540. Raymond CR and Redman SJ. (2006) Spatial segregation of neuronal calcium signals encodes different forms of LTP in rat hippocampus. J Physiol 570:97-111 [Journal] .

NeuronCompartmentPropertyConnectivityNotes
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellMiddle apical dendriteNMDA.The way that different parts of a neuron carry out multiple information processing roles is illustrated by the CA1 pyramidal cell in the hippocampus. The authors used 2-photon microscopy to obtain high resolution images of calcium signals in the apical dendrites while activating Schaffer collateral inputs to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of different durations. Short-duration LTP (LTP 1) was associated with Ca increase in dendritic spines, due to activation of NMDA receptors and local ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Intermediate duration LTP (LTP 2) was associated with Ca increase in dendritic branches, due to activation of NMDA receptors and local IP3 receptors (IP3Rs). For Ca increase in long duration LTP (LTP3), see Ca channels in CA1 pyramidal cell apical dendrite. The authors conclude that "selective induction of different forms of LTP is achieved via spatial segregation of functionally distinct calcium signals"(Raymond CR and Redman SJ, 2006540 ). The Schaeffer collateral/commissural pathway elicits EPSPs in CA1 that have an NMDA-receptor mediated component that can be blocked by APV under certain experimental circumstances (such as low bath Mg+ levels). Many authors have suggested that NMDA receptors may be involved in long-term potentiation in this region. (Reviewed in Randall AD and Collingridge GL, 1992142 ). EM showed colocalization at axodendritic asymmetric synapses within the CA1 subfield of rat hippocampus. AMPA/NMDA receptor colocalization was found in non-GABAergic dendritic shafts as well as dendritic spines, suggesting that excitatory neuronal transmission in CA1 neurons may generally involve activation of both NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits at a single synapse (He Y et al, 1998250 ).
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellDistal apical dendriteNMDA.The way that different parts of a neuron carry out multiple information processing roles is illustrated by the CA1 pyramidal cell in the hippocampus. The authors used 2-photon microscopy to obtain high resolution images of calcium signals in the apical dendrites while activating Schaffer collateral inputs to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of different durations. Short-duration LTP (LTP 1) was associated with Ca increase in dendritic spines, due to activation of NMDA receptors and local ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Intermediate duration LTP (LTP 2) was associated with Ca increase in dendritic branches, due to activation of NMDA receptors and local IP3 receptors (IP3Rs). For Ca increase in long duration LTP (LTP3), see Ca channels in CA1 pyramidal cell apical dendrite. The authors conclude that "selective induction of different forms of LTP is achieved via spatial segregation of functionally distinct calcium signals"(Raymond CR and Redman SJ, 2006540 ). EM showed colocalization at axodendritic asymmetric synapses within the CA1 subfield of rat hippocampus. AMPA/NMDA receptor colocalization was found in non-GABAergic dendritic shafts as well as dendritic spines, suggesting that excitatory neuronal transmission in CA1 neurons may generally involve activation of both NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits at a single synapse (He Y et al, 1998250 ). Recordings from membrane patches of dendrites and soma reveal fast and slow responses to fast application of glutamate, mediated by AMPA and NMDA receptors, respectively (Spruston N et al, 1995434 ).
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellProximal apical dendriteNMDA.The way that different parts of a neuron carry out multiple information processing roles is illustrated by the CA1 pyramidal cell in the hippocampus. The authors used 2-photon microscopy to obtain high resolution images of calcium signals in the apical dendrites while activating Schaffer collateral inputs to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of different durations. Short-duration LTP (LTP 1) was associated with Ca increase in dendritic spines, due to activation of NMDA receptors and local ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Intermediate duration LTP (LTP 2) was associated with Ca increase in dendritic branches, due to activation of NMDA receptors and local IP3 receptors (IP3Rs). For Ca increase in long duration LTP (LTP3), see Ca channels in CA1 pyramidal cell apical dendrite. The authors conclude that "selective induction of different forms of LTP is achieved via spatial segregation of functionally distinct calcium signals"(Raymond CR and Redman SJ, 2006540 ). EM showed colocalization at axodendritic asymmetric synapses within the CA1 subfield of rat hippocampus. AMPA/NMDA receptor colocalization was found in non-GABAergic dendritic shafts as well as dendritic spines, suggesting that excitatory neuronal transmission in CA1 neurons may generally involve activation of both NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits at a single synapse (He Y et al, 1998250 ).

References
540. Raymond CR and Redman SJ. (2006) Spatial segregation of neuronal calcium signals encodes different forms of LTP in rat hippocampus. J Physiol 570:97-111 [Journal] .
142. Randall AD and Collingridge GL. (1992) Amino acid receptor-mediated synaptic currents in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Ion Channels 3:63-81.
250. He Y, Janssen WG and Morrison JH. (1998) Synaptic coexistence of AMPA and NMDA receptors in the rat hippocampus: a postembedding immunogold study. J Neurosci Res 54:444-9 [Journal] .
434. Spruston N, Jonas P and Sakmann B. (1995) Dendritic glutamate receptor channels in rat hippocampal CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons. J Physiol 482 ( Pt 2):325-52.
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