57. Spruston N, Schiller Y, Stuart G and Sakmann B. (1995) Activity-dependent action potential invasion and calcium influx into hippocampal CA1 dendrites. Science 268:297-300.

NeuronCompartmentPropertyConnectivityNotes
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellDistal apical dendriteI p,q."action potential-mediated depolarization can...result in the elevation of dendritic intracellular Ca concentration (Regehr et al 1989, Jaffe DB et al, 199276 ), which is important for the induction of long term changes in synaptic strength" (Spruston N et al, 1995 [mammal ]57 ).
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellDistal apical dendriteI Na,t.Na impulses may underly "fast prepotentials" that boost distal EPSPs (Spencer WA and Kandel ER, 196175 ). Na action potentials support backpropagating impulses (Spruston N et al, 1995 [mammal ]57 ), and can activate Ca action potentials (Spruston N et al, 1995 [mammal ]57 ). Patch recordings yield an approximate channel density of 28 pS/micron^2 in juvenile rats < 4 wks of age, rising to 61 pS/micron^2 in older rats. Channel density was similar in other dendritic compartments (Magee JC and Johnston D, 1995 [rat ]140 ). Tsubokawa H et al, 2000180 . Inactivation of dendritic Na channel contributes to the attenuation of activity-dependent backpropagation of APs (Jung HY et al, 1997435 ). Slow inactivation of sodium channels in dendrites and soma will modulate neuronal excitability in a way that depends in a complicated manner on the resting potential and previous history of action potential firing (Mickus T et al, 1999436 ). Single action potential backpropagations show dichotomy of either strong attenuation (26-42%) or weak attenuation (71-87%). The dichotomy seems to be conferred primarily by differences in distribution, density, etc. of voltage dependent sodium and potassium channel (A-type, especially ) along the somatodendritic axis (Golding NL et al, 2001439 )
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellMiddle apical dendriteI p,q."action potential-mediated depolarization can...result in the elevation of dendritic intracellular Ca concentration (Regehr et al 1989, Jaffe DB et al, 199276 ), which is important for the induction of long term changes in synaptic strength" (Spruston N et al, 1995 [mammal ]57 ).
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellMiddle apical dendriteI Na,t.Na impulses may underly "fast prepotentials" that boost distal EPSPs (Spencer WA and Kandel ER, 196175 ). Na action potentials support backpropagating impulses (Spruston N et al, 1995 [mammal ]57 ), and can activate Ca action potentials (Spruston N et al, 1995 [mammal ]57 ). Patch recordings yield an approximate channel density of 28 pS/micron^2 in juvenile rats < 4 wks of age, rising to 61 pS/micron^2 in older rats. Channel density was similar in other dendritic compartments (Magee JC and Johnston D, 1995 [rat ]140 ). Tsubokawa H et al, 2000180 . Inactivation of dendritic Na channel contributes to the attenuation of activity-dependent backpropagation of APs (Jung HY et al, 1997435 ). Slow inactivation of sodium channels in dendrites and soma will modulate neuronal excitability in a way that depends in a complicated manner on the resting potential and previous history of action potential firing (Mickus T et al, 1999436 ). Dendritic can fire sodium spikes that can precede somatic action potentials (APs), the probability and amplitude of which depend on previous synaptic and firing history. Some dendritic spikes could occur in the absense of somatic APs, indicating that their propagation to soma is unreliable (Golding NL and Spruston N, 1998437 ). Single action potential backpropagations show dichotomy of either strong attenuation (26-42%) or weak attenuation (71-87%). The dichotomy seems to be conferred primarily by differences in distribution, density, etc. of voltage dependent sodium and potassium channel (A-type, especially ) along the somatodendritic axis (Golding NL et al, 2001439 )
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellProximal apical dendriteI Na,t.Na impulses may underly "fast prepotentials" that boost distal EPSPs (Spencer WA and Kandel ER, 196175 ). Na action potentials support backpropagating impulses (Spruston N et al, 1995 [mammal ]57 ), and can activate Ca action potentials (Spruston N et al, 1995 [mammal ]57 ). Patch recordings yield an approximate channel density of 28 pS/micron^2 in juvenile rats < 4 wks of age, rising to 61 pS/micron^2 in older rats. Channel density was similar in other dendritic compartments (Magee JC and Johnston D, 1995 [rat ]140 ). However, channel density varied widely in the proximal compartment, possibly indicating the presence of hot spots. Tsubokawa H et al, 2000180 . Inactivation of dendritic Na channel contributes to the attenuation of activity-dependent backpropagation of APs (Jung HY et al, 1997435 ). Slow inactivation of sodium channels in dendrites and soma will modulate neuronal excitability in a way that depends in a complicated manner on the resting potential and previous history of action potential firing (Mickus T et al, 1999436 ). Single action potential backpropagations show dichotomy of either strong attenuation (26-42%) or weak attenuation (71-87%). The dichotomy seems to be conferred primarily by differences in distribution, density, etc. of voltage dependent sodium and potassium channel (A-type, especially ) along the somatodendritic axis (Golding NL et al, 2001439 )
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cellProximal apical dendriteI p,q.Ca fluorescence imaging shows that application of P-channel antagonists reduces the Ca influx associated with backpropagating action potentials (Storm-Mathisen J, 1977141 ). "action potential-mediated depolarization can...result in the elevation of dendritic intracellular Ca concentration (Regehr et al 1989, Jaffe DB et al, 199276 ), which is important for the induction of long term changes in synaptic strength" (Spruston N et al, 1995 [mammal ]57 ).

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