374. Pan ZH. (2001) Voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and ionotropic GABA receptors localized at axon terminals of mammalian retinal bipolar cells. Vis Neurosci 18:279-88.

NeuronCompartmentPropertyConnectivityNotes
Retina bipolar cellAxon terminalGaba.GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptor-mediated currents were observed in the isolated terminal (Pan ZH, 2001374 ). Isolated rod-dominant on-center bipolar cells respond to GABA, the highest sensitivity of which being located at the axon terminal (Tachibana M and Kaneko A, 1987386 ). Zn2+ modulates the inhibitory interaction between amacrine and bipolar cells, particularly that mediated by the GABA(C) receptor(Kaneda M et al, 2000387 ) In retinal bipolar cells of bullfrog, both axon terminals and dendrites showed high GABA sensitivity mediated by both GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors. GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors may play different roles in the outer and inner retina and the differential complements of the two receptors on OFF and ON BCs may be closely related to physiological functions of these cells (Du JL and Yang XL, 2000395 ). GABA(A) receptors mediate GABAergic inhibition on bipolar cell dendrites in the OPL, that GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors mediate inhibition on axon terminals in the IPL, and that the GABA(C):GABA(A) on the terminals may tune the response characteristics of the bipolar cell (Shields CR et al, 2000396 ).
Retina bipolar cellAxon terminalI T low threshold.Low-voltage-activated (LVA) and high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ currents were observed in the isolated rod bipolar cell terminal recordings(Pan ZH, 2001374 ). T-type calcium current recorded in bipolar cells in slice in mouse (de la Villa P et al, 1998388 ). Hartveit E, 1999503 .
Retina bipolar cellAxon terminalI L high threshold.High-voltage-activated (HVA) and low-voltage-activated (LVA) Ca2+ currents were observed in the isolated rod bipolar cell terminal recordings(Pan ZH, 2001374 ). Whole-cell patch-clamp recording of ICa from presynaptic boutons are comparable to that obtained from somatic recordings, but elevation of intracellular Ca is restricted to the presynaptic terminals, with no somatic or axonal changes observed (Protti DA and Llano I, 1998378 ). L-type ICa was found only in cells that retained axon terminals ramifying in the inner plexiform layer(de la Villa P et al, 1998388 ) Hartveit E, 1999503 .

References
374. Pan ZH. (2001) Voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and ionotropic GABA receptors localized at axon terminals of mammalian retinal bipolar cells. Vis Neurosci 18:279-88.
386. Tachibana M and Kaneko A. (1987) gamma-Aminobutyric acid exerts a local inhibitory action on the axon terminal of bipolar cells: evidence for negative feedback from amacrine cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:3501-5.
387. Kaneda M, Andrásfalvy B and Kaneko A. (2000) Modulation by Zn2+ of GABA responses in bipolar cells of the mouse retina. Vis Neurosci 17:273-81.
395. Du JL and Yang XL. (2000) Subcellular localization and complements of GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors on bullfrog retinal bipolar cells. J Neurophysiol 84:666-76 [Journal] .
396. Shields CR, Tran MN, Wong RO and Lukasiewicz PD. (2000) Distinct ionotropic GABA receptors mediate presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition in retinal bipolar cells. J Neurosci 20:2673-82.
388. de la Villa P, Vaquero CF and Kaneko A. (1998) Two types of calcium currents of the mouse bipolar cells recorded in the retinal slice preparation. Eur J Neurosci 10:317-23.
503. Hartveit E. (1999) Reciprocal synaptic interactions between rod bipolar cells and amacrine cells in the rat retina. J Neurophysiol 81:2923-36.
378. Protti DA and Llano I. (1998) Calcium currents and calcium signaling in rod bipolar cells of rat retinal slices. J Neurosci 18:3715-24.
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