPN–SPN synapses.” (Lopez-Huerta VG et al, 20086 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellAxon terminalNOpossiblePerhaps the principal function of these neurons is to release SOM, NOS, and/or NPY, all of which could exert slower neuromodulatory effects on their postsynaptic targets rather than fast synaptic effects. For example, SOM has been shown to exert a potent presynaptic inhibition on GABA release at SPN–SPN synapses.” (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellAxon terminalneuropeptide YpossiblePerhaps the principal function of these neurons is to release SOM, NOS, and/or NPY, all of which could exert slower neuromodulatory effects on their postsynaptic targets rather than fast synaptic effects. For example, SOM has been shown to exert a potent presynaptic inhibition on GABA release at SPN–SPN synapses.” (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellSomaI Calcium.The oscillations and the intermittent firing pattern are Ca2+ or SK channel independent, but are completely eliminated by TTX, suggesting that they are due to an interaction between voltage-gated K+ conductances and a persistent or possibly the inactivating sodium conductance responsible for spike generation.” (Bracci E et al, 20037 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellSomaI K,Ca.The oscillations and the intermittent firing pattern are Ca2+ or SK channel independent, but are completely eliminated by TTX, suggesting that they are due to an interaction between voltage-gated K+ conductances and a persistent or possibly the inactivating sodium conductance responsible for spike generation.” (Bracci E et al, 20037 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron gaba/parvalbumin GABA cellSomaI N.The oscillations and the intermittent firing pattern are Ca2+ or SK channel independent, but are completely eliminated by TTX, suggesting that they are due to an interaction between voltage-gated K+ conductances and a persistent or possibly the inactivating sodium conductance responsible for spike generation.” (Bracci E et al, 20037 ). Reviewed in (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).
Neostriatum interneuron SOM/NOS GABA cellSomaI T low threshold.The most characteristic attributes of these neurons were the presence of a low threshold Ca2+ spike." (Tepper JM et al, 20101 ).

Classical References: first publications on each compartmental property; search PubMed for complete list
1.  Tepper JM, Tecuapetla F, Koós T and Ibáñez-Sandoval O. (2010) Heterogeneity and diversity of striatal GABAergic interneurons. Front Neuroanat 4:150 [Journal] .
2.  Kubota Y, Inagaki S, Kito S, Shimada S, Okayama T, Hatanaka H, Pelletier G, Takagi H and Tohyama M. (1988) Neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons receive synaptic inputs from dopaminergic axon terminals in the rat neostriatum. Brain Res 458:389-93.
3.  Vuillet J, Dimova R, Nieoullon A and Kerkerian-Le Goff L. (1992) Ultrastructural relationships between choline acetyltransferase- and neuropeptide y-containing neurons in the rat striatum. Neuroscience 46:351-60.
4.  Bevan MD, Booth PA, Eaton SA and Bolam JP. (1998) Selective innervation of neostriatal interneurons by a subclass of neuron in the globus pallidus of the rat. J Neurosci 18:9438-52.
5.  Partridge JG, Janssen MJ, Chou DY, Abe K, Zukowska Z and Vicini S. (2009) Excitatory and inhibitory synapses in neuropeptide Y-expressing striatal interneurons. J Neurophysiol 102:3038-45 [Journal] .
6.  Lopez-Huerta VG, Tecuapetla F, Guzman JN, Bargas J and Galarraga E. (2008) Presynaptic modulation by somatostatin in the neostriatum. Neurochem Res 33:1452-8 [Journal] .
7.  Bracci E, Centonze D, Bernardi G and Calabresi P. (2003) Voltage-dependent membrane potential oscillations of rat striatal fast-spiking interneurons. J Physiol 549:121-30 [Journal] .