481. Larkum ME, Watanabe S, Nakamura T, Lasser-Ross N and Ross WN. (2003) Synaptically activated Ca2+ waves in layer 2-3 and layer 5 rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Physiol 549:471-88.

NeuronCompartmentPropertyConnectivityNotes
Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellMiddle apical dendriteI Calcium.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellProximal apical dendriteI Calcium.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellDistal apical dendriteI Calcium.The developmental evolution of Ca-dependent spikes in the tuft was investigated using simultaneous somatic and dendritic recordings (Zhu JJ, 2000 [rat ]182 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex V1 pyramidal intratelencephalic L2-6 cellSomaI Calcium.Intracellular recordings suggested different functional consequences for modulation of Ca2+ current subtypes. Based on the effects of specific organic Ca2+ channel blockers the sAHP was found to be coupled to N-, P-, and Q-type currents. P-type currents were coupled to the mAHP (Pineda JC et al, 1998262 ). It has been suggested that the pharmacologically separable components of the HVA current in these neurons do not differ significantly in kinetics (Brown AM et al, 1993 [rat ]285 ). Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 2003479 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex V1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellSomaI Calcium.It has been suggested that the pharmacologically separable components of the HVA current in these neurons do not differ significantly in kinetics (Brown AM et al, 1993 [rat ]285 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex V1 pyramidal intratelencephalic L2-6 cellMiddle apical dendriteI Calcium.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 2003479 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex V1 pyramidal intratelencephalic L2-6 cellProximal apical dendriteI Calcium.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 2003479 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex V1 pyramidal intratelencephalic L2-6 cellDistal apical dendriteI Calcium.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke little or none Ca2+ influx in the dendritic tuft, unless is paired with synaptic input (Waters J et al, 2003479 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellDistal apical dendriteI Calcium.The developmental evolution of Ca-dependent spikes in the tuft was investigated using simultaneous somatic and dendritic recordings (Zhu JJ, 2000 [rat ]182 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellMiddle apical dendriteI Calcium.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellProximal apical dendriteI Calcium.Dendritic fluorescence imaging showed that Ca2+ channels of several subtypes mediated the AP-evoked fluorescence transient in the proximal (100-170 microns) apical dendrite. The fluorescence resulted from Ca2+ entry through L, N, and P-type channels, and through Ca2+ channels (R-type) not sensitive to L-, N- and P-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Markram H et al, 1995 [rat ]222 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal corticothalamic L6 cellSomaI Calcium.It has been suggested that the pharmacologically separable components of the HVA current in these neurons do not differ significantly in kinetics (Brown AM et al, 1993 [rat ]285 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal intratelencephalic L2-6 cellSomaI Calcium.Intracellular recordings suggested different functional consequences for modulation of Ca2+ current subtypes. Based on the effects of specific organic Ca2+ channel blockers the sAHP was found to be coupled to N-, P-, and Q-type currents. P-type currents were coupled to the mAHP (Pineda JC et al, 1998262 ). It has been suggested that the pharmacologically separable components of the HVA current in these neurons do not differ significantly in kinetics (Brown AM et al, 1993 [rat ]285 ). Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 2003479 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal intratelencephalic L2-6 cellMiddle apical dendriteI Calcium.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 2003479 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal intratelencephalic L2-6 cellProximal apical dendriteI Calcium.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke substantial Ca2+ influx in the apical trunk. (Waters J et al, 2003479 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).
Neocortex M1 pyramidal intratelencephalic L2-6 cellDistal apical dendriteI Calcium.Recordings from acute brain slices and in anesthetized rats using whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging found that single action potentials evoke little or none Ca2+ influx in the dendritic tuft, unless is paired with synaptic input (Waters J et al, 2003479 ). Using calcium imaging, calcium waves in layer 2/3 and layer 5 neocortical somatosensory pyramidal neurons were examined in slices from 2- to 8-week-old rats (Larkum ME et al, 2003481 ).

References
222. Markram H, Helm PJ and Sakmann B. (1995) Dendritic calcium transients evoked by single back-propagating action potentials in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Physiol 485 ( Pt 1):1-20.
481. Larkum ME, Watanabe S, Nakamura T, Lasser-Ross N and Ross WN. (2003) Synaptically activated Ca2+ waves in layer 2-3 and layer 5 rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Physiol 549:471-88.
182. Zhu JJ. (2000) Maturation of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons: amplifying salient layer 1 and layer 4 inputs by Ca2+ action potentials in adult rat tuft dendrites. J Physiol 526 Pt 3:571-87.
262. Pineda JC, Waters RS and Foehring RC. (1998) Specificity in the interaction of HVA Ca2+ channel types with Ca2+-dependent AHPs and firing behavior in neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol 79:2522-34.
285. Brown AM, Schwindt PC and Crill WE. (1993) Voltage dependence and activation kinetics of pharmacologically defined components of the high-threshold calcium current in rat neocortical neurons. J Neurophysiol 70:1530-43 [Journal] .
479. Waters J, Larkum M, Sakmann B and Helmchen F. (2003) Supralinear Ca2+ influx into dendritic tufts of layer 2-3 neocortical pyramidal neurons in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci 23:8558-67.
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