Ribbon Synapse (Sikora et al 2005)

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Accession:50997
A model of the ribbon synapse was developed to replicate both pre- and postsynaptic functions of this glutamatergic juncture. The presynaptic portion of the model is rich in anatomical and physiological detail and includes multiple release sites for each ribbon based on anatomical studies of presynaptic terminals, presynaptic voltage at the terminal, the activation of voltage-gated calcium channels and a calcium-dependent release mechanism whose rate varies as a function of the calcium concentration that is monitored at two different sites which control both an ultrafast, docked pool of vesicles and a release ready pool of tethered vesicles. See paper for more and details.
Reference:
1 . Sikora MA, Gottesman J, Miller RF (2005) A computational model of the ribbon synapse. J Neurosci Methods 145:47-61 [PubMed]
Model Information (Click on a link to find other models with that property)
Model Type: Synapse;
Brain Region(s)/Organism:
Cell Type(s): Retina ganglion GLU cell; Retina bipolar GLU cell;
Channel(s): I L high threshold;
Gap Junctions:
Receptor(s): AMPA; NMDA;
Gene(s):
Transmitter(s): Glutamate;
Simulation Environment: NEURON;
Model Concept(s): Intrinsic plasticity; Calcium dynamics;
Implementer(s): Sikora, Michael [Sikora at umn.edu];
Search NeuronDB for information about:  Retina ganglion GLU cell; Retina bipolar GLU cell; AMPA; NMDA; I L high threshold; Glutamate;
COMMENT
   modulate.mod  JG 4/2/97
	A mechanism for having the external conc of a modulator like cyclothiazide
	change in the shape of an alpha function &/or DC step/Ramp
        where
         glu = 0 for t < Alpha_Delay and
         glu = Alpha_Max * (t - Alpha_Delay)/Alpha_tau * exp(-(t - Alpha_Delay - Alpha_tau)/Alpha_tau)
          for t > Alpha_Delay
this has the property that the maximum value is Alpha_Max and occurs at
 t = delay + Alpha_tau.

Graphic viewing of the output of this point process is achieved by directly entering
the value 'mod_modulator' into the Plot What? entry field for a new graph, State axis.
Neuron DOES NOT show this variable on ANY of its menus.
ENDCOMMENT
					       
INDEPENDENT {t FROM 0 TO 1 WITH 1 (ms)}

NEURON {
	POINT_PROCESS modulator
	RANGE  Alpha_Max, Alpha_Delay, Alpha_tau, DC_Level, DC_Delay, DC_Off, Ramp_Max, Ramp_Delay, Ramp_Off, Slope_UP, Slope_DOWN
	GLOBAL mod
}

UNITS {
	(mV) = (millivolt)
	(umho) = (micromho)
	(mM) = (milli/liter)
}

PARAMETER {
        Alpha_Max=0     (umho)
	Alpha_Delay=0 (ms)
	Alpha_tau=.1 (ms)
	e=0	(mV)
	v	(mV)
	mod=0	(mM)
        DC_Level (mM)
        DC_Delay (ms)
        DC_Off (ms)
        Ramp_Max=0.5 (mM)
        Ramp_Delay=0 (ms)
        Ramp_Off=0 (ms)
        Slope_UP=1 (ms)
        Slope_DOWN=-.0001 (ms)
}


BREAKPOINT {
        mod = mramp(t) + (Alpha_Max * alpha( (t - Alpha_Delay)/Alpha_tau ))
}

FUNCTION alpha(x) {
	if (x < 0 || x > 10) {
		alpha = 0
	}else{
		alpha = x * exp(1 - x)
	}
}



FUNCTION mramp(x)
{
VERBATIM
double timeramp, x, Dc;
x = _lx;

if (x >= DC_Delay & x < DC_Off)
   Dc = DC_Level;
else
   Dc = 0;

if (x < Ramp_Delay)
   timeramp = Dc;
else
  {
  if (x < Ramp_Off)
   {
    timeramp = Dc + (Slope_UP * (x - Ramp_Delay));
    if (timeramp >= Ramp_Max)
       timeramp = Ramp_Max;
   }
  else
   {
    timeramp = Ramp_Max + (Slope_DOWN * (x - Ramp_Off));
    if (timeramp <= Dc) 
       timeramp = Dc;
   }
  }
return (timeramp);
ENDVERBATIM
}

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