"Neural circuits typically consist of many different types of neurons, and one faces a challenge in disentangling their individual contributions in measured neural activity. Classification of cells into inhibitory and excitatory neurons and localization of neurons on the basis of extracellular recordings are frequently employed procedures. Current approaches, however, need a lot of human intervention, which makes them slow, biased, and unreliable. In light of recent advances in deep learning techniques and exploiting the availability of neuron models with quasi-realistic three-dimensional morphology and physiological properties, we present a framework for automatized and objective classification and localization of cells based on the spatiotemporal profiles of the extracellular action potentials recorded by multielectrode arrays. We train convolutional neural networks on simulated signals from a large set of cell models and show that our framework can predict the position of neurons with high accuracy, more precisely than current state-of-the-art methods. Our method is also able to classify whether a neuron is excitatory or inhibitory with very high accuracy, substantially improving on commonly used clustering techniques. ..."
Buccino AP, Kordovan M, Ness TV, Merkt B, Häfliger PD, Fyhn M, Cauwenberghs G, Rotter S, Einevoll GT (2018) Combining biophysical modeling and deep learning for multielectrode array neuron localization and classification. J Neurophysiol 120:1212-1232 [PubMed]