449. Buhl EH, Tamas G, Szilagyi T, Stricker C, Paulsen O and Somogyi P. (1997) Effect, number and location of synapses made by single pyramidal cells onto aspiny interneurones of cat visual cortex. J Physiol 500 ( Pt 3):689-713.

NeuronCompartmentPropertyConnectivityNotes
Neocortex V1 interneuron basket PV cellDistal equivalent dendriteGlutamatefrom thalmic afferents, layer 6 pyramidal cells, and spiny stellate cellsLayer 2/3 fast-spiking interneurons (most of which are basket cells) received the strongest excitatory input (presumably glutamatergic) from layer 4 (Dantzker JL and Callaway EM, 2000443 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive excitatory input from neighboring spiny neurons, resulting in large excitatory EPSPs. One third of spiny cell-smooth cell pair were connected reciprocally (postsynaptic targets include local spiny stellate, pyramidal cells, as well as smooth neurons), but the postsynaptic IPSPs evoked by basket cells are slower, GABAergic, probably of GABAA type (Tarczy-Hornoch K et al, 1998445 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive asymmetric synapses from layer 6 pyramidal (~43%), the spiny stellate (44%) and thalamic afferents (13%) (Ahmed B et al, 1997447 ). Dual recording from pyramidal cell-basket cell pairs reveal unitary EPSPs in basket cells mediated by one and two synaptic junctions. The unitary EPSPs have fast rising time and short time duration. Closely timed (10-50 ms) pairs of presynaptic action potentials resulted in statistically significant paired-pulse depression. The reliability of transmission is high, but the fast time course of the EPSPs constrains their temporal summation. Due to the relatively small amplitude of unitary EPSPs several convergent inputs will therefore be required to elicit suprathreshold responses. (Buhl EH et al, 1997449 ).
Distal equivalent dendriteGlutamatefrom thalmic afferents, layer 6 pyramidal cells, and spiny stellate cellsLayer 2/3 fast-spiking interneurons (most of which are basket cells) received the strongest excitatory input (presumably glutamatergic) from layer 4 (Dantzker JL and Callaway EM, 2000443 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive excitatory input from neighboring spiny neurons, resulting in large excitatory EPSPs. One third of spiny cell-smooth cell pair were connected reciprocally (postsynaptic targets include local spiny stellate, pyramidal cells, as well as smooth neurons), but the postsynaptic IPSPs evoked by basket cells are slower, GABAergic, probably of GABAA type (Tarczy-Hornoch K et al, 1998445 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive asymmetric synapses from layer 6 pyramidal (~43%), the spiny stellate (44%) and thalamic afferents (13%) (Ahmed B et al, 1997447 ). Dual recording from pyramidal cell-basket cell pairs reveal unitary EPSPs in basket cells mediated by one and two synaptic junctions. The unitary EPSPs have fast rising time and short time duration. Closely timed (10-50 ms) pairs of presynaptic action potentials resulted in statistically significant paired-pulse depression. The reliability of transmission is high, but the fast time course of the EPSPs constrains their temporal summation. Due to the relatively small amplitude of unitary EPSPs several convergent inputs will therefore be required to elicit suprathreshold responses. (Buhl EH et al, 1997449 ).
Distal equivalent dendriteGlutamatefrom thalmic afferents, layer 6 pyramidal cells, and spiny stellate cellsLayer 2/3 fast-spiking interneurons (most of which are basket cells) received the strongest excitatory input (presumably glutamatergic) from layer 4 (Dantzker JL and Callaway EM, 2000443 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive excitatory input from neighboring spiny neurons, resulting in large excitatory EPSPs. One third of spiny cell-smooth cell pair were connected reciprocally (postsynaptic targets include local spiny stellate, pyramidal cells, as well as smooth neurons), but the postsynaptic IPSPs evoked by basket cells are slower, GABAergic, probably of GABAA type (Tarczy-Hornoch K et al, 1998445 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive asymmetric synapses from layer 6 pyramidal (~43%), the spiny stellate (44%) and thalamic afferents (13%) (Ahmed B et al, 1997447 ). Dual recording from pyramidal cell-basket cell pairs reveal unitary EPSPs in basket cells mediated by one and two synaptic junctions. The unitary EPSPs have fast rising time and short time duration. Closely timed (10-50 ms) pairs of presynaptic action potentials resulted in statistically significant paired-pulse depression. The reliability of transmission is high, but the fast time course of the EPSPs constrains their temporal summation. Due to the relatively small amplitude of unitary EPSPs several convergent inputs will therefore be required to elicit suprathreshold responses. (Buhl EH et al, 1997449 ).
Distal equivalent dendriteGlutamatefrom thalmic afferents, layer 6 pyramidal cells, and spiny stellate cellsLayer 2/3 fast-spiking interneurons (most of which are basket cells) received the strongest excitatory input (presumably glutamatergic) from layer 4 (Dantzker JL and Callaway EM, 2000443 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive excitatory input from neighboring spiny neurons, resulting in large excitatory EPSPs. One third of spiny cell-smooth cell pair were connected reciprocally (postsynaptic targets include local spiny stellate, pyramidal cells, as well as smooth neurons), but the postsynaptic IPSPs evoked by basket cells are slower, GABAergic, probably of GABAA type (Tarczy-Hornoch K et al, 1998445 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive asymmetric synapses from layer 6 pyramidal (~43%), the spiny stellate (44%) and thalamic afferents (13%) (Ahmed B et al, 1997447 ). Dual recording from pyramidal cell-basket cell pairs reveal unitary EPSPs in basket cells mediated by one and two synaptic junctions. The unitary EPSPs have fast rising time and short time duration. Closely timed (10-50 ms) pairs of presynaptic action potentials resulted in statistically significant paired-pulse depression. The reliability of transmission is high, but the fast time course of the EPSPs constrains their temporal summation. Due to the relatively small amplitude of unitary EPSPs several convergent inputs will therefore be required to elicit suprathreshold responses. (Buhl EH et al, 1997449 ).
Distal equivalent dendriteGlutamatefrom thalmic afferents, layer 6 pyramidal cells, and spiny stellate cellsLayer 2/3 fast-spiking interneurons (most of which are basket cells) received the strongest excitatory input (presumably glutamatergic) from layer 4 (Dantzker JL and Callaway EM, 2000443 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive excitatory input from neighboring spiny neurons, resulting in large excitatory EPSPs. One third of spiny cell-smooth cell pair were connected reciprocally (postsynaptic targets include local spiny stellate, pyramidal cells, as well as smooth neurons), but the postsynaptic IPSPs evoked by basket cells are slower, GABAergic, probably of GABAA type (Tarczy-Hornoch K et al, 1998445 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive asymmetric synapses from layer 6 pyramidal (~43%), the spiny stellate (44%) and thalamic afferents (13%) (Ahmed B et al, 1997447 ). Dual recording from pyramidal cell-basket cell pairs reveal unitary EPSPs in basket cells mediated by one and two synaptic junctions. The unitary EPSPs have fast rising time and short time duration. Closely timed (10-50 ms) pairs of presynaptic action potentials resulted in statistically significant paired-pulse depression. The reliability of transmission is high, but the fast time course of the EPSPs constrains their temporal summation. Due to the relatively small amplitude of unitary EPSPs several convergent inputs will therefore be required to elicit suprathreshold responses. (Buhl EH et al, 1997449 ).
Distal equivalent dendriteGlutamatefrom thalmic afferents, layer 6 pyramidal cells, and spiny stellate cellsLayer 2/3 fast-spiking interneurons (most of which are basket cells) received the strongest excitatory input (presumably glutamatergic) from layer 4 (Dantzker JL and Callaway EM, 2000443 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive excitatory input from neighboring spiny neurons, resulting in large excitatory EPSPs. One third of spiny cell-smooth cell pair were connected reciprocally (postsynaptic targets include local spiny stellate, pyramidal cells, as well as smooth neurons), but the postsynaptic IPSPs evoked by basket cells are slower, GABAergic, probably of GABAA type (Tarczy-Hornoch K et al, 1998445 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive asymmetric synapses from layer 6 pyramidal (~43%), the spiny stellate (44%) and thalamic afferents (13%) (Ahmed B et al, 1997447 ). Dual recording from pyramidal cell-basket cell pairs reveal unitary EPSPs in basket cells mediated by one and two synaptic junctions. The unitary EPSPs have fast rising time and short time duration. Closely timed (10-50 ms) pairs of presynaptic action potentials resulted in statistically significant paired-pulse depression. The reliability of transmission is high, but the fast time course of the EPSPs constrains their temporal summation. Due to the relatively small amplitude of unitary EPSPs several convergent inputs will therefore be required to elicit suprathreshold responses. (Buhl EH et al, 1997449 ).
Distal equivalent dendriteGlutamatefrom thalmic afferents, layer 6 pyramidal cells, and spiny stellate cellsLayer 2/3 fast-spiking interneurons (most of which are basket cells) received the strongest excitatory input (presumably glutamatergic) from layer 4 (Dantzker JL and Callaway EM, 2000443 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive excitatory input from neighboring spiny neurons, resulting in large excitatory EPSPs. One third of spiny cell-smooth cell pair were connected reciprocally (postsynaptic targets include local spiny stellate, pyramidal cells, as well as smooth neurons), but the postsynaptic IPSPs evoked by basket cells are slower, GABAergic, probably of GABAA type (Tarczy-Hornoch K et al, 1998445 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive asymmetric synapses from layer 6 pyramidal (~43%), the spiny stellate (44%) and thalamic afferents (13%) (Ahmed B et al, 1997447 ). Dual recording from pyramidal cell-basket cell pairs reveal unitary EPSPs in basket cells mediated by one and two synaptic junctions. The unitary EPSPs have fast rising time and short time duration. Closely timed (10-50 ms) pairs of presynaptic action potentials resulted in statistically significant paired-pulse depression. The reliability of transmission is high, but the fast time course of the EPSPs constrains their temporal summation. Due to the relatively small amplitude of unitary EPSPs several convergent inputs will therefore be required to elicit suprathreshold responses. (Buhl EH et al, 1997449 ).
Distal equivalent dendriteGlutamatefrom thalmic afferents, layer 6 pyramidal cells, and spiny stellate cellsLayer 2/3 fast-spiking interneurons (most of which are basket cells) received the strongest excitatory input (presumably glutamatergic) from layer 4 (Dantzker JL and Callaway EM, 2000443 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive excitatory input from neighboring spiny neurons, resulting in large excitatory EPSPs. One third of spiny cell-smooth cell pair were connected reciprocally (postsynaptic targets include local spiny stellate, pyramidal cells, as well as smooth neurons), but the postsynaptic IPSPs evoked by basket cells are slower, GABAergic, probably of GABAA type (Tarczy-Hornoch K et al, 1998445 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive asymmetric synapses from layer 6 pyramidal (~43%), the spiny stellate (44%) and thalamic afferents (13%) (Ahmed B et al, 1997447 ). Dual recording from pyramidal cell-basket cell pairs reveal unitary EPSPs in basket cells mediated by one and two synaptic junctions. The unitary EPSPs have fast rising time and short time duration. Closely timed (10-50 ms) pairs of presynaptic action potentials resulted in statistically significant paired-pulse depression. The reliability of transmission is high, but the fast time course of the EPSPs constrains their temporal summation. Due to the relatively small amplitude of unitary EPSPs several convergent inputs will therefore be required to elicit suprathreshold responses. (Buhl EH et al, 1997449 ).
Distal equivalent dendriteGlutamatefrom thalmic afferents, layer 6 pyramidal cells, and spiny stellate cellsLayer 2/3 fast-spiking interneurons (most of which are basket cells) received the strongest excitatory input (presumably glutamatergic) from layer 4 (Dantzker JL and Callaway EM, 2000443 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive excitatory input from neighboring spiny neurons, resulting in large excitatory EPSPs. One third of spiny cell-smooth cell pair were connected reciprocally (postsynaptic targets include local spiny stellate, pyramidal cells, as well as smooth neurons), but the postsynaptic IPSPs evoked by basket cells are slower, GABAergic, probably of GABAA type (Tarczy-Hornoch K et al, 1998445 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive asymmetric synapses from layer 6 pyramidal (~43%), the spiny stellate (44%) and thalamic afferents (13%) (Ahmed B et al, 1997447 ). Dual recording from pyramidal cell-basket cell pairs reveal unitary EPSPs in basket cells mediated by one and two synaptic junctions. The unitary EPSPs have fast rising time and short time duration. Closely timed (10-50 ms) pairs of presynaptic action potentials resulted in statistically significant paired-pulse depression. The reliability of transmission is high, but the fast time course of the EPSPs constrains their temporal summation. Due to the relatively small amplitude of unitary EPSPs several convergent inputs will therefore be required to elicit suprathreshold responses. (Buhl EH et al, 1997449 ).
Neocortex M1 interneuron basket PV cellDistal equivalent dendriteGlutamatefrom thalmic afferents, layer 6 pyramidal cells, and spiny stellate cellsLayer 2/3 fast-spiking interneurons (most of which are basket cells) received the strongest excitatory input (presumably glutamatergic) from layer 4 (Dantzker JL and Callaway EM, 2000443 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive excitatory input from neighboring spiny neurons, resulting in large excitatory EPSPs. One third of spiny cell-smooth cell pair were connected reciprocally (postsynaptic targets include local spiny stellate, pyramidal cells, as well as smooth neurons), but the postsynaptic IPSPs evoked by basket cells are slower, GABAergic, probably of GABAA type (Tarczy-Hornoch K et al, 1998445 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive asymmetric synapses from layer 6 pyramidal (~43%), the spiny stellate (44%) and thalamic afferents (13%) (Ahmed B et al, 1997447 ). Dual recording from pyramidal cell-basket cell pairs reveal unitary EPSPs in basket cells mediated by one and two synaptic junctions. The unitary EPSPs have fast rising time and short time duration. Closely timed (10-50 ms) pairs of presynaptic action potentials resulted in statistically significant paired-pulse depression. The reliability of transmission is high, but the fast time course of the EPSPs constrains their temporal summation. Due to the relatively small amplitude of unitary EPSPs several convergent inputs will therefore be required to elicit suprathreshold responses. (Buhl EH et al, 1997449 ).
Neocortex U1 interneuron basket PV cellDistal equivalent dendriteGlutamatefrom thalmic afferents, layer 6 pyramidal cells, and spiny stellate cellsLayer 2/3 fast-spiking interneurons (most of which are basket cells) received the strongest excitatory input (presumably glutamatergic) from layer 4 (Dantzker JL and Callaway EM, 2000443 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive excitatory input from neighboring spiny neurons, resulting in large excitatory EPSPs. One third of spiny cell-smooth cell pair were connected reciprocally (postsynaptic targets include local spiny stellate, pyramidal cells, as well as smooth neurons), but the postsynaptic IPSPs evoked by basket cells are slower, GABAergic, probably of GABAA type (Tarczy-Hornoch K et al, 1998445 ). Layer 4 basket cells in cat visual cortex receive asymmetric synapses from layer 6 pyramidal (~43%), the spiny stellate (44%) and thalamic afferents (13%) (Ahmed B et al, 1997447 ). Dual recording from pyramidal cell-basket cell pairs reveal unitary EPSPs in basket cells mediated by one and two synaptic junctions. The unitary EPSPs have fast rising time and short time duration. Closely timed (10-50 ms) pairs of presynaptic action potentials resulted in statistically significant paired-pulse depression. The reliability of transmission is high, but the fast time course of the EPSPs constrains their temporal summation. Due to the relatively small amplitude of unitary EPSPs several convergent inputs will therefore be required to elicit suprathreshold responses. (Buhl EH et al, 1997449 ).

References
443. Dantzker JL and Callaway EM. (2000) Laminar sources of synaptic input to cortical inhibitory interneurons and pyramidal neurons. Nat Neurosci 3:701-7.
445. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Martin KA, Jack JJ and Stratford KJ. (1998) Synaptic interactions between smooth and spiny neurones in layer 4 of cat visual cortex in vitro. J Physiol 508 ( Pt 2):351-63.
447. Ahmed B, Anderson JC, Martin KA and Nelson JC. (1997) Map of the synapses onto layer 4 basket cells of the primary visual cortex of the cat. J Comp Neurol 380:230-42.
449. Buhl EH, Tamas G, Szilagyi T, Stricker C, Paulsen O and Somogyi P. (1997) Effect, number and location of synapses made by single pyramidal cells onto aspiny interneurones of cat visual cortex. J Physiol 500 ( Pt 3):689-713.
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