1. Waters J, Larkum M, Sakmann B and Helmchen F. (2003) Supralinear Ca2+ influx into dendritic tufts of layer 2/3 neocortical pyramidal neurons in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci 23:8558-67.

NeuronCompartmentPropertyConnectivityNotes
Neocortex L2/3 pyramidal GLU cellSomaI Na,t.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that backpropagation of action potentials into the dendritic arbor is actively supported by Na+ channels both in vitro and in vivo. (Waters J et al, 20031 ).
Neocortex L2/3 pyramidal GLU cellDistal apical dendriteI Na,t.(Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 20002 ). Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that backpropagation of action potentials into the dendritic arbor is actively supported by Na+ channels both in vitro and in vivo. (Waters J et al, 20031 ).
Neocortex L2/3 pyramidal GLU cellMiddle apical dendriteI Na,t.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that backpropagation of action potentials into the dendritic arbor is actively supported by Na+ channels both in vitro and in vivo. (Waters J et al, 20031 ).
Neocortex L2/3 pyramidal GLU cellProximal apical dendriteI Na,t.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that backpropagation of action potentials into the dendritic arbor is actively supported by Na+ channels both in vitro and in vivo. (Waters J et al, 20031 ).
Neocortex L2/3 pyramidal GLU cellSomaI Calcium.Intracellular recordings suggested different functional consequences for modulation of Ca2+ current subtypes. Based on the effects of specific organic Ca2+ channel blockers the sAHP was found to be coupled to N-, P-, and Q-type currents. P-type currents were coupled to the mAHP (Pineda JC et al, 19983 ). It has been suggested that the pharmacologically separable components of the HVA current in these neurons do not differ significantly in kinetics (Brown AM et al, 1993 [rat]4 ). Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 20031 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20035 ).
Neocortex L2/3 pyramidal GLU cellMiddle apical dendriteI Calcium.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 20031 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20035 ).
Neocortex L2/3 pyramidal GLU cellProximal apical dendriteI Calcium.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 20031 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20035 ).
Neocortex L2/3 pyramidal GLU cellDistal apical dendriteI Calcium.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke little or none Ca2+ influx in the dendritic tuft, unless is paired with synaptic input (Waters J et al, 20031 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20035 ).
Neocortex M1 L2/6 pyramidal intratelencephalic GLU cellSomaI Na,t.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that backpropagation of action potentials into the dendritic arbor is actively supported by Na+ channels both in vitro and in vivo. (Waters J et al, 20031 ).
Neocortex M1 L2/6 pyramidal intratelencephalic GLU cellDistal apical dendriteI Na,t.(Williams SR and Stuart GJ, 20002 ). Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that backpropagation of action potentials into the dendritic arbor is actively supported by Na+ channels both in vitro and in vivo. (Waters J et al, 20031 ).
Neocortex M1 L2/6 pyramidal intratelencephalic GLU cellMiddle apical dendriteI Na,t.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that backpropagation of action potentials into the dendritic arbor is actively supported by Na+ channels both in vitro and in vivo. (Waters J et al, 20031 ).
Neocortex M1 L2/6 pyramidal intratelencephalic GLU cellProximal apical dendriteI Na,t.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that backpropagation of action potentials into the dendritic arbor is actively supported by Na+ channels both in vitro and in vivo. (Waters J et al, 20031 ).
Neocortex M1 L2/6 pyramidal intratelencephalic GLU cellSomaI Calcium.Intracellular recordings suggested different functional consequences for modulation of Ca2+ current subtypes. Based on the effects of specific organic Ca2+ channel blockers the sAHP was found to be coupled to N-, P-, and Q-type currents. P-type currents were coupled to the mAHP (Pineda JC et al, 19983 ). It has been suggested that the pharmacologically separable components of the HVA current in these neurons do not differ significantly in kinetics (Brown AM et al, 1993 [rat]4 ). Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 20031 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20035 ).
Neocortex M1 L2/6 pyramidal intratelencephalic GLU cellMiddle apical dendriteI Calcium.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 20031 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20035 ).
Neocortex M1 L2/6 pyramidal intratelencephalic GLU cellProximal apical dendriteI Calcium.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 20031 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20035 ).
Neocortex M1 L2/6 pyramidal intratelencephalic GLU cellDistal apical dendriteI Calcium.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke little or none Ca2+ influx in the dendritic tuft, unless is paired with synaptic input (Waters J et al, 20031 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 20035 ).

Classical References: first publications on each compartmental property; search PubMed for complete list
1.  Waters J, Larkum M, Sakmann B and Helmchen F. (2003) Supralinear Ca2+ influx into dendritic tufts of layer 2/3 neocortical pyramidal neurons in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci 23:8558-67.
2.  Williams SR and Stuart GJ. (2000) Backpropagation of physiological spike trains in neocortical pyramidal neurons: implications for temporal coding in dendrites. J Neurosci 20:8238-46.
3.  Pineda JC, Waters RS and Foehring RC. (1998) Specificity in the interaction of HVA Ca2+ channel types with Ca2+-dependent AHPs and firing behavior in neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol 79:2522-34 [Journal] .
4.  Brown AM, Schwindt PC and Crill WE. (1993) Voltage dependence and activation kinetics of pharmacologically defined components of the high-threshold calcium current in rat neocortical neurons. J Neurophysiol 70:1530-43 [Journal] .
5.  Larkum ME, Watanabe S, Nakamura T, Lasser-Ross N and Ross WN. (2003) Synaptically activated Ca2+ waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Physiol 549:471-88 [Journal] .