TITLE simple AMPA receptors
COMMENT
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Simple model for glutamate AMPA receptors
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- FIRST-ORDER KINETICS, FIT TO WHOLE-CELL RECORDINGS
Whole-cell recorded postsynaptic currents mediated by AMPA/Kainate
receptors (Xiang et al., J. Neurophysiol. 71: 2552-2556, 1994) were used
to estimate the parameters of the present model; the fit was performed
using a simplex algorithm (see Destexhe et al., J. Computational Neurosci.
1: 195-230, 1994).
- SHORT PULSES OF TRANSMITTER (0.3 ms, 0.5 mM)
The simplified model was obtained from a detailed synaptic model that
included the release of transmitter in adjacent terminals, its lateral
diffusion and uptake, and its binding on postsynaptic receptors (Destexhe
and Sejnowski, 1995). Short pulses of transmitter with first-order
kinetics were found to be the best fast alternative to represent the more
detailed models.
- ANALYTIC EXPRESSION
The first-order model can be solved analytically, leading to a very fast
mechanism for simulating synapses, since no differential equation must be
solved (see references below).
References
Destexhe, A., Mainen, Z.F. and Sejnowski, T.J. An efficient method for
computing synaptic conductances based on a kinetic model of receptor binding
Neural Computation 6: 10-14, 1994.
Destexhe, A., Mainen, Z.F. and Sejnowski, T.J. Synthesis of models for
excitable membranes, synaptic transmission and neuromodulation using a
common kinetic formalism, Journal of Computational Neuroscience 1:
195-230, 1994.
See also:
http://cns.iaf.cnrs-gif.fr
Written by A. Destexhe, 1995
27-11-2002: the pulse is implemented using a counter, which is more
stable numerically (thanks to Yann LeFranc)
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ENDCOMMENT
INDEPENDENT {t FROM 0 TO 1 WITH 1 (ms)}
NEURON {
POINT_PROCESS AMPA_S
POINTER pre
RANGE C, R, R0, R1, g, gmax, lastrelease, TimeCount
NONSPECIFIC_CURRENT i
GLOBAL Cmax, Cdur, Alpha, Beta, Erev, Prethresh, Deadtime, Rinf, Rtau
}
UNITS {
(nA) = (nanoamp)
(mV) = (millivolt)
(umho) = (micromho)
(mM) = (milli/liter)
}
PARAMETER {
dt (ms)
Cmax = 0.5 (mM) : max transmitter concentration
Cdur = 0.3 (ms) : transmitter duration (rising phase)
Alpha = 0.94 (/ms mM) : forward (binding) rate
Beta = 0.18 (/ms) : backward (unbinding) rate
Erev = 0 (mV) : reversal potential
Prethresh = 0 : voltage level nec for release
Deadtime = 1 (ms) : mimimum time between release events
gmax (umho) : maximum conductance
}
ASSIGNED {
v (mV) : postsynaptic voltage
i (nA) : current = g*(v - Erev)
g (umho) : conductance
C (mM) : transmitter concentration
R : fraction of open channels
R0 : open channels at start of release
R1 : open channels at end of release
Rinf : steady state channels open
Rtau (ms) : time constant of channel binding
pre : pointer to presynaptic variable
lastrelease (ms) : time of last spike
TimeCount (ms) : time counter
}
INITIAL {
R = 0
C = 0
Rinf = Cmax*Alpha / (Cmax*Alpha + Beta)
Rtau = 1 / ((Alpha * Cmax) + Beta)
lastrelease = -9e9
R1=0
TimeCount=-1
}
BREAKPOINT {
SOLVE release
g = gmax * R
i = g*(v - Erev)
}
PROCEDURE release() {
:will crash if user hasn't set pre with the connect statement
TimeCount=TimeCount-dt : time since last release ended
: ready for another release?
if (TimeCount < -Deadtime) {
if (pre > Prethresh) { : spike occured?
C = Cmax : start new release
R0 = R
lastrelease = t
TimeCount=Cdur
}
} else if (TimeCount > 0) { : still releasing?
: do nothing
} else if (C == Cmax) { : in dead time after release
R1 = R
C = 0.
}
if (C > 0) { : transmitter being released?
R = Rinf + (R0 - Rinf) * exptable (- (t - lastrelease) / Rtau)
} else { : no release occuring
R = R1 * exptable (- Beta * (t - (lastrelease + Cdur)))
}
VERBATIM
return 0;
ENDVERBATIM
}
FUNCTION exptable(x) {
TABLE FROM -10 TO 10 WITH 2000
if ((x > -10) && (x < 10)) {
exptable = exp(x)
} else {
exptable = 0.
}
}